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The CERRADO (pronounced ) is a vast tropical savanna ecoregion of Brazil
Brazil
, particularly in the states of Goiás
Goiás
, Mato Grosso do Sul , Mato Grosso
Mato Grosso
, Tocantins
Tocantins
and Minas Gerais
Minas Gerais
. The Cerrado
Cerrado
biome core areas are the plateaus in the center of Brazil. The main habitat types of the Cerrado
Cerrado
include: forest savanna, wooded savanna, park savanna and gramineous -woody savanna. Savanna
Savanna
wetlands and gallery forests are also included. The second largest of Brazil's major habitat types, after the Amazonian rainforest, the Cerrado
Cerrado
accounts for a full 21 percent of the country's land area (extending marginally into Paraguay
Paraguay
and Bolivia).

The first detailed account of the Brazilian cerrados was provided by Danish botanist Eugenius Warming (1892) in the book Lagoa Santa , in which he describes the main features of the cerrado vegetation in the state of Minas Gerais.

Since then vast amounts of research have proved that the Cerrado
Cerrado
is one of the richest of all tropical savanna regions and has high levels of endemism . Characterized by enormous ranges of plant and animal biodiversity, World Wide Fund for Nature
World Wide Fund for Nature
named it the biologically richest savanna in the world, with about 10,000 plant species and 10 endemic bird species. There are nearly 200 species of mammal in the Cerrado, though only 14 are endemic.

CONTENTS

* 1 Climate * 2 Flora * 3 Fauna * 4 History "> Cerrado
Cerrado
vegetation of Brazil. See also: Category:Flora of the Cerrado
Cerrado
.

The Cerrado
Cerrado
is characterized by unique vegetation types. It is composed of a shifting mosaic of habitats, with the savanna-like cerrado itself on well-drained areas between strips of gallery forest (closed canopy tall forest) which occur along streams. Between the cerrado and the gallery forest is an area of vegetation known as the wet campo with distinct up- and downslope borders where tree growth is inhibited due to wide seasonal fluctuations in the water table.

The savanna portion of the Cerrado
Cerrado
is heterogeneous in terms of canopy cover. Goodland (1971) divided the Cerrado
Cerrado
into four categories ranging from least to most canopy cover: campo sujo (herbaceous layer with occasional small trees about 3 m tall), campo cerrado (slightly higher density of trees about 4 m tall on average), cerrado sensu stricto (orchard-like vegetation with trees about 6 m high) and cerradao (canopy cover near 50% with general height 9 m).

Probably around 800 species of trees are found in the Cerrado. Among the most diverse families of trees in the Cerrado
Cerrado
are the Leguminosae (153), Malpighiaceae (46), Myrtaceae (43), Melastomataceae
Melastomataceae
(32) and Rubiaceae
Rubiaceae
(30). Much of the Cerrado
Cerrado
is dominated by the Vochysiaceae (23 species in the Cerrado) due to the abundance of three species in the genus Qualea . The herbaceous layer usually reaches about 60 cm in height and is composed mainly of the Poaceae
Poaceae
, Cyperaceae , Leguminosae , Compositae
Compositae
, Myrtaceae and Rubiaceae
Rubiaceae
. Much of the vegetation in the gallery forests is similar to nearby rainforest; however, there are some endemic species found only in the Cerrado gallery forests.

Soil fertility, fire regime and hydrology are thought to be most influential in determining Cerrado
Cerrado
vegetation. Cerrado
Cerrado
soils are always well-drained and most are oxisols with low pH and low calcium and magnesium. The amount of potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus has been found to be positively correlated with tree trunk basal area in Cerrado
Cerrado
habitats. Much as in other grasslands and savannas, fire is important in maintaining and shaping the Cerrado's landscape; many plants in the Cerrado
Cerrado
are fire-adapted, exhibiting characters like thick corky bark to withstand the heat.

Cerrado
Cerrado
vegetation is believed to be ancient, stretching back perhaps as far in a prototypic form during the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
before Africa and South America
South America
separated. A dynamic expansion and contraction between cerrado and Amazonian rainforest has probably occurred historically, with expansion of the Cerrado
Cerrado
during glacial periods like the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
. These processes and the resulting fragmentation have probably contributed to the high species richness both of the Cerrado and of the Amazonian rainforest.

FAUNA

See also: Category:Fauna of the Cerrado
Cerrado
.

The insects of the Cerrado
Cerrado
are relatively understudied. A yearlong survey of the Cerrado
Cerrado
at one reserve in Brazil
Brazil
found that the orders Coleoptera , Hymenoptera
Hymenoptera
, Diptera
Diptera
and Isoptera accounted for 89.5% of all captures. The Cerrado
Cerrado
also supports high density of leaf cutter ant ("saúvas") nests (up to 4000 per hectare) which are also very diverse. Along with termites, leaf cutter ants are the primary herbivores of the Cerrado
Cerrado
and play an important role in consuming and decomposing organic matter, as well as constituting an important food source to many other animal species. The highest diversity of galling insects (insects that build galls ) in the world is also found in the Cerrado, with the most species (46) found at the base of the Serro do Cipó in southeast Brazil.

The Cerrado
Cerrado
has a high diversity of vertebrates; 150 amphibian species, 120 reptile species, 837 bird species, and 161 mammal species have been recorded. Lizard diversity is generally thought to be relatively low in the Cerrado
Cerrado
compared to other areas like caatinga or lowland rainforest although one recent study found 57 species in one cerrado area with the high diversity driven by the availability of open habitat. Ameiva ameiva is the largest lizard found in the Cerrado
Cerrado
and is the most important lizard predator where it is found in the Cerrado. There is a relatively high diversity of snakes in the Cerrado
Cerrado
(22-61 species, depending on site) with Colubridae being the richest family. The open nature of the cerrado vegetation most likely contributes to the high diversity of snakes. Information about Cerrado
Cerrado
amphibians is extremely limited, although the Cerrado
Cerrado
probably has a unique assemblage of species with some endemic to the region. The frog species Physalaemus nattereri is found in the open cerrado but not in adjacent gallery forests.

Most birds found in the Cerrado
Cerrado
breed there although there are some Austral migrants (breed in temperate South America
South America
and winter in the Amazon basin) and Nearctic migrants (breed in temperate North America and winter in the Neotropics) that pass through. Most breeding birds in the Cerrado
Cerrado
are found in more closed canopy areas like gallery forests although 27% of the birds breed only in open habitats and 21% breed in either open or closed habitats. Many of the birds in the Cerrado, especially those found in closed forest, are related to species from the Atlantic rainforest and also the Amazon rainforest. The crowned solitary eagle , hyacinth macaw , toco toucan , buff-necked ibis , dwarf tinamou , and Brazilian merganser are examples of birds found in the Cerrado.

Gallery forests serve as primary habitat for most of the mammals in the Cerrado, having more water, being protected from fires that sweep the landscape and having a more highly structured habitat. Eleven mammal species are endemic to the Cerrado. Notable species include large herbivores like the Brazilian tapir and Pampas deer
Pampas deer
and large predators like the maned wolf , cougar , jaguar , giant otter , ocelot and jaguarundi . Although the diversity is much lower than in the adjacent Amazon and Atlantic Forest, several species of monkeys are present, including black-striped capuchin , black howler monkey and black-tufted marmoset .

HISTORY -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ " VASCONCELOS, Vitor Vieira; VASCONCELOS, Caio Vieira; VASCONCELOS, Davi Mourão Phyto-Environmental Characterization of Brazilian Savanna
Savanna
(Cerrado) and Brazilian Atlantic Forest, with the Research of Stone Lines and Paleosols Geografia. Ensino & Pesquisa (UFSM), v. 14, p. 3, 2010." * ^ A B C D Conservation International. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-06. Retrieved 2008-05-09. . Access date: May 5, 2011 * ^ Warming, E. (1892) Lagoa Santa: Et Bidrag til den biologiske Plantegeografi med en Fortegnelse over Lagoa Santas Hvirveldyr. Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrifter - Naturvidenskabelig og Mathematisk Afdeling, 6. Rk. vol. 6 (3): 153-488. Later French and Portuguese translations * ^ A B Oliveira S., Paulo, and Robert Marquis J. The Cerrados of Brazil
Brazil
: Ecology and Natural History of a Neotropical Savanna. Columbia University Press, 2002. eBook. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O RATTER, J.A.; RIBEIRO,J.F. & BRIDGEWATER, S. (1997) The Brazilian Cerrado
Cerrado
vegetation and Threats to its Biodiversity. Annals of Botany, 80: pp. 223-230 * ^ A B VIERRA, E.M. BARROSO, G.M.; RIZZO J.A. & RIZZINI C.T. 1977. A Flora do Cerrado. In FERRI M.G. ed. IV SimpoUsio sobre o cerrado. São Paulo, Brazil. 211-232 * ^ FURLEY P.A. & RATTER, J.A. 1988. Soil resources and plant communities of the Central Brazilian cerrado and their development. Journal of Biogeography 15: 97-108 * ^ GOODLAND, R & POLLARD, R. 1973. The Brazilian Cerrado Vegetation: A Fertility Gradient. Journal of Ecology 61: 219-224 * ^ RATTER, J.A. & RIBEIRO, J.F. 1996. Biodiversity of the flora of the cerrado. In: PEREIRA, R.C. BURBRIDGE, R. DINIZ, I.R.; COELHO, D. & BANDEIRA, M.P.S. 2002. Seasonal pattern of insect abundance in the Brazilian cerrado. Austral Ecology 27: 132-136 * ^ LEAL, I.R. & OLIVEIRA, P.S. 2000. Foraging ecology of attine ants in a Neotropical savanna: seasonal use of fungal substrate in the cerrado vegetation of Brazil. Insectes Sociaux 47: 376-382 * ^ OLIVEIRA, P.S. & FREITAS, A.V.L. 2004. Ant-plant-herbivore interactions in the neotropical cerrado savanna. Naturwissenschaften 91: 557-570 * ^ LARA, A.C.F. MITTERMEIER, R.A.; MITTERMEIER, C.G.; DA FONESCA, G.A.B. COLLI, G.R. MESQUITA, D.O.; NOGUEIRA, C.C. SAWAYA, R.J.; KIEFER, M.C. & MARTINS, M. 2005. Amphibians of an open cerrado fragment in southeastern Brazil. Biota Neotropica 5 * ^ A B DA SILVA, J.S.C. 1997. Endemic birds species and conservation in the Cerrado
Cerrado
region, South America. Biodiversity and Conservation 6: 435-450 * ^ DA SILVA, J.S.C. 1996. Distribution of Amazonian and Atlantic birds in gallery forests of the cerrado region, South America. Ornitologia Neotropical 7: 1-18 * ^ A B REDFORD, K.H. 1986. The role of gallery forests in the zoogeography of the Cerrado’s non-volant mammalian fauna. Biotropica 18: 126-135 * ^ HENRIQUES, R.P.B. & CAVALCANTE, R.J. 2004. Survey of a gallery forest orimate community in the cerrado of the Distrito Federal, central Brazil. 12: 78-83 * ^ http://www.ispn.org.br/english/peoples-of-the-cerrado/brazilian-mix/ * ^ A B C D A Disappearing Biome? Reconsidering Land-Cover Change in the Brazilian Savanna
Savanna
Wendy Jepson, The Geographical Journal. Vol. 171, No. 2 (Jun., 2005), pp. 99-111 * ^ Development for Sustainable Agriculture: The Brazilian Cerrado https://books.google.ca/books?id=HVzeCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA100&lpg=PA100&dq=cerrado+population&source=bl&ots=sIxHN3fc3U&sig=uji_f4hIzqhUQERvaC9Ccu_X5iA&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=cerrado%20population&f=false * ^ The Economist. Brazilian agriculture: The miracle of the cerrado. August 26, 2010. http://www.economist.com/node/16886442 * ^ Observatory of Economic Complexity http://atlas.media.mit.edu/en/profile/hs92/1201/ * ^ Rohter, Larry (October 2, 2007). "Scientists Are Making Brazil\'s Savannah Bloom". The New York Times. Retrieved December 7, 2015. * ^ Lopes, A. Scheid. "Soils under Cerrado: A Success Story in Soil Management." Better Crops International. 10.2 (1996): n. page. Print. * ^ The Cerrado: Brazil’s Other Biodiverse Region Loses Ground http://e360.yale.edu/features/the_cerrado_brazils_other_biodiversity_hotspot_loses_ground * ^ DW - Secrets of the Brazilian Cerrado http://www.dw.com/en/secrets-of-the-brazilian-cerrado/a-37066253 * ^ Conservation International. http://www.biodiversityhotspots.org/xp/hotspots/cerrado/pages/impacts.aspx Access date: 31/08/2011 * ^ Hilaire, Eric (December 22, 2011). "Disappearing Cerrado: \'Brazil\'s great untold environmental disaster\' - audio slideshow Environment guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2011-12-22.

* ^ Carlos Klink and Ricardo Machado (2005). "Conservation of the Brazilian Cerrado". Conservation Biology, Volume 19 #3. * ^ Mighty Earth - Mystery Meat http://www.mightyearth.org/mysterymeat/ * ^ The New York Times: Amazon Deforestation, Once Tamed, Comes Roaring Back https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/24/business/energy-environment/deforestation-brazil-bolivia-south-america.html * ^ The Cerrado: Brazil’s Other Biodiverse Region Loses Ground http://e360.yale.edu/features/the_cerrado_brazils_other_biodiversity_hotspot_loses_ground

* Oliveira, Paulo S.; Marquis, Robert J. The Cerrados of Brazil: Ecology and Natural History of a Neotropical Savanna
Savanna
(2002) New York City : Columbia University Press
Columbia University Press
ISBN 0-231-12043-5 * (in Portuguese) BRANDÃO, M.; GAVILANES, M. L. (1992). Espécies árboreas padronizadoras do Cerrado
Cerrado
mineiro e sua distribuição no Estado. Informe Agropecuário 16 (173): 5-11. * (in Portuguese) BRANDÃO, M.; CARVALHO, P. G. S.; JESUÉ, G. (1992). Guia Ilustrado de Plantas do Cerrado. CEMIG. * CASTRO, A. A. J. F., MARTINS F. R., TAMASHIRO, J. Y., SHEPHERD G. J. (1999). How rich is the flora of Brazilian Cerrados? Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 86 (1): 192-224. * (in Portuguese) COUTINHO, L. M. Cerrado
Cerrado
São Paulo : University of São Paulo . * RATTER, J.A.; RIBEIRO,J.F. FELFILI, J. M.; WALTER, B. M. T.; SILVA, M. C.; REZENDE, FILGUEIRAS, T. S.; NOGUEIRA, P. E. Flora vascular do bioma Cerrado. ("Vascular flora of Cerrado
Cerrado
biome") IBGE * GOTTSBERGER, G.; SILBERBAUER-GOTTSBERGER, I. (2006): Life in the Cerrado
Cerrado
Reta Verlag, Ulm 2006, ISBN 3-00-017928-3 Volume 1, ISBN 3-00-017929-1 Volume 2

FURTHER READING

* Cerrado
Cerrado
biodiversity Hotspot (Conservation International) * The Chapada dos Veadeiros, Cerrado
Cerrado
de Altitude * (in Portuguese) EMBRAPA (Brazilian Government): Bioma Cerrado

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