1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers
> 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river
2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes
(e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
Châteauneuf-du-Pape is a commune in the
Vaucluse department in the
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. The village
lies about 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) to the east of the
Rhône and 12
kilometres (7.5 mi) north of the town of Avignon. In the 2012
census the commune had a population of 2,179.
A ruined medieval castle sits above the village and dominates the
landscape to the south. It was built in the 14th century for Pope John
XXII, the second of the popes to reside in Avignon. None of the
Avignon popes stayed in Châteauneuf but after the schism
of 1378 the antipope Clement VII sought the security of the castle.
With the departure of the popes the castle passed to the archbishop of
Avignon, but it was too large and too expensive to maintain and was
used as a source of stone for building work in the village. At the
time of the Revolution the buildings were sold off and only the donjon
was preserved. During the Second World War an attempt was made to
demolish the donjon with dynamite by German soldiers but only the
northern half was destroyed; the southern half remained intact.
Almost all the cultivable land is planted with grapevines. The commune
is famous for the production of red wine classified as
Châteauneuf-du-Pape Appellation d'origine contrôlée which is
produced from grapes grown in the commune of
in portions of four adjoining communes.
2.1 Early settlement
3 Pope John XXII's castle
4 Parish church
5 Château de Lhers
10 Twin towns
13 External links
The first mention of the village is in a Latin document from 1094 that
uses the name Castro Novo. The term castrum or castro in the 11th
century was used to denote a fortified village, rather than a castle
(castellum). The current French name of "Châteauneuf" (English: "New
Castle") is derived from this early Latin name and not from the ruined
14th-century castle that towers above the village. Just over a century
later in 1213 the village was referred to as Castronovum Calcernarium.
Other early documents use Castronovo Caussornerio or Castrum Novum
Casanerii. The official French name became Châteauneuf Calcernier.
The word 'Calcernier' comes from the presence of important lime kilns
in the village. Calcernarium is derived from the Latin calx for lime
and cernere means sift or sieve. From the 16th century the village was
often referred to as "Châteauneuf du Pape" or "Châteauneuf
Calcernier dit de Pape", because of the connection with Pope John
XXII, but it was not until 1893 that the official name was changed
from "Châteauneuf Calcernier" to "Châteauneuf-du-Pape".
The earliest settlement is believed to have been near the Chapel
Saint-Théodoric, to the east of the current village center. This
Romanesque chapel was erected by the monks of the abbey of
Avignon at the end of the 10th or the beginning of
the 11th century and is the oldest building in the commune.
Although the village lay within the Comtat Venaissin, it was one of
the fiefs of the bishop of
Avignon and thus had a special status. The
Avignon also held the fiefs of Gigognan and Bédarrides.
In the second half of the 11th century a fortified village was built
higher up the hill by the Viscount Rostaing Béranger in the fiefdom
of his brother, the bishop of Avignon. The wall of the present church
building formed part of the fortification and the arrowslits in the
clock tower are still visible. Two towers and other vestiges of these
early fortifications have survived. The new village would have
contained a suitable fortified residence for the bishop which is
believed to have been located between the church and the site of the
In 1238 the bishop of
Avignon obtained an important privilege from the
Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II (r. 1195–1250). Salt that was
shipped on the
Rhône and landed at Châteauneuf would not be subject
to tax. As a result, the trade in salt became a considerable source of
revenue for the village.
Bertrand de Got, archbishop of Bordeaux, was elected pope in 1305, and
took the name of Clement V. He transferred the papacy to
1309. The register of pontifical letters reveals that Clement V
visited Châteauneuf on several occasions, sometimes for long
periods. While in the village he would have been a guest at the
bishop's residence. In 1312 he stayed in the village from 6–22
November. In 1313 he returned from 9 May to 1 July and again from 19
October to 4 December. The following year, 1314, he was in
Châteauneuf from 24–30 March. He died in the castle of Roquemaure
on the opposite bank of the
Rhône on 7 April 1314.
The next pope, Jacques Dèze, was elected in 1316 and took the name
John XXII. After his coronation in
Lyon on 5 September 1316, he
travelled down the
Rhône and spent 10 days in Châteauneuf before he
arrived in Avignon. He had served as the bishop of
1310 and 1313 and while bishop had also been the seigneur of
Châteauneuf-du-Pape. He had arranged for his nephew Jacques de Via to
succeed him as bishop. But on the death of his nephew in 1317 he chose
not to appoint a successor, so during his papacy the village belonged
directly to the pope. John XXII initiated a large number of building
projects, including additions to the
Palais des Papes
Palais des Papes in
well as defensive castles at Barbentane, Bédarrides,
Sorgues. In 1317, work began on the construction of the castle in
Châteauneuf-du-Pape. John XXII derived little benefit from the new
castle, which was not completed until 1333, a year before his death.
The ruins of the castle are now a prominent feature of the
There is no record of the next
Avignon pope, Benedict XII,
(1334–1342), having ever stayed in this castle, but in 1335 he
granted the village the right to have a ship mill on the Rhône, a
market every Tuesday and two fairs during the year. He did not keep
the post of bishop of
Avignon and appointed a new bishop to replace
himself in 1336. None of the following four popes stayed in
Châteauneuf-du-Pape either, but after the schism of the Catholic
Church in 1378, the
Avignon antipope Clement VII frequently sought the
security of the castle and from 1385 to 1387 had improvements carried
out on the building.
In the 14th century the presence of the pope in
construction of the castle brought considerable prosperity to the
village. The economy was based on agriculture, but the villagers also
possessed lime kilns and the local merchants supplied roof tiles for
Palais des Papes
Palais des Papes in
Avignon and floor tiles for the castle being
built in Barbentane. The village outgrew the mid-11th century
ramparts and houses began to be built outside the walls. In 1381 the
village obtained permission to impose a local tax to fund the
construction of a new system of fortifications around the village.
These defensive towers have all disappeared except for the Portalet
tower in the Rue des Papes, but parts of the walls remain.
Pope John XXII's castle
Surviving south wall of the donjon
In 1317, one year after his election,
Pope John XXII
Pope John XXII ordered the
construction of a castle at the top of the hill above the
village. Some of the stone may have been from a local quarry
but most was probably imported from Courthézon. The mortar and the
roof tiles would have been manufactured in the village. To provide
water, between August 1318 and July 1319, a large deep well was dug in
the courtyard to the northeast of the donjon. According to the
papal accounts, much of the work was completed by 1322, but in 1332
there is an entry for the purchase of timber from
Liguria for four
towers. The castle not only had a defensive role, but was also
designed to serve as a summer residence. There was a garden on the
west side and a 10 hectare park to the north enclosed by high
walls in which vines, olive trees and fruit trees were cultivated.
With the departure of the popes the castle became part of the fief of
the bishop and, after 1475, the archbishop of Avignon, but it was much
too big and expensive for them to maintain.[a] The captain in
charge of the village's defences lived in the castle but there was no
permanent garrison, and most of the buildings were allowed to
deteriorate. In the 16th century Huguenots occupied Châteauneuf for
several months during the Wars of Religion. In March 1563, they
pillaged the village and set fire to the church and parts of the
castle including the apartments of the pope. The extent of the damage
is not known.
During the 17th century, and perhaps earlier, the ruined buildings of
the castle were used as a source of stone for the construction of
houses in the village. The community also used the stone to repair the
ramparts (18 to 20 cartloads in 1717) and to repair the church in
1781. At the time of the Revolution the castle had not been
inhabited for a number of years. The buildings and the adjoining
parkland were put up for sale and bought in July 1797 by Jean-Baptiste
Establet, a farmer in the village. The following year, these were
resold in 33 equal parts. By 1848 most of the castle had been
destroyed by the purchasers. The mayor forbade the destruction of
the donjon and in May 1892 the castle was listed as one of the French
Historical Monuments. During the Second World War, the donjon
was used as an observation post by German soldiers. In August 1944,
just before their departure, they attempted to demolish the building
with dynamite but by chance, only the northern half of the tower was
destroyed, leaving the southern half as it appears today. In the
1960s the municipality constructed a meeting hall within the ancient
ruined cellar of the castle.
Drawing from the Album Laincel that dates from the second half of the
There are no surviving plans of the castle from the 14th century. The
earliest depiction is an anonymous drawing from the Album Laincel in
the collection of the
Musée Calvet in
Avignon that dates from the
second half of the 17th century. By this time the castle had not been
properly maintained for three centuries and the drawing is probably an
interpretation by the artist of the surviving structure. Another
source of information is a plan of the village from the 1813 cadastre
which indicates the position of some of the buildings but not their
original function. The appearance of the donjon before its
destruction in 1944 is known from old photographs.
The main entrance to the castle was just above the village and
consisted of two successive gatehouses. The first was on the path up
from the church and the second was just to the east of the donjon. The
vulnerable north side of the castle would have been protected by a
deep ditch. The northern entrance was defended by a tower and was
probably accessed by a drawbridge. Very little is known about the
buildings of the castle other than the ruined donjon and papal
apartments. The castle contained a chapel dedicated to Saint Catherine
but the location is uncertain. The donjon had a ground floor with
a low barrel vaulted ceiling and two upper levels with rib vaulted
ceilings. The large roof terrace was surrounded by a machicolated
battlement. The floors were connected by a stone staircase built into
the thickness of the western wall. The entrance to the tower on
the east side was protected by an unusually tall bretèche. A similar
bretèche survives above the entrance to the
Tour Philippe-le-Bel in
The two large ruined walls to the west of the donjon formed part of a
rectangular building reserved for the pope and his close associates.
The large ground-floor room was 26 m in length, 9 m in width
and 5.5 m in height. The ceiling was supported by wooden beams
with three central columns. The floor was paved with large stone
slabs. This room, together with a smaller room to the north, were
probably used for storage. On the first floor was the great hall of
the castle in which banquets would have been held. It had the same
dimensions as the ground floor storeroom but with a higher ceiling
(6.5 m). It was lit by four large rectangular windows providing
views over the
Rhône valley. There were also three smaller windows to
increase the ventilation, two facing west and one facing south. The
walls were decorated with frescoes and a band of large red, bistre and
black roses. A door at the north end of the hall opened into a
well-lit smaller room with a chimney. The main entrance to the hall
was on the east side near the donjon and close to the modern steps.
The top floor of the building was lit by three large windows provided
with benches and three smaller rectangular windows. The irregular
pattern of the windows suggests that there were several rooms, perhaps
apartments for the pope. The tiled roof with two equal slopes was
entirely protected by the large outer walls.
An archaeological excavation carried out in 1960 in the basement of
the ruined rectangular building recovered a number of small glazed
terracotta floor tiles. They date from the first half of the 14th
century and would have originally decorated the main hall on the first
floor. The tiles are square, 125–130 mm on a side and
20 mm in thickness. They are decorated in a Hispano-Moresque
style which is more usually associated with dishes and jugs. Many have
a plain coloured glaze, either green, yellow or occasionally black but
some have designs in brown or green on a white tin glazed
background. The tiles are similar to those discovered in 1963
on the floor of Pope Benedict XII's studium in the Palais des Papes.
The room was built between 1334 and 1342 and is therefore a little
later. The Châteuneuf tiles are slightly larger and often have animal
designs. They were almost certainly manufactured in
Saint-Quentin-la-Poterie. The papal accounts record large purchases of
tiles in 1317.[b]
In 1994, a small archaeological excavation was carried out on the
terrace at the foot of the southern façade of the papal quarters.
Altogether fifty tiles were recovered that had been scattered in the
modern landfill. At the same time, a survey was conducted in the
village to locate tiles held in private collections. A hundred more
tiles were identified that had been collected by local people in the
19th and 20th centuries. These new finds enlarged the established
iconography and provided more precise information on how the tiles
South side of the church with the main entrance and the bell tower
The parish church is now called "Notre-Dame-de-l'Assomption" but over
the centuries it has been "Notre-Dame" (1321), "Saint-Théodoric"
(1504), "Bienheureuse-Vierge-Marie et Saint-Théodoric" (1601),
"Bienheureuse-Vierge-Marie-del'Assomption" (1626) and
The church probably dates from the end of the 11th century when the
village was first fortified. It certainly existed in 1155 when a papal
bull issued by Adrian IV confirmed that bishop of
"Châteauneuf Calcernier with its churches". Almost nothing survives
of the original Romanesque church. It was rectangular in plan with the
entrance at the western end. The square tower at the southeast corner
which now serves as the bell tower was not part of the early church
but formed part of the fortifications of the village. It later housed
the municipal archives and in the 16th century supported a clock. The
round tower at the northeast corner of the church was also part of the
village fortifications but later served as a bell tower. In 1321 Pope
John XXII paid for the construction of a side chapel, dedicated to
Saint Martin, on the south side of the nave abutting the square
tower. A second chapel, dedicated to Saint Anne, was
constructed in the 16th century near the Saint Martin chapel.
At the end of the 18th century the church was in a bad state of repair
and had become too small for the village. Beginning in 1783 the church
was extended towards the west and the entrance moved to the south
wall. New windows were also created in the south wall of the nave.
In 1835 the square tower was converted into the existing bell tower.
In the 19th century, before the arrival of phylloxera, the village was
very prosperous. Between 1853 and 1859 it paid for a major enlargement
of the church in which side aisles were created either side of the
nave. The chapels of Saint-Anne and Saint-Martin were demolished to
create the southern aisle. To build the northern aisle, the commune
bought land and a house on the other side of the Rue Ancienne Ville
and displaced the street to the north.
In 1981 the church was restored and the plaster on the interior walls
Château de Lhers
Drawing of the Château de Lhers by Étienne Martellange, 1616
The ruined castle of Lhers[c] sits on a limestone outcrop, 3.2 km
(2.0 mi) west of the village of
Châteauneuf-du-Pape on the left
bank of the Rhône.[d] Up to the 18th century there was a village of
Lhers associated with this castle. It is mentioned (as Leris) for the
first time in a document dated 913 in which Louis the Blind, Count of
Provence, gave the castle, one (or two) churches, a port on the Rhône
and the land of the parish, to Fouquier,[e] the bishop of Avignon. In
916, Bishop Fouquier gave the churches, the port and the parish to the
churches of Notre-Dame and Saint-Étienne in Avignon. Neither the
castle nor the income from the tolls collected from boats using the
Rhône are mentioned in this document.
The plan of the castle is approximately square (25 m x
23 m), with a round tower at the southeast corner and a square
tower at the northwest corner. The north side of the outcrop drops
away vertically so there was no need for a defensive wall. A deep well
is in the northeast corner. A drawing by the
Jesuit architect Étienne
Martellange shows the appearance of the castle in 1616. The
architecture of the square tower suggests that it was built after the
end of the 12th century. Only the ground floor survives. The round
tower is later and was probably built in the 14th century. The
surviving ruins therefore do not date from the 10th century when the
castle is first mentioned in written records. The limestone blocks of
the earlier castle were no doubt reused to construct the actual
Château de Lhers viewed from the Rhône
Rhône was liable to violent floods and the river would change
position or bifurcate, creating and destroying islands. The number and
the position of the islands varied over the centuries which led to a
series of boundaries disputes between the communities of Lhers and
Châteauneuf. In the Cassini map of France, dating from the last
third of the 18th century, the castle is shown sitting on an
island. At the time of the Revolution, the fief of Lhers included
land joined to the right bank near Roquemaure, an island near the left
bank separated by a small branch of the river, another island in the
middle of the
Rhône on which sat the castle, several gravel banks and
a farm on land that was contiguous with Châteauneuf. The land of the
fief was initially considered to be part of the commune of Roquemaure,
but in 1820 the castle and the land were transferred to the commune of
Châteauneuf-du-Pape. In 1992 the castle was listed as one of the
French historical monuments. It is privately owned.
Almost nothing survives of the two churches mentioned in the early
documents. The church of Sainte-Marie was destroyed during the
Revolution. The ruins were visible until the canalization of the
Rhône in the 1970s. The other church, dedicated to the Saints Cosmas
and Damian, was probably the earlier of the two. It is mentioned in a
papal bull issued in 1138 by
Pope Adrian IV
Pope Adrian IV that confirmed that the
Avignon possessed the fief of Lhers. The church is mentioned
again in another document from 1560.
Grapevine with the rounded pebbles which are a feature of many of the
vineyards in the commune
Although viticulture must have existed in the village well before the
arrival of the popes, nothing is known about it. The Introitus et
Exitus, the financial record of the Apostolic Camera, shows regular
purchases of small quantities of wine from the village. At the
time, wine was difficult to transport and difficult to conserve so
most was drunk locally when less than a year old. Wine production
expanded in the 18th century with the rapid development of the wine
trade. From the correspondence of the Tulle family who owned the
vineyards of the La Nerthe estate, we learn that the 40
hectolitres of wine produced was exported to England, Italy, Germany
and all over France. In 1923, the local wine producers led by the
Pierre Le Roy de Boiseaumarié
Pierre Le Roy de Boiseaumarié began a campaign to establish
legal protection for the wine from the commune. The delimited area
and the method of wine production were awarded legal recognition in
1933. Small changes to the initial regulations were made in 1936 and
The wine classified as
Châteauneuf-du-Pape Appellation d'origine
contrôlée (AOC) is produced from grapes grown in the commune of
Châteauneuf-du-Pape and portions of the four adjoining communes in
the Vaucluse. The vineyards cover an area of approximately
3,200 hectares. Of this total 1,659 hectares (52%) lie
within the commune of Châteauneuf, 674 hectares (21.1%) within
Courthézon, 391 hectares (12.3%) within Orange,
335 hectares (10.5%) within
Bédarrides and remaining
129 hectares (4%) in Sorgues. Unlike its northern Rhône
Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOC permits thirteen different
varieties of grape in red wine but the blend must be predominantly
grenache. In 2010 there were 320 producers. The total annual
production is around 100,000 hectolitres (equivalent to 13 million
bottles of 0.75 litre) of which 95% is red. The remainder is
white: the production of rosé is not permitted under this AOC.
The earliest figure for the population of the village is from the
census of 1344, which recorded 508 dwellings or "hearths". As there
were typically 4.5 inhabitants per dwelling, this represented around
2,000 inhabitants, a very large village for the time. The figure was
not surpassed until the 20th century. After 1344 there are no further
records until 1500, when the population was 1,600. In the 17th century
there were several epidemics of bubonic plague and by 1694 the
population had dropped to 558. During the 18th century the population
of the village doubled, reaching 1,471 in 1866, but when the
phylloxera devastated the vineyards the population dropped by a
quarter to 1,095 in 1891. The population was 2,179 in 2012.
Châteauneuf-du-Pape has a humid subtropical climate Cfa in the
Köppen climate classification, with moderate rainfall year-round.
July and August are the hottest months with average daily maximum
temperatures of around 30 °C (86 °F). The driest month is
July when the average monthly rainfall is 37 millimeters, just a
little too wet for the climate to be classified as Mediterranean
(Köppen Csa). The village is often subject to a strong wind, the
mistral, that blows from the north.
Climate data for Orange-Caritat (9 km (6 mi) north of the
village of Châteauneuf-du-Pape, 1981–2010)
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
There are two state schools in the commune. The nursery school, École
maternelle Jean Macé, is attended by around 87 children between the
ages of three and six. The primary school, École primaire Albert
Camus, is attended by 137 children between the ages of six and
eleven. After the age of eleven most children attend the
Collège Saint Exupéry in Bédarrides.
Châteauneuf-du-Pape is twinned with:
Castel Gandolfo in Italy
Auggen in Germany
^ In 1475
Pope Sixtus IV
Pope Sixtus IV upgraded the bishopric into an
^ The entry for 21 September 1317 records the purchase of 12,000 floor
Saint-Quentin-la-Poterie that were of divers colours and
painted with figures. (de s. Quintino pro 12000 tegulorum ad
pavimentandum depictorum cum figuris et diversorum colorum).
^ The name of the castle has been written in different ways. Latin
documents use Leris and Lertio whereas French documents use L'airs,
Lair, L'ers, l'Hers and Lhers.
^ The coordinates of the Château de Lhers are 44°3′14.9″N
4°47′29.9″E / 44.054139°N 4.791639°E / 44.054139;
^ The name of the bishop (Fulcherius in Latin) is also written as
^ Portes 1993, pp. 15, 21–23.
^ a b "Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui:
Châteauneuf-du-Pape". École des hautes études en sciences sociales
(EHESS). Retrieved 24 June 2014. .
^ Portes 1993, pp. 17, 285–286.
^ Portes 1993, p. 21.
^ Portes 1993, p. 251.
^ Portes 1993, p. 253.
^ Portes 1993, pp. 26–27.
^ a b Portes 1993, p. 27.
^ Portes 1993, p. 293.
^ Portes 1993, pp. 28–29.
^ Portes 1993, pp. 29–30.
^ Portes 1993, p. 30.
^ Portes 1993, pp. 31–34.
^ Portes 1993, pp. 265–269.
^ Portes 1993, pp. 253–254.
^ Schäfer 1911, pp. 274, 276.
^ a b c Portes 1993, p. 254.
^ Schäfer 1911, p. 311.
^ Portes 1993, p. 259.
^ Portes 1993, p. 42.
^ Portes 1993, pp. 42–43, 259.
^ Portes 1993, p. 363.
^ a b Portes 1993, p. 263.
^ "Monument historique: Château". Ministère de la culture. Retrieved
14 July 2014.
^ a b Portes 1993, p. 265.
^ a b Portes 1993, p. 255.
^ Portes 1993, p. 260.
^ Le Boyer, Noël (photographer). "2633 Châteauneuf du Pape".
Ministère de la culture et de la communication. The image has
been flipped horizontally.
^ Portes 1993, pp. 255–256.
^ Maigret 2002, p. 13.
^ Portes 1993, pp. 257–259.
^ Portes 1993, p. 257.
^ Gagnière & Granier 1973–1974, pp. 34–37.
^ Gagnière & Granier 1973–1974, pp. 56–60.
^ Schäfer 1911, pp. 280, 281.
^ Schäfer 1911, p. 280.
^ Carru, Dominique (29 April 2010). "Petits carrés d'histoire XIVe
siècle: Nouvelles collectes à Châteauneuf-du-Pape" (in French).
Domain de Beaurenard. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
^ a b c Portes 1993, p. 277.
^ Portes 1993, pp. 277–279.
^ Schäfer 1911, pp. 739, 810, 813.
^ Portes 1993, p. 279.
^ Portes 1993, pp. 279–281.
^ a b Portes 1993, pp. 281–283.
^ a b Portes 1993, p. 269.
^ Portes 1993, pp. 269–271.
^ Portes 1993, p. 271.
^ Perrot & Garnier 1972, p. 73.
^ Perrot & Garnier 1972, p. 74.
^ Portes 1993, pp. 269–277.
^ "Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui:
Châteauneuf-du-Pape". École des hautes études en sciences sociales
(EHESS). Retrieved 24 June 2014. .
Château de l'Hers
Château de l'Hers ou de l'Airs (ruines)". Ministère de la
culture. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
^ Portes 1993, pp. 271–272.
^ Portes 1993, p. 235.
^ Schäfer 1914, pp. 711, 766, 796.
^ Portes 1993, pp. 235–236.
^ a b "Cahier des charges de l'appellation d'origine contrôlée "
CHÂTEAUNEUF-DU-PAPE " homologué par le décret n°2011-1567 du 16
novembre 2011, JORF du 19 novembre 2011" (PDF). République
Française: Ministère de l'agriculture, de l'agroalementaire et de la
fôret. 2011. pp. 362–372 (pages unnumbered). Retrieved 24 June
^ a b Portes 1993, p. 243.
^ Portes 1993, pp. 195–196.
Châteauneuf-du-Pape (84037) – Dossier complet" (in
French). Institut national de la statistique et des études
economique. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
^ Peel, M.C.; Finlayson, B.L.; McMahon, T.A. (2007). "Updated world
map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth
Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007.
^ "Normales et records pour la période 1981–2010 à
Orange-Caritat". infoclimat. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
^ "École maternelle publique Jean Macé". Ministère de l'éducation
nationale. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
^ "École primaire publique Albert Camus". Ministère de l'éducation
nationale. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
^ "Enseignement primaire" (in French). Marie de Châteauneuf-du-Pape.
Retrieved 23 July 2014.
^ "Enseignement secondaire" (in French). Marie de
Châteauneuf-du-Pape. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
^ "Jumelages" (in French). Marie de Châteauneuf-du-Pape. Retrieved 24
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Châteauneuf-du-Pape Official site of the town hall.
Fédération des syndicats des producteurs de Châteauneuf-du-Pape.
The Federation of Wine Producers
Communes of the