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The Central Powers
Central Powers
(German: Mittelmächte; Hungarian: Központi hatalmak; Turkish: İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; Bulgarian: Централни сили, translit. Tsentralni sili), consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance[1] (German: Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18). It faced and was defeated by the Allied Powers that had formed around the Triple Entente. The Powers' origin was the alliance of Germany
Germany
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in 1879. The Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
did not join until after World War I
World War I
had begun, although the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
retained close relations with both Germany and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
since the beginning of the 20th century.

Contents

1 Member states 2 Combatants

2.1 Germany

2.1.1 War justifications 2.1.2 Colonies and dependencies

2.2 Austria-Hungary

2.2.1 War justifications

2.3 Ottoman Empire

2.3.1 War justifications

2.4 Bulgaria

2.4.1 War justifications 2.4.2 Declarations of war

3 Co-belligerents

3.1 Dervish State 3.2 South African Republic 3.3 Sultanate of Darfur

4 Client states

4.1 German client states 4.2 Ottoman client states

5 Controversial cases

5.1 Ethiopia

6 Non-state combatants 7 Armistice
Armistice
and treaties 8 Leaders 9 See also 10 Footnotes 11 References

Member states[edit] The Central Powers
Central Powers
consisted of the German Empire
German Empire
and the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the beginning of the war. The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers
Central Powers
later in 1914. In 1915, the Kingdom of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
joined the alliance. The name "Central Powers" is derived from the location of these countries; all four (including the other groups that supported them except for Finland
Finland
and Lithuania) were located between the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in the east and France
France
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in the west. Finland, Azerbaijan, and Lithuania
Lithuania
joined them in 1918 before the war ended and after the Russian Empire collapsed.

Allied and Central Powers
Central Powers
during World War I      Allied Powers      Allied colonies, dominions, territories or occupations      Central Powers      Central Powers' colonies or occupations      Neutral countries

Europe in 1914.

The Central Powers
Central Powers
were composed of the following nations:[2]

Nation Entered WWI

 Austria-Hungary 28 July 1914

 German Empire 1 August 1914

 Ottoman Empire 2 August 1914 (secret) 29 October 1914 (public)

 Kingdom of Bulgaria 14 October 1915

Deaths of the Central powers

Economic statistics of the Central Powers [notes 1][3]

Population (millions) Land (million km2) GDP ($ billion) GDP per capita ($)

  German Empire
German Empire
(1914) Mainland 67.0 0.5 244.3 3,648

Colonies 10.7 3.0 6.4 601

Total 77.7 3.5 250.7

 Austria– Hungary
Hungary
(1914) 50.6 0.6 100.5 1,986

  Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(1914) 23.0 1.8 25.3 1,100

  Kingdom of Bulgaria
Kingdom of Bulgaria
(1915) 4.8 0.1 7.4 1,527

Total 156.1 6.0 383.9 2,459

Military statistics of the Central Powers [4]

Mobilized Killed in action Wounded Missing in action Total casualties Percentage casualties of total force mobilized

 German Empire 13,250,000 1,808,546 (13.65%) 4,247,143 1,152,800 7,208,489 66%

 Austria–Hungary 7,800,000 922,500 (11.82%) 3,620,000 2,200,000 6,742,500 86%

 Ottoman Empire 2,998,321 325,000 (10.84%) 400,000 250,000 975,000 34%

 Kingdom of Bulgaria 1,200,000 75,844 (6.32%) 153,390 27,029 255,263 21%

Total 25,257,321 3,131,890 8,419,533 3,629,829 15,181,252 66%

Combatants[edit] Germany[edit] Main article: German Empire War justifications[edit]

German soldiers in the battlefield in August 1914 on the Western Front shortly after the outbreak of war.

German cavalry entering Warsaw
Warsaw
in 1915.

German battlecruiser SMS Seydlitz heavily damaged after the Battle of Jutland.

German Fokker Dr.I
Fokker Dr.I
fighter aircraft of Jasta
Jasta
26 at Erchin
Erchin
in German-occupied territory of France.

In early July 1914, in the aftermath of the assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
and the immediate likelihood of war between Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and Serbia, Kaiser
Kaiser
Wilhelm II
Wilhelm II
and the German government informed the Austro-Hungarian government that Germany
Germany
would uphold its alliance with Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and defend it from possible Russian intervention if a war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia
Serbia
took place.[5] When Russia enacted a general mobilization, Germany
Germany
viewed the act as provocative.[6] The Russian government promised Germany
Germany
that its general mobilization did not mean preparation for war with Germany
Germany
but was a reaction to the events between Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and Serbia.[6] The German government regarded the Russian promise of no war with Germany
Germany
to be nonsense in light of its general mobilization, and Germany, in turn, mobilized for war.[6] On August 1, Germany
Germany
sent an ultimatum to Russia stating that since both Germany
Germany
and Russia were in a state of military mobilization, an effective state of war existed between the two countries.[7] Later that day, France, an ally of Russia, declared a state of general mobilization.[7] In August 1914, Germany
Germany
waged war on Russia, the German government justified military action against Russia as necessary because of Russian aggression as demonstrated by the mobilization of the Russian army that had resulted in Germany
Germany
mobilizing in response.[8] After Germany
Germany
declared war on Russia, France
France
with its alliance with Russia prepared a general mobilization in expectation of war. On 3 August 1914, Germany
Germany
responded to this action by declaring war on France.[9] Germany, facing a two-front war, enacted what was known as the Schlieffen Plan, that involved German armed forces needing to move through Belgium
Belgium
and swing south into France
France
and towards the French capital of Paris. This plan was hoped to quickly gain victory against the French and allow German forces to concentrate on the Eastern Front. Belgium
Belgium
was a neutral country and would not accept German forces crossing its territory. Germany
Germany
disregarded Belgian neutrality and invaded the country to launch an offensive towards Paris. This caused Great Britain to declare war against the German Empire, as the action violated the Treaty of London that both nations signed in 1839 guaranteeing Belgian neutrality and defense of the kingdom if a nation reneged. Subsequently, several states declared war on Germany
Germany
in late August 1914, with Italy declaring war on Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in 1915 and Germany on August 27, 1916, the United States
United States
declaring war on Germany
Germany
on April 6, 1917 and Greece declaring war on Germany
Germany
in July 1917. Colonies and dependencies[edit] Main article: German colonial empire

Europe

Upon its founding in 1871, the German Empire
German Empire
controlled Alsace-Lorraine
Alsace-Lorraine
as an "imperial territory" incorporated from France after the Franco-Prussian War. It was held as part of Germany's sovereign territory.

Africa

Germany
Germany
held multiple African colonies at the time of World War I. All of Germany's African colonies were invaded and occupied by Allied forces during the war. Cameroon, German East Africa, and German Southwest Africa
German Southwest Africa
were German colonies in Africa. Togoland
Togoland
was a German protectorate in Africa.

Asia

The Kiautschou Bay concession
Kiautschou Bay concession
was a German dependency in East Asia leased from China in 1898. It was occupied by Japanese forces following the Siege of Tsingtao.

Pacific

German New Guinea
German New Guinea
was a German protectorate in the Pacific. It was occupied by Australian forces in 1914. German Samoa
German Samoa
was a German protectorate following the Tripartite Convention. It was occupied by the New Zealand
New Zealand
Expeditionary Force in 1914. Austria-Hungary[edit] Main article: Austria-Hungary

Austro-Hungarian soldiers in trench on the Italian front during World War I.

Austro-Hungarian soldiers marching up Mount Zion
Mount Zion
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the Ottoman Empire, during the Middle Eastern campaign.

War justifications[edit] Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
regarded the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand as being orchestrated with the assistance of Serbia.[5] The country viewed the assassination as setting a dangerous precedent of encouraging the country's South Slav population to rebel and threaten to tear apart the multinational country.[6] Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
formally sent an ultimatum to Serbia
Serbia
demanding a full-scale investigation of Serbian government complicity in the assassination, and complete compliance by Serbia
Serbia
in agreeing to the terms demanded by Austria-Hungary.[5] Serbia
Serbia
submitted to accept most of the demands, however Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
viewed this as insufficient and used this lack of full compliance to justify military intervention.[10] These demands have been viewed as a diplomatic cover for what was going to be an inevitable Austro-Hungarian declaration of war on Serbia.[10] Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
had been warned by Russia that the Russian government would not tolerate Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
crushing Serbia.[10] However, with Germany
Germany
supporting Austria-Hungary's actions, the Austro-Hungarian government hoped that Russia would not intervene and that the conflict with Serbia
Serbia
would be a regional conflict.[5] Austria-Hungary's invasion of Serbia
Serbia
resulted in Russia declaring war on the country and Germany
Germany
in turn declared war on Russia, setting off the beginning of the clash of alliances that resulted in the World War.

Territory

Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
was internally divided into two states with their own governments, joined in communion through the Habsburg throne. Austrian Cisleithania
Cisleithania
contained various duchies and principalities but also the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Dalmatia, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. Hungarian Transleithania
Transleithania
comprised the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
and the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. In Bosnia and Herzegovina sovereign authority was shared by both Austria
Austria
and Hungary. Ottoman Empire[edit] Main article: Ottoman Empire

Ottoman soldiers in military preparations for an assault on the Suez Canal in 1914.

Kaiser
Kaiser
Wilhelm II
Wilhelm II
visiting the Turkish cruiser Yavuz Sultan Selim during his stay in Istanbul
Istanbul
in October 1917 as a guest of Sultan Mehmed V.

War justifications[edit] The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
joined the war on the side of the Central Powers
Central Powers
in November 1914. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
had gained strong economic connections with Germany
Germany
through the Berlin-to-Baghdad railway project that was still incomplete at the time.[11] The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
made a formal alliance with Germany
Germany
signed on 2 August 1914.[12] The alliance treaty expected that the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
would become involved in the conflict in a short amount of time.[12] However, for the first several months of the war the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
maintained neutrality though it allowed a German naval squadron to enter and stay near the strait of Bosphorus.[13] Ottoman officials informed the German government that the country needed time to prepare for conflict.[13] Germany
Germany
provided financial aid and weapons shipments to the Ottoman Empire.[12] After pressure escalated from the German government demanding that the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
fulfill its treaty obligations, or else Germany
Germany
would expel the country from the alliance and terminate economic and military assistance, the Ottoman government entered the war with the recently acquired cruisers from Germany, the Yavuz Sultan Selim (formerly SMS Goeben) and the Midilli (formerly SMS Breslau) launching a naval raid on the Russian port of Odessa, thus engaging in a military action in accordance with its alliance obligations with Germany. Russia and the Triple Entente
Triple Entente
declared war on the Ottoman Empire.[14] Bulgaria[edit] Main article: Kingdom of Bulgaria See also: Bulgaria
Bulgaria
during World War I War justifications[edit]

Bulgarian soldiers firing at an incoming aircraft.

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
was still resentful after its defeat in July 1913 at the hands of Serbia, Greece and Romania. It signed a treaty of defensive alliance with the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
on 19 August 1914. It was the last country to join the Central Powers, which Bulgaria
Bulgaria
did in October 1915 by declaring war on Serbia. It invaded Serbia
Serbia
in conjunction with German and Austro-Hungarian forces. Bulgaria
Bulgaria
held claims on the region of Vardar Macedonia
Vardar Macedonia
then held by Serbia
Serbia
following the Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
of 1912-1913 and (from the Bulgarian point of view), the costly Treaty of Bucharest (1913).[15] As a condition of entering WW1 on the side of the Central Powers, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
was granted the right to reclaim that territory.[16] Declarations of war[edit]

Date Declared by Declared against

1915

October 14 Bulgaria Serbia

October 15 United Kingdom Montenegro Bulgaria

October 16 France Bulgaria

October 19 Italy Russia Bulgaria

1916

September 1 Bulgaria Romania

1917

July 2 Greece Bulgaria

Co-belligerents[edit] Dervish State[edit] The Dervish State
Dervish State
was a rebel Somali state seeking independence of Somali territories. Dervish forces fought against Italian and British forces in Italian Somaliland
Italian Somaliland
and British Somaliland
British Somaliland
during World War I in the Somaliland Campaign. The Dervish State
Dervish State
received support from Germany
Germany
and the Ottoman Empire. It also briefly received support by the Ethiopian Empire
Ethiopian Empire
from 1915-1916.[17] South African Republic[edit] In opposition to the Union of South Africa, which had joined the war, Boer
Boer
rebels founded the South African Republic
South African Republic
in 1914 and engaged in the Maritz Rebellion. Germany
Germany
assisted the rebels, and the rebels operated in and out of the German colony of German South-West Africa. The rebels were defeated by British imperial forces. Sultanate of Darfur[edit] The Sultanate of Darfur
Sultanate of Darfur
forces fought against British forces in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
during World War I
World War I
in the Anglo-Egyptian Darfur Expedition. Client states[edit] During 1917 and 1918, the Finns under Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
and Lithuanian nationalists fought Russia for a common cause. With the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
attack of late 1917, the General Secretariat of Ukraine sought military protection first from the Central Powers
Central Powers
and later from the armed forces of the Entente. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
also had its own allies in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and the Northern Caucasus. The three nations fought alongside each other under the Army of Islam in the Battle of Baku. German client states[edit]

Belarus (Belarusian People's Republic)

The Belarusian People's Republic
Belarusian People's Republic
was a client state of Germany
Germany
created in 1918.

Courland and Semigallia

The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a client state of Germany created in 1918.

Crim (Crimean Regional Government)

The Crimean Regional Government
Crimean Regional Government
was a client state of Germany
Germany
created in 1918.

Don (Don Republic)

The Don Republic
Don Republic
was closely associated with the German Empire
German Empire
and fought against the Bolsheviks.

Finland
Finland
(Kingdom of Finland)

The Kingdom of Finland
Finland
was a client state of Germany
Germany
created in 1918. Prior to the declaration of the kingdom, Finland
Finland
existed as an autonomous Grand Dutchy of Russia since 1809.

Kuban (Kuban People's Republic)

The Kuban People's Republic
Kuban People's Republic
was a client state of Germany
Germany
created in 1918.

Lithuania
Lithuania
(Kingdom of Lithuania)

The Kingdom of Lithuania
Lithuania
was a client state of Germany
Germany
created in 1918.

Northern Caucasus (Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus)

The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus
Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus
was associated with the Central Powers.

Georgia (Democratic Republic of Georgia)

The Democratic Republic of Georgia
Democratic Republic of Georgia
declared independence in 1918 which then to led border conflicts between newly formed republic and Ottoman Empire. Soon after Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
invaded republic and quickly reached Borjomi. this forced Georgia to ask for help from Germany
Germany
which they got. Germany
Germany
forced Ottomans too withdraw from Georgian territories and recognize its sovereignty on its borders. Germany, Georgia and Ottomans signed a peace treaty, the Treaty of Batum
Treaty of Batum
which ended conflict with last two. in return Georgia become Germany's "ally". this time period of Georgian-German friendship was known as German Caucasus expedition.

Poland
Poland
(Kingdom of Poland)

The Kingdom of Poland
Poland
was a client state of Germany
Germany
created in 1916.[18] This government was recognized by the emperors of Germany and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in November 1916, and it adopted a constitution in 1917.[19] The decision to create a state of Poland
Poland
was taken by Germany
Germany
in order to attempt to legitimize its military occupation amongst the Polish inhabitants, following upon German propaganda sent to Polish inhabitants in 1915 that German soldiers were arriving as liberators to free Poland
Poland
from subjugation by Russia.[20] The state was utilized by the German government alongside punitive threats to induce Polish landowners living in the German-occupied Baltic territories to move to the state and sell their Baltic property to Germans in exchange for moving to Poland, and efforts were made to induce similar emigration of Poles from Prussia to the state.[21]

Ukraine (Ukrainian State)

The Ukrainian State
Ukrainian State
was a client state of Germany
Germany
led by Pavlo Skoropadskyi, who overthrew the government of the Ukrainian People's Republic.[22]

United Baltic Duchy

The United Baltic Duchy
United Baltic Duchy
was a proposed client state of Germany
Germany
created in 1918. Ottoman client states[edit]

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
( Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Democratic Republic)

In 1918, the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Democratic Republic, facing Bolshevik revolution and opposition from the Muslim Musavat Party, was then occupied by the Ottoman Empire, which expelled the Bolsheviks while supporting the Musavat Party.[23] The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
maintained a presence in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
until the end of the war in November 1918.[23]

Jabal Shammar

Jabal Shammar was an Arab
Arab
state in the Middle East that was closely associated with the Ottoman Empire.[24] Controversial cases[edit] States listed in this section were not officially members of the Central Powers, but at some point during the war engaged in cooperation with one or more Central Powers
Central Powers
members on level that makes their neutrality disputable. Ethiopia[edit] During the Somaliland Campaign, from the period of 1915 to 1916, the Ethiopian Empire
Ethiopian Empire
gave aid to the Dervish state. Non-state combatants[edit] See also: Zimmermann Telegram Other movements supported the efforts of the Central Powers
Central Powers
for their own reasons, such as the radical Irish Nationalists who launched the Easter Rising
Easter Rising
in Dublin
Dublin
in April 1916; they referred to their "gallant allies in Europe". However, the majority of Irish Nationalists supported the British and allied war effort up until 1916 when the Irish political landscape was changing. In 1914, Józef Piłsudski
Józef Piłsudski
was permitted by Germany
Germany
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
to form independent Polish legions. Piłsudski wanted his legions to help the Central Powers defeat Russia and then side with France
France
and the UK and win the war with them.

Kaocen revolt Zaian War Irish Republican Brotherhood Hindu–German Conspiracy Mexican Revolution

Niedermayer–Hentig Expedition Senussi Campaign Polish Legions Volta-Bani War BMORK

Armistice
Armistice
and treaties[edit] Bulgaria
Bulgaria
signed an armistice with the Allies on 29 September 1918, following a successful Allied advance in Macedonia. The Ottoman Empire followed suit on 30 October 1918 in the face of British and Arab
Arab
gains in Palestine and Syria. Austria
Austria
and Hungary
Hungary
concluded ceasefires separately during the first week of November following the disintegration of the Habsburg Empire and the Italian offensive at Vittorio Veneto; Germany
Germany
signed the armistice ending the war on the morning of 11 November 1918 after the Hundred Days Offensive, and a succession of advances by New Zealand, Australian, Canadian, Belgian, British, French and US forces in north-eastern France
France
and Belgium. There was no unified treaty ending the war; the Central Powers
Central Powers
were dealt with in separate treaties.[25]

Central Powers
Central Powers
by date of armistice

Flag Name Date

Bulgaria 000000001918-09-29-000029 September 1918

Ottoman Empire 000000001918-10-30-000030 October 1918

Austria-Hungary 000000001918-11-04-00004 November 1918

German Empire 000000001918-11-11-000011 November 1918

Central Powers
Central Powers
treaties

Flag Name Treaty of

Austria Saint-Germain

Bulgaria Neuilly

Germany Versailles

Hungary Trianon

Ottoman Empire Turkey Sèvres Lausanne

Central Powers' military deaths.

A postcard depicting the flags of the Central Powers' countries.

The collapse of the Central Powers
Central Powers
in 1918.

The Leaders of Central Powers
Central Powers
in 1914.

Leaders[edit] Main article: Leaders of the Central Powers
Central Powers
of World War I See also[edit]

World War I
World War I
portal

Axis powers Participants in World War I Treaty of Versailles Triple Entente

Footnotes[edit]

^ All figures presented are for the year 1913.

References[edit]

^ Hindenburg, Paul von. "Out of my life". Internet Archive. p. 113.  ^ Meyer, G.J. (2007). A World Undone: The Story of the Great War, 1914 to 1918. Delta Trade Paperback. ISBN 0-553-38240-3.  ^ S.N. Broadberry, Mark Harrison. The Economics of World War I. illustrated ed. Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 9-10. ^ Spencer Tucker (1996). "The European Powers in the First World War". p. 173.  ^ a b c d Cashman, Greg; Robinson, Leonard C. An Introduction to the Causes of War: Patterns of Interstate Conflict from World War I
World War I
to Iraq. Rowman & Littlefield. 2007. P57 ^ a b c d Meyer, G.J. A World Undone: The Story of the Great War, 1914 to 1918. Delta Book. 2006. P39. ^ a b Meyer, G.J. A World Undone: The Story of the Great War, 1914 to 1918. Delta Book. 2006. P95. ^ Hagen, William W. German History in Modern Times: Four Lives of the Nation. P228. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. 2009. P1556. ^ a b c Cashman, Greg; Robinson, Leonard C. An Introduction to the Causes of War: Patterns of Interstate Conflict from World War I
World War I
to Iraq. Rowman & Littlefield. 2007. P61 ^ Hickey, Michael. The First World War: Volume 4 The Mediterranean Front 1914-1923. P31. ^ a b c Afflerbach, Holger; David Stevenson, David. An Improbable War: The Outbreak of World War 1 and European Political Culture. Berghan Books. 2012. P. 292. ^ a b Kent, Mary. The Great Powers and the End of the Ottoman Empire. end ed. Frank Cass. 1998. P119 ^ Afflerbach, Holger; David Stevenson, David. An Improbable War: The Outbreak of World War I
World War I
and European Political Culture. Berghan Books. 2012. P. 293. ^ Hall, Richard C. " Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in the First World War". Russia's Great War and Revolution. Retrieved 22 September 2017.  ^ Jelavich, Charles; Jelavich, Barbara (1986). The establishment of the Balkan national states, 1804-1920 (1st pbk. ed.). Seattle: University of Washington Press. pp. 284–297. ISBN 978-0295964133.  ^ Mukhtar, Mohammed (25 February 2003). Historical Dictionary of Somalia. Scarecrow Press. p. 126. Retrieved 28 February 2017.  ^ The Regency Kingdom has been referred to as a puppet state by Norman Davies in Europe: A history (Google Print, p. 910); by Jerzy Lukowski and Hubert Zawadzki in A Concise History of Poland
Poland
(Google Print, p. 218); by Piotr J. Wroblel in Chronology of Polish History and Nation and History (Google Print, p. 454); and by Raymond Leslie Buell in Poland: Key to Europe (Google Print, p. 68: "The Polish Kingdom... was merely a pawn [of Germany]"). ^ J. M. Roberts. Europe 1880-1945. P. 232. ^ Aviel Roshwald. Ethnic Nationalism and the Fall of Empires: Central Europe, the Middle East and Russia, 1914-23. Routledge, 2002. P. 117. ^ Annemarie Sammartino. The Impossible Border: Germany
Germany
and the East, 1914-1922. Cornell University, 2010. P. 36-37. ^ Kataryna Wolczuk. The Moulding of Ukraine: The Constitutional Politics of State Formation. P37. ^ a b Zvi Lerman, David Sedik. Rural Transition in Azerbaijan. P12. ^ Hala Mundhir Fattah. The Politics of Regional Trade in Iraq, Arabia, and the Gulf, 1745-1900. P121. ^ Davis, Robert T., ed. (2010). U.S. Foreign Policy and National Security: Chronology and Index for the 20th Century. 1. Santa Barbara, California: Praeger Security International. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-313-38385-4. 

v t e

World War I

Home fronts

Theatres

European

Balkans Western Front Eastern Front Italian Front

Middle Eastern

Gallipoli Sinai and Palestine Caucasus Persia Mesopotamia South Arabia

African

South West East Kamerun Togoland North

Asian and Pacific

Tsingtao German New Guinea
German New Guinea
and Samoa

At sea

North Atlantic U-boat campaign Mediterranean North Sea Baltic

Indian, Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans

Papeete Madras Penang Cocos Coronel Falkland Islands Más a Tierra

Principal participants (people)

Entente powers

Belgium Brazil China France

French Empire

Greece Italy Japan Montenegro Portuguese Empire Romania Russia

Russian Empire Russian Republic

Serbia United Kingdom

British Empire

United States

Central Powers

Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria

Timeline

Pre-War conflicts

Scramble for Africa
Scramble for Africa
(1880–1914) Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
(1905) First Moroccan (Tangier) Crisis (1905–06) Agadir Crisis
Agadir Crisis
(1911) Italo-Turkish War
Italo-Turkish War
(1911–12) French conquest of Morocco
French conquest of Morocco
(1911–12) First Balkan War
First Balkan War
(1912–13) Second Balkan War
Second Balkan War
(1913)

Prelude

Origins Sarajevo assassination Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo July Crisis

Autumn 1914

Battle of the Frontiers Battle of Cer First Battle of the Marne Siege of Tsingtao Battle of Tannenberg Battle of Galicia Battle of the Masurian Lakes Battle of Kolubara Battle of Sarikamish Race to the Sea First Battle of Ypres

1915

Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes Second Battle of Ypres Battle of Gallipoli Second Battle of Artois Battles of the Isonzo Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive Great Retreat Second Battle of Champagne Kosovo Offensive Siege of Kut Battle of Loos

1916

Erzurum Offensive Battle of Verdun Lake Naroch Offensive Battle of Asiago Battle of Jutland Battle of the Somme

first day

Brusilov Offensive Baranovichi Offensive Battle of Romani Monastir Offensive Battle of Transylvania

1917

Capture of Baghdad First Battle of Gaza Zimmermann Telegram Second Battle of Arras Second Battle of the Aisne Kerensky Offensive Third Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele) Battle of Mărășești Battle of Caporetto Southern Palestine Offensive Battle of Cambrai Armistice
Armistice
of Erzincan

1918

Operation Faustschlag Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Spring Offensive Second Battle of the Marne Battle of Baku Hundred Days Offensive Vardar Offensive Battle of Megiddo Third Transjordan attack Meuse-Argonne Offensive Battle of Vittorio Veneto Battle of Aleppo Armistice
Armistice
of Salonica Armistice
Armistice
of Mudros Armistice
Armistice
of Villa Giusti Armistice
Armistice
with Germany

Other conflicts

Mexican Revolution
Mexican Revolution
(1910–20) Somaliland Campaign
Somaliland Campaign
(1910–20) Libyan resistance movement (1911–43) Maritz Rebellion (1914–15) Zaian War
Zaian War
(1914–21) Indo-German Conspiracy (1914–19) Senussi Campaign
Senussi Campaign
(1915–16) Volta-Bani War
Volta-Bani War
(1915–17) Easter Rising
Easter Rising
(1916) Anglo-Egyptian Darfur Expedition
Anglo-Egyptian Darfur Expedition
(1916) Kaocen Revolt (1916–17) Central Asian Revolt (1916-17) Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
(1917) Finnish Civil War
Finnish Civil War
(1918)

Post-War conflicts

Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
(1917–21) Ukrainian–Soviet War
Ukrainian–Soviet War
(1917–21) Armenian–Azerbaijani War
Armenian–Azerbaijani War
(1918–20) Georgian–Armenian War
Georgian–Armenian War
(1918) German Revolution (1918–19) Revolutions and interventions in Hungary
Hungary
(1918–20) Hungarian–Romanian War
Hungarian–Romanian War
(1918–19) Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising (1918–19) Estonian War of Independence
Estonian War of Independence
(1918–20) Latvian War of Independence
Latvian War of Independence
(1918–20) Lithuanian Wars of Independence
Lithuanian Wars of Independence
(1918–20) Third Anglo-Afghan War
Third Anglo-Afghan War
(1919) Egyptian Revolution (1919) Polish–Ukrainian War
Polish–Ukrainian War
(1918–19) Polish–Soviet War
Polish–Soviet War
(1919–21) Irish War of Independence
Irish War of Independence
(1919–21) Turkish War of Independence

Greco-Turkish War (1919–22) Turkish–Armenian War
Turkish–Armenian War
(1920)

Iraqi revolt (1920) Polish–Lithuanian War
Polish–Lithuanian War
(1920) Vlora War
Vlora War
(1920) Franco-Syrian War
Franco-Syrian War
(1920) Soviet–Georgian War (1921) Irish Civil War
Irish Civil War
(1922–23)

Aspects

Opposition

Pacifism Anti-war movement

Deployment

Schlieffen Plan
Schlieffen Plan
(German) Plan XVII
Plan XVII
(French)

Warfare

Military engagements Naval warfare Convoy system Air warfare Cryptography

Room 40

Horse use Poison gas Railways Strategic bombing Technology Trench warfare Total war Christmas truce Last surviving veterans

Civilian impact Atrocities Prisoners

Casualties Economic history 1918 flu pandemic Destruction of Kalisz Rape of Belgium German occupation of Belgium German occupation of Luxembourg German occupation of northeastern France Ober Ost Ottoman people

Armenian Genocide Assyrian genocide Pontic Greek genocide

Urkun (Kyrgyzstan) Blockade of Germany Women

Australia

Popular culture German prisoners of war in the United States

Agreements

Partition of the Ottoman Empire Sykes–Picot Agreement Agreement of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne French-Armenian Agreement Damascus Protocol Paris Peace Conference Venizelos–Tittoni agreement

Treaties

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Treaty of Lausanne Treaty of London Treaty of Neuilly Treaty of St. Germain Treaty of Sèvres Treaty of Trianon Treaty of Versailles

Consequences

Aftermath "Fourteen Points" League of Nations World War I
World War I
memorials Centenary

outbreak

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Africa

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Oceania

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