The chairperson (also chair, chairman, or chairwoman) is the presiding officer of an organized group such as a board, committee, or deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is typically elected or appointed by members of the group, presides over meetings of the group, and conducts the group's business in an orderly fashion. In some organizations, the chairperson is also known as president (or other title). In others, where a board appoints a president (or other title), the two terms are used for distinctly different positions.
2 Roles and responsibilities
2.1 Duties at meetings 2.2 Powers and authority 2.3 Disciplinary procedures
3 Public corporations
4 Vice-chairperson and deputy chairperson 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading
Look up chair, chairman, chairwoman, chairperson, or preside in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Terms for the office and its holder include chair, chairperson,
chairman, chairwoman, convenor, facilitator, moderator, president, and
chairperson of a parliamentary chamber is often called the
speaker. Chair has been used to refer to a
seat or office of authority since the middle of the 17th century; its
earliest citation in the
Oxford English Dictionary
Agustín Vásquez Gómez of the Republic of El Salvador, chairperson
of OPCW's Fourth Review Conference, November 2018
The word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the
office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or
elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to
be "in the chair" and is also referred to as "the chair".
Roles and responsibilities
Duties at meetings
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner
display:flex;flex-direction:column .mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle margin:1px;float:left
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .theader
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption
text-align:left;background-color:transparent .mw-parser-output .tmulti
.text-align-left text-align:left .mw-parser-output .tmulti
.text-align-right text-align:right .mw-parser-output .tmulti
.text-align-center text-align:center @media all and (max-width:720px)
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow justify-content:center
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption text-align:center Sam Ervin
(right) chairing the Senate
Calling the meeting to order Determining if a quorum is present Announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up Recognition of members to have the floor Enforcing the rules of the group Putting questions (motions) to a vote, which is the usual way of resolving disagreements following discussion of the issues Adjourning the meeting While presiding, the chairperson should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group. In committees or small boards, the chairperson votes along with the other members; in assemblies or larger boards, the chairperson should vote only when it can affect the result. At a meeting, the chairperson only has one vote (i.e. the chairperson cannot vote twice and cannot override the decision of the group unless the organization has specifically given the chairperson such authority).
Powers and authority The powers of the chairperson vary widely across organizations. In some organizations they have the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions. In others they only makes recommendations to a board of directors, and or may have no executive powers, in which case they are mainly a spokesperson for the organization. The power given depends upon the type of organization, its structure, and the rules it has created for itself.
Disciplinary procedures If the chairperson exceeds their authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform their duties, they may face disciplinary procedures. Such procedures may include censure, suspension, or removal from office. The rules of the organization would provide details on who can perform these disciplinary procedures. Usually, whoever appointed or elected the chairperson has the power to discipline them.
Public corporations There are three common types of chairperson in public corporations.
Vice-chairperson and deputy chairperson
A vice- or deputy chairperson, subordinate to the chairperson, is
sometimes chosen to assist[unreliable source?] and
to serve as chairperson in the latter's absence, or when a motion
involving the chairperson is being discussed. In the
absence of the chairperson and vice-chairperson, groups sometimes
elect a chairperson pro tempore to fill the role for a single
meeting. In some organizations that have both titles,
deputy chairperson ranks higher than vice-chairperson, as there are
often multiple vice-chairpersons but only a single deputy
chairperson. This type of deputy chairperson title on its
own usually has only an advisory role and not an operational one (such
Board of directors
European corporate law
German company law
^ Dixit, Aabha (24 September 2018). "Ambassador Leena Al-Hadid Takes
Over as New
^ a b c Robert, Henry M.; et al. (2011). Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-306-82020-5.
^ Robert 2011, p. 448
^ Sturgis, Alice (2001). The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (Fourth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-07-136513-0.
^ Hellinger, Marlis, ed. (2001). Gender across languages: The Linguistic Representation of Women and Men (IMPACT: Studies in Language and Society). Amsterdam: Benjamins. p. 125. ISBN 90-272-1841-2.
^ "Chairperson". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2014-01-10.
^ a b Sturgis 2001, p. 11
^ "moderator". Chambers 21st Century Dictionary via Search Chambers. Edinburgh: Chambers Harrap.
^ Although convener means someone who summons (convenes) a meeting,
the convener may take the chair. The
Oxford English Dictionary
^ "The many roles of the Speaker". New Zealand Parliament. Office of the Speaker, Parliament of New Zealand. 2006-02-01.
^ "About Parliament: The Lord Speaker". Parliament of the United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 2008-06-09. Retrieved 2008-10-23. ... responsibilities of the Lord Speaker include chairing the Lords debating chamber,...
^ Merriam-Webster's dictionary of English usage. Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster. 1993. p. 235. ISBN 0-87779-132-5.
^ "Chairman". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). 2006. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
^ See also the American Heritage Dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary, the online edition of the current Merriam-Webster Dictionary, Word Origins by Anatoly Liberman (page 88), Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage (page 235)
Margrit Eichler (28 October 2013). Nonsexist Research Methods: A
Practical Guide. Routledge. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-134-97797-0.
Typically, these analyses pointed out the use of so-called generic
male terms as sexist... As a consequence of these critiques, guides
were published that replaced so-called generic male terms with truly
generic terms: policeman became police officer; fireman, fire fighter;
postman, mail carrier; workman, worker; chairman, chairperson;
mankind, humanity; and so on.
Barrie Thorne; Nancy Henley (1975). Language and Sex: Difference and
Dominance. Newbury House Publishers. p. 28. Is it possible to
change sexist language? ... Much of the debate has centered around two
types of change: the coining of new terms (such as Ms. to replace
Miss/Mrs., and chairperson to replace chairman and chairwoman), and
various proposal to replace he as the generic third person singular
Dale Spender (1990). Man Made Language. Pandora. pp. 29–30.
ISBN 978-0-04-440766-9. Another factor which we must bear in mind
is that women need more words - and more positive words - not less.
The removal of sexist words would not leave a large repertoire of
words for women to draw upon! ... Some attempts have been made to
modify sexist words and there arc signs that this on its own is
insufficient to reduce sexism in language. Words such as police
officer and chairperson have been an attempt to break away from the
negative value which female words acquire by the creation of
"The language of gender". Oxford Living Dictionary. Oxford University
Press. Retrieved 2019-05-20. People also object to the use of the
ending -man in words referring to professions and roles in society,
for example postman, spokesman, or chairman. Since women are generally
as likely as men to be involved in an occupation or activity nowadays,
this type of word is increasingly being replaced by gender-neutral
terms, e.g. postal worker, spokesperson, or chair/chairperson.
"Chairman (usage note)". Oxford Learner's Dictionary. Oxford
University Press. Retrieved 2019-05-20. When you are writing or
speaking English it is important to use language that includes both
men and women equally. Some people may be very offended if you do
not ... Neutral words like assistant, worker, person or officer
are now often used instead of -man or -woman in the names of
jobs ... Neutral words are very common in newspapers, on
television and radio and in official writing, in both British English
and North American English.
"Chairman (usage note)". Cambridge Dictionary. Cambridge University
Press. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Although chairman can refer to a person
of either sex, chairperson or chair is often preferred to avoid giving
the idea the person is necessarily male.
^ Quinn, Simon (2009). Debating in the World Schools style: a guide. New York: International Debate Education Association. p. 5. ISBN 1-932716-55-6.
^ England, Stephen R. Covey, Larry H. Freeman, Breck. FranklinCovey style guide for business and technical communication (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: FT Press. p. 27. ISBN 0-13-309039-6.
^ Gurung, Beth M. Schwartz, R. Eric Landrum, Regan A. R. An easyguide to APA style. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications. p. 54. ISBN 1-4129-9124-2.
^ Garner, Bryan A. (2000). The Oxford dictionary of American usage and style (2 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 61. ISBN 0-19-513508-3.
^ "Banned words". The Telegraph. 23 January 2018.
^ "Chair, Chairperson, Chairman ... Which Should You Use?". National Association of Parliamentarians. 6 October 2017. Retrieved 2019-02-20.
^ Miller, Casey; Swift, Kate (2000). The Handbook of Nonsexist Writing: For writers, editors and speakers (2nd ed.). Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.com. p. 32. ISBN 0-595-15921-4.
^ Robert 2011, p. 23
^ Baker, Richard Anthony (2014). British Music Hall: An Illustrated History. Barnsley: Pen & Sword. p. 207. ISBN 978-1-78383-118-0.
^ Cawthorne, Nigel (2012-07-24). Stalin: The Murderous Career of the Red Tsar. Arcturus Publishing (published 2012). ISBN 978-1-84858-951-3. Retrieved 2015-02-25. [...] Lenin, Stalin, Trotsky, Molotov and Abel Yenukidze [...] began discussing the structure of the new government. Lenin did not want to have 'ministers' as such, so Trotsky suggested that they should be called 'Peoples' Commissars'. The government itself would be the 'Council of People's Commissars' and its chairman would be prime minister, in effect.
^ Brackman, Roman (2004). The Secret
^ Robert 2011, p. 449
^ Robert 2011, p. 44: "The presiding officer must never interrupt a speaker simply because he knows more about the matter than the speaker does."
^ "Frequently Asked Questions about RONR (Question 1)". The Official
Robert's Rules of Order
^ Robert 2011, p. 406
^ "Frequently Asked Questions about RONR (Question 20)". The Official
Robert's Rules of Order
^ Kefgen, Keith (2004-05-11). "The Non-Executive Chairman Comes of Age". HVS web site. HVS. Archived from the original on 27 October 2007. Retrieved 2011-04-03.
^ "We at Confidencen: Board and General Management". Retrieved 9 May 2019.
^ Behan, Beverly (10 January 2008). "Splitting the Chairman and CEO roles". BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on 2011-04-16. Retrieved 2011-04-03.
^ "COMMONSENSE PRINCIPLES OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE" (PDF).
^ "Corporate Governance Principles for US Listed Companies". Archived from the original on 2 February 2017.
^ "What is the role of a chair of the board in a private equity company?". www.nurole.com. 2018-05-04. Retrieved 2019-02-25.
^ "About Us". Ford Motor Company. Ford Motor Company. 2019. Archived from the original on 2011-05-11. Retrieved 2011-04-05.
^ "Leadership". HSBC. 2019. Retrieved 2011-04-05.
^ "Board - Investor Relations". Google. Retrieved 2011-04-05.
^ "HP Investor Relations – Board of directors". Hewlett-Packard. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
^ "Apple Leadership".
^ "vice-chairman". infoplease.com. Sandbox Networks, Inc.
^ Robert 2011, p. 452
^ Robert 2011, p. 453
^ "Leadership". Rbccm.com. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
Further reading Trohan, Colette Collier (2014). A Great Meeting Needs a Great Chair. A Great Meeting. ASIN B00NP7BR8O. vteCorporate titlesChief officers Accessibility Administrative Analytics Audit Brand Business Channel Commercial Communications Compliance Content Creative Data Design Digital Diversity Executive Experience Financial Human resources Information Information security Innovation Investment Knowledge Learning Legal Marketing Medical Merchandising Networking Operating Privacy Procurement Product Research Restructuring Revenue Risk Science Security Solutions Strategy Sustainability Technology Visionary Web Senior executives Chairperson Creative director Development director General counsel Executive director Non-executive director President Representative director Vice president Mid-level executives Manager General manager Related topics Board of directors Corporate governance Executive compensation Senior management Supervisory board Talent management
vteParliamentary procedureMajor concepts
History of parliamentary procedure
Principles of parliamentary procedure
Order of business
Voting methods in deliberative assemblies
Postpone to a certain time
Limit or extend limits of debate
Lay on the table
Call for the orders of the day
Raise a question of privilege
Fix the time to which to adjourn
Point of order
Suspend the rules
Objection to the consideration of a question
Division of a question
Consideration by paragraph or seriatim
Division of the assembly
Motions relating to methods of voting and the polls
Motions relating to nominations
Request to be excused from a duty
Requests and inquiries (Parliamentary inquiry, Request for
information, Request for permission to withdraw or modify a motion,
Request to read papers, Request for any other privilege)
Motions that bring a questionagain before the assembly
Take from the table
Rescind, repeal, annul or amend something previously adopted
Discharge a committee
Call of the house
Motion to pass on
Recall of Parliament
Declare the chair vacant
Robert's Rules of Order