1 Historical perspective
2 Current views 3 States
3.1 Other countries and regions
4 Geography 5 Demography 6 Economy
6.1 Currencies 6.2 Human Development Index 6.3 Globalisation 6.4 Prosperity Index 6.5 Corruption 6.6 Infrastructure
6.6.1 Rail 6.6.2 River transport and canals
6.7.1 Agriculture 6.7.2 Business 6.7.3 Tourism 6.7.4 Outsourcing destination
7.1 Languages 7.2 Education performance 7.3 Higher education
7.3.1 Universities 7.3.2 Central European University 7.3.3 Regional exchange program
Culture and society
Europe church buildings gallery 8.4 Cuisine 8.5 Human rights
8.5.1 History 8.5.2 Present
8.6 Literature 8.7 Media 8.8 Sport
9.1 Organisations 9.2 Democracy Index 9.3 Global Peace Index
10 Central European Time 11 In popular culture 12 See also 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 Further reading 16 External links
Middle Ages and early modern era Elements of unity for Western and Central Europe
Europe were Catholicism
Catholicism and Latin. However Eastern Europe, which remained Eastern Orthodox, was the area of Graeco-Byzantine cultural influence; after the East-West Schism (1054), Eastern Europe
Europe developed cultural unity and resistance to the Western world
Western world ( Catholic
Catholic and Protestant) within the framework of Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic language and the Cyrillic alphabet.
Frankish Empire and its tributaries (AD 843–888)
Poland in late 12th–13th centuries.
Bohemia in 1273
Stages of German eastern settlement, 700–1400 adapted from Walter Kuhn
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire in 1600 superimposed on modern state borders
According to Hungarian historian Jenő Szűcs, foundations of Central
European history at the first millennium were in close connection with
Western European development. He explained that between the 11th and
15th centuries not only Christianization and its cultural consequences
were implemented, but well-defined social features emerged in Central
Europe based on Western characteristics. The keyword of Western social development after millennium was the spread of liberties and autonomies in Western Europe. These phenomena appeared in the middle of the 13th century in Central European countries. There were self-governments of towns, counties and parliaments. In 1335, under the rule of the King Charles I of Hungary, the castle of Visegrád, the seat of the Hungarian monarchs was the scene of the royal summit of the Kings of Poland, Bohemia
Bohemia and Hungary. They agreed to cooperate closely in the field of politics and commerce, inspiring their post- Cold War
Cold War successors to launch a successful Central European initiative. In the Middle Ages, countries in Central Europe
Europe adopted Magdeburg rights.
Before World War I
A view of Central
Europe dating from the time before the First World War (1902): Central European countries and regions: Germany
Germany and Austria- Hungary
Hungary (without Bosnia & Herzegovina and Dalmatia) Regions located at the transition between Central Europe
Europe and Southeastern/Eastern Europe: Romania Before 1870, the industrialization that had developed in Western and Central Europe
Europe and the United States did not extend in any significant way to the rest of the world. Even in Eastern Europe, industrialization lagged far behind. Russia, for example, remained largely rural and agricultural, and its autocratic rulers kept the peasants in serfdom. The concept of Central Europe
Europe was already known at the beginning of the 19th century, but its real life began in the 20th century and immediately became an object of intensive interest. However, the very first concept mixed science, politics and economy – it was strictly connected with intensively growing German economy and its aspirations to dominate a part of European continent called Mitteleuropa. The German term denoting Central Europe
Europe was so fashionable that other languages started referring to it when indicating territories from Rhine
Rhine to Vistula, or even Dnieper, and from the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea to the Balkans. An example of that-time vision of Central Europe
Europe may be seen in J. Partsch's book of 1903. On 21 January 1904, Mitteleuropäischer Wirtschaftsverein (Central European Economic Association) was established in Berlin
Berlin with economic integration of Germany
Germany and Austria– Hungary
Hungary (with eventual extension to Switzerland, Belgium
Belgium and the Netherlands) as its main aim. Another time, the term Central Europe
Europe became connected to the German plans of political, economic and cultural domination. The "bible" of the concept was Friedrich Naumann's book Mitteleuropa in which he called for an economic federation to be established after World War I. Naumann's idea was that the federation would have at its centre Germany
Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire but would also include all European nations outside the Triple Entente. The concept failed after the German defeat in World War I
World War I and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary. The revival of the idea may be observed during the Hitler era.
Europe according to Emmanuel de Martonne
Emmanuel de Martonne (1927)CE countries, Sourcebook of Central European Avant-Gardes 1910–1930 (L.A. County Museum of Art) According to Emmanuel de Martonne, in 1927 the Central European countries included: Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania
Romania and Switzerland. The author uses both Human and Physical Geographical features to define Central Europe, but he doesn't take into account the legal development, or the social, cultural, economic, infrastructural developments in these countries. The interwar period (1918–1939) brought a new geopolitical system, as well as economic and political problems, and the concept of Central Europe
Europe took on a different character. The centre of interest was moved to its eastern part – the countries that have (re)appeared on the map of Europe: Czechoslovakia, Hungary
Hungary and Poland. Central Europe ceased to be the area of German aspiration to lead or dominate and became a territory of various integration movements aiming at resolving political, economic and national problems of "new" states, being a way to face German and Soviet pressures. However, the conflict of interests was too big and neither Little Entente
Little Entente nor Intermarium (Międzymorze) ideas succeeded. The interwar period brought new elements to the concept of Central Europe. Before World War I, it embraced mainly German states (Germany, Austria), non-German territories being an area of intended German penetration and domination – German leadership position was to be the natural result of economic dominance. After the war, the Eastern part of Central Europe
Europe was placed at the centre of the concept. At that time the scientists took an interest in the idea: the International Historical Congress in Brussels
Brussels in 1923 was committed to Central Europe, and the 1933 Congress continued the discussions. Hungarian scholar Magda Ádám wrote in her study Versailles System and Central Europe
Europe (2006): "Today we know that the bane of Central Europe
Europe was the Little Entente, military alliance of Czechoslovakia, Romania
Romania and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia), created in 1921 not for Central Europe's cooperation nor to fight German expansion, but in a wrong perceived notion that a completely powerless Hungary
Hungary must be kept down". The avant-garde movements of Central Europe
Europe were an essential part of modernism's evolution, reaching its peak throughout the continent during the 1920s. The Sourcebook of Central European avantgards (Los Angeles County Museum of Art) contains primary documents of the avant-gardes in Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, and Poland from 1910 to 1930. The manifestos and magazines of Western European radical art circles are well known to Western scholars and are being taught at primary universities of their kind in the western world.
Mitteleuropa may refer to an historical concept, or to a contemporary German definition of Central Europe. As an historical concept, the German term Mitteleuropa
Mitteleuropa (or alternatively its literal translation into English, Middle Europe) is an ambiguous German concept. It is sometimes used in English to refer to an area somewhat larger than most conceptions of 'Central Europe'; it refers to territories under Germanic cultural hegemony until World War I (encompassing Austria– Hungary
Hungary and Germany
Germany in their pre-war formations but usually excluding the Baltic countries
Baltic countries north of East Prussia). According to Fritz Fischer Mitteleuropa
Mitteleuropa was a scheme in the era of the Reich of 1871–1918 by which the old imperial elites had allegedly sought to build a system of German economic, military and political domination from the northern seas to the Near East and from the Low Countries
Low Countries through the steppes of Russia
Russia to the Caucasus. Later on, professor Fritz Epstein argued the threat of a Slavic "Drang nach Westen" (Western expansion) had been a major factor in the emergence of a Mitteleuropa
Mitteleuropa ideology before the Reich of 1871 ever came into being. In Germany
Germany the connotation was also sometimes linked to the pre-war German provinces east of the Oder-Neisse line which were lost as the result of World War II, annexed by People's Republic of Poland
Poland and the Soviet Union, and ethnically cleansed of Germans by communist authorities and forces (see expulsion of Germans after World War II) due to Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference and Potsdam Conference decisions. In this view Bohemia
Bohemia and Moravia, with its dual Western Slavic and Germanic heritage, combined with the historical element of the "Sudetenland", is a core region illustrating the problems and features of the entire Central European region. The term "Mitteleuropa" conjures up negative historical associations among some elderly people, although the Germans have not played an exclusively negative role in the region. Most Central European Jews embraced the enlightened German humanistic culture of the 19th century. German-speaking Jews from turn of the 20th century Vienna, Budapest
Budapest and Prague
Prague became representatives of what many consider to be Central European culture at its best, though the Nazi version of "Mitteleuropa" destroyed this kind of culture instead. However, the term "Mitteleuropa" is now widely used again in German education and media without negative meaning, especially since the end of communism. In fact, many people from the new states of Germany
Germany do not identify themselves as being part of Western Europe
Europe and therefore prefer the term "Mitteleuropa".
Europe behind the Iron Curtain Politically independent CE states during Cold War: Finland, Austria, Yugoslavia Following World War II, large parts of Europe
Europe that were culturally and historically Western became part of the Eastern bloc. Czech author Milan Kundera
Milan Kundera (emigrant to France) thus wrote in 1984 about the "Tragedy of Central Europe" in the New York Review of Books. Consequently, the English term Central Europe
Europe was increasingly applied only to the westernmost former Warsaw
Warsaw Pact countries (East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary) to specify them as communist states that were culturally tied to Western Europe. This usage continued after the end of the Warsaw Pact when these countries started to undergo transition. The post- World War II
World War II period brought blocking of research on Central Europe
Europe in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc countries, as its every result proved the dissimilarity of Central Europe, which was inconsistent with the Stalinist
Stalinist doctrine. On the other hand, the topic became popular in Western Europe
Europe and the United States, much of the research being carried out by immigrants from Central Europe. At the end of communism, publicists and historians in Central Europe, especially the anti-communist opposition, returned to their research. According to Karl A. Sinnhuber (Central Europe: Mitteleuropa: Europe Centrale: An Analysis of a Geographical Term) most Central European states were unable to preserve their political independence and became Soviet Satellite Europe. Besides Austria, only the marginal Central European states of Finland
Finland and Yugoslavia preserved their political sovereignty to a certain degree, being left out of any military alliances in Europe. According to Meyers Enzyklopädisches Lexikon, Central Europe
Europe is a part of Europe
Europe composed of Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Romania
Romania and Switzerland, and northern marginal regions of Italy
Italy and Yugoslavia (northern states – Croatia, Serbia
Serbia and Slovenia), as well as northeastern France.
Geopolitical Challenges - Panel on the Future of Europe
Rather than a physical entity, Central
Europe is a concept of shared history which contrasts with that of the surrounding regions. The issue of how to name and define the Central European region is subject to debates. Very often, the definition depends on the nationality and historical perspective of its author. The main proposed regional definitions, gathered by Polish historian Jerzy Kłoczowski, include:
West-Central and East-Central
Europe – this conception, presented in 1950, distinguishes two regions in Central Europe: German West-Centre, with imperial tradition of the Reich, and the East-Centre covered by variety of nations from Finland
Finland to Greece, placed between great empires of Scandinavia, Germany, Italy
Italy and the Soviet Union. Central Europe
Europe as the area of cultural heritage of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth – Ukrainian, Belarusian and Lithuanian historians, in cooperation (since 1990) with Polish historians, insist on the importance of the concept. Central Europe
Europe as a region connected to the Western civilisation for a very long time, including countries such as the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Kingdom of Croatia, Holy Roman Empire, later German Empire and the Habsburg Monarchy, the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary and the Crown of Bohemia. Central Europe
Europe understood in this way borders on Russia and South-Eastern Europe, but the exact frontier of the region is difficult to determine. Habsburg-ruled lands Central Europe
Europe as the area of cultural heritage of the Habsburg Empire (later Austria-Hungary) – a concept which is popular in regions along the Danube
Danube River: Austria, the Czech Republic
Czech Republic and Slovakia, Slovenia, large parts of Croatia, Romania
Romania and Serbia, also smaller parts of Poland
Poland and Ukraine. In Hungary, the narrowing of Central Europe
Europe into former Habsburg lands is not popular. A concept underlining the links connecting Belarus
Belarus and Ukraine
Ukraine with Russia
Russia and treating the Russian Empire
Russian Empire together with the whole Slavic Orthodox population as one entity – this position is taken by the Russian historiography. A concept putting the accent on links with the West, especially from the 19th century and the grand period of liberation and formation of Nation-states – this idea is represented by the South-Eastern states, which prefer the enlarged concept of the "East Centre" expressing their links with Western culture. According to American professor Ronald Tiersky, the 1991 summit held in Visegrád, Hungary
Hungary and attended by the Polish, Hungarian and Czechoslovak presidents was hailed at the time as a major breakthrough in Central European cooperation, but the Visegrád Group
Visegrád Group became a vehicle for coordinating Central Europe's road to the European Union, while development of closer ties within the region languished.
The European floristic regionsThe Pannonian Plain, between the Alps
Carpathians (north and east), and the Sava/Danube (south)Carpathian countries (north-west to south-east): CZ, AT, PL, SK, HU, UA, RO, RS American professor Peter J. Katzenstein described Central Europe
Europe as a way station in a Europeanization process that marks the transformation process of the Visegrád Group
Visegrád Group countries in different, though comparable ways. According to him, in Germany's contemporary public discourse "Central European identity" refers to the civilizational divide between Catholicism
Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. He says there's no precise, uncontestable way to decide whether the Baltic states, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Romania, and Bulgaria are parts of Central Europe
Europe or not. Former University of Vienna
Vienna professor Lonnie R. Johnson points out criteria to distinguish Central Europe
Europe from Western, Eastern and Southeast Europe:
One criterion for defining Central
Europe is the frontiers of medieval empires and kingdoms that largely correspond to the religious frontiers between the Catholic
Catholic West and the Orthodox East. The pagans of Central Europe
Europe were converted to Catholicism
Catholicism while in Southeastern and Eastern Europe
Europe they were brought into the fold of the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox Church. Multinational empires were a characteristic of Central Europe. Hungary
Hungary and Poland, small and medium-size states today, were empires during their early histories. The historical Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary was until 1918 three times larger than Hungary
Hungary is today, while Poland
Poland was the largest state in Europe
Europe in the 16th century. Both these kingdoms housed a wide variety of different peoples. He also thinks that Central Europe
Europe is a dynamic historical concept, not a static spatial one. For example, Lithuania, a fair share of Belarus
Belarus and western Ukraine
Ukraine are in Eastern Europe
Europe today, but 230 years ago they were in Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Johnson's study on Central Europe
Europe received acclaim and positive reviews in the scientific community. However, according to Romanian researcher Maria Bucur this very ambitious project suffers from the weaknesses imposed by its scope (almost 1600 years of history). The Columbia Encyclopedia defines Central Europe
Europe as: Germany, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. The World Factbook uses a similar definition and adds also Slovenia. Encarta Encyclopedia
Encarta Encyclopedia and Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica do not clearly define the region, but Encarta places the same countries into Central Europe
Europe in its individual articles on countries, adding Slovenia
Slovenia in "south central Europe". The German Encyclopaedia Meyers Grosses Taschenlexikon (Meyers Big Pocket Encyclopedia), 1999, defines Central Europe
Europe as the central part of Europe
Europe with no precise borders to the East and West. The term is mostly used to denominate the territory between the Schelde
Schelde to Vistula and from the Danube
Danube to the Moravian Gate. Usually the countries considered to be Central European are Austria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland; in the broader sense Romania
Romania and Serbia
Serbia too, occasionally also Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The German Ständige Ausschuss für geographische Namen (Standing Committee on Geographical Names), which develops and recommends rules for the uniform use of geographical names, proposes two sets of boundaries. The first follows international borders of current countries. The second subdivides and includes some countries based on cultural criteria. In comparison to some other definitions, it is broader, including Luxembourg, Croatia, the Baltic states, and in the second sense, parts of Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Italy, and France. The terminology EU11 countries refer the Central, Eastern and Baltic European member states which accessed in 2004 and after: in 2004 the Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia, and the Slovak Republic; in 2007 Bulgaria, Romania; and in 2013 Croatia.
Europe according to Peter J. Katzenstein (1997) The Visegrád Group
Visegrád Group countries are referred to as Central Europe
Europe in the book countries for which there's no precise, uncontestable way to decide whether they are parts of Central Europe or not
Map of Central Europe, according to Lonnie R. Johnson
(2011) Countries usually considered Central
European (citing the
World Bank and the OECD) Countries considered to be Central European only in the broader sense of the term.
The Central European Countries according to Meyers Grosses Taschenlexikon (1999): Countries usually considered Central European Central European countries in the broader sense of the term Countries occasionally considered to be Central European
Europe (Brockhaus Enzyklopädie, 1998)
Europe according to Swansea University professors Robert Bideleux and Ian Jeffries (1998)
Central Europe, as defined by E. Schenk (1950)
Central Europe, according to Alice F. A. Mutton in Central Europe. A Regional and Human Geography (1961)
Europe according to Meyers Enzyklopaedisches Lexikon (1980)
The comprehension of the concept of Central
Europe is an ongoing source of controversy, though the Visegrád
Visegrád Group constituents are almost always included as de facto C.E. countries. Although views on which countries belong to Central Europe
Europe are vastly varied, according to many sources (see section Current views on Central Europe) the region includes the states listed in the sections below.
Depending on context, Central European countries are sometimes grouped
as Eastern or Western European countries, collectively or
individually but some
place them in Eastern Europe
instead: for instance
Austria can be referred to as Central European, as well as Eastern European or Western European.
Other countries and regions Some sources also add neighbouring countries for historical reasons (the former Austro-Hungarian and German Empires, and modern Baltic states), or based on geographical and/or cultural reasons:
(alternatively placed in Southeast Europe)
Romania (Transylvania, along with Banat, Crișana, and Maramureș as well as Bukovina) Serbia
Serbia (primarily Vojvodina
Vojvodina and Northern Belgrade) Slovenia (alternatively placed in Southeast Europe) Ukraine
Ukraine (Transcarpathia, Galicia and Northern Bukovina) The Baltic states, geographically in Northern Europe, have been considered part of Central Europe
Europe in the German tradition of the term, Mitteleuropa. Benelux
Benelux countries are generally considered a part of Western Europe, rather than Central Europe. Nevertheless, they are occasionally mentioned in the Central European context due to cultural, historical and linguistic ties. The following states or some of their regions may sometimes be included in Central Europe:
Italy (South Tyrol, Trentino, Trieste
Trieste and Gorizia, Friuli, Lombardy occasionally Veneto
Veneto or all of Northern Italy) Geography Geography defines Central Europe's natural borders with the neighbouring regions to the North across the Baltic Sea, namely Northern Europe
Europe (or Scandinavia), and to the South across the Alps, the Apennine peninsula
Apennine peninsula (or Italy), and the Balkan peninsula across the Soča-Krka-Sava- Danube
Danube line. The borders to Western Europe
Europe and Eastern Europe
Europe are geographically less defined and for this reason the cultural and historical boundaries migrate more easily West-East than South-North. The Rhine
Rhine river which runs South-North through Western Germany
Germany is an exception.[original research?]
Danube river watercourse system throughout Central and Southeastern Europe Southwards, the Pannonian Plain
Pannonian Plain is bounded by the rivers Sava
Sava and Danube- and their respective floodplains. The Pannonian Plain stretches over the following countries: Austria, Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia
Slovakia and Slovenia, and touches borders of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina (Republika Srpska) and Ukraine
Ukraine ("peri- Pannonian states"). As southeastern division of the Eastern Alps, the Dinaric Alps
Alps extend for 650 kilometres along the coast of the Adriatic Sea (northwest-southeast), from the Julian Alps
Alps in the northwest down to the Šar-Korab massif, north-south. According to the Freie Universität Berlin, this mountain chain is classified as South Central European. The Central European flora region stretches from Central France
France (the Massif Central) to Central Romania
Romania (Carpathians) and Southern Scandinavia. At times, the term "Central Europe" denotes a geographic definition as the Danube
Danube region in the heart of the continent, including the language and culture areas which are today included in the states of Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia
Slovenia and usually also Austria
Austria and Germany, but never Russia
Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union towards the Ural mountains.
Population density (people per km2) by country, 2018
Europe is one of the continent's most populous regions. It includes countries of varied sizes, ranging from tiny Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein to Germany, the largest European country by population (that is entirely placed in Europe). Demographic figures for countries entirely located within notion of Central Europe
Europe ("the core countries") number around 165 million people, out of which around 82 million are residents of Germany. Other populations include: Poland
Poland with around 38.5 million residents, Czech Republic
Czech Republic at 10.5 million, Hungary
Hungary at 10 million, Austria
Austria with 8.8 million, Switzerland
Switzerland with 8.5 million, Slovakia
Slovakia at 5.4 million, and Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein at a bit less than 40,000. If the countries which are occasionally included in Central Europe were counted in, partially or in whole – Croatia
Croatia (4.3 million) , Slovenia
Slovenia (2 million, 2014 estimate), Romania
Romania (20 million), Lithuania
Lithuania (2.9 million), Latvia
Latvia (2 million), Estonia
Estonia (1.3 million), Serbia
Serbia (7.1 million)  – it would contribute to the rise of between 25–35 million, depending on whether regional or integral approach was used. If smaller, western and eastern historical parts of Central Europe
Europe would be included in the demographic corpus, further 20 million people of different nationalities would also be added in the overall count, it would surpass the 200 million people figure.
Currently, the members of the
Eurozone include Austria, Germany, Luxembourg, Slovakia, and Slovenia. Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary
Hungary and Poland
Poland use their currencies (Croatian kuna, Czech koruna, Hungarian forint, Polish złoty), but are obliged to adopt the Euro. Switzerland
Switzerland uses its own currency – Swiss franc, Serbia
Serbia too (Serbian dinar).
Human Development Index
World map by quartiles of
Human Development Index
Human Development Index in 2013. Very High Low High Data unavailable Medium Countries in descending order of Human Development Index
Human Development Index (2018 data):
Switzerland: 0.944 (ranked 2)
Germany: 0.936 (ranked 5)
Liechtenstein: 0.916 (ranked 17)
Austria: 0.908 (ranked 20)
Slovenia: 0.896 (ranked 25)
Czech Republic: 0.888 (ranked 27)
Poland: 0.865 (ranked 33)
Slovakia: 0.855 (ranked 38)
Hungary: 0.838 (ranked 45)
Croatia: 0.831 (ranked 46)
Serbia 0.787 (ranked 67) Globalisation Map showing the score for the KOF Globalization Index. The index of globalization in Central European countries (2016 data):
Switzerland: 91.17 (ranked 1)
Austria: 88.95 (ranked 7)
Germany: 88.17 (ranked 8)
Czech Republic: 85.19 (ranked 13)
Hungary: 85.13 (ranked 14)
Slovakia: 82.89 (ranked 21)
Slovenia: 81.28 (ranked 25)
Poland: 81.20 (ranked 26)
Croatia: 80.90 (ranked 28)
Serbia 78.34 (ranked 37) Liechtenstein: 54.37 (ranked 121) Prosperity Index Legatum Prosperity Index demonstrates an average and high level of prosperity in Central Europe
Europe (2018 data)
Switzerland (ranked 4) Germany
Germany (ranked 11) Luxembourg
Luxembourg (ranked 12) Austria
Austria (ranked 15) Slovenia
Slovenia (ranked 18) Czech Republic
Czech Republic (ranked 27) Slovakia
Slovakia (ranked 32) Poland
Poland (ranked 33) Croatia
Croatia (ranked 41) Hungary
Hungary (ranked 47) Serbia
Serbia (ranked 56) Corruption Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2015. 90–100 60–69 30–39 0–9 80–89 50–59 20–29 No information 70–79 40–49 10–19 Most countries in Central Europe
Europe tend to score above the average in the Corruption Perceptions Index
Corruption Perceptions Index (2018 data):
Switzerland (ranked 3, tied) Germany
Germany (ranked 11, tied) Austria
Austria (ranked 14, tied) Poland
Poland (ranked 36, tied) Slovenia
Slovenia (ranked 36, tied) Czech Republic
Czech Republic (ranked 38, tied) Slovakia
Slovakia (ranked 57) Croatia
Croatia (ranked 60) Hungary
Hungary (ranked 64, tied) Serbia
Serbia (ranked 87, tied) According to the Bribe Payers Index, released yearly since 1995 by the Berlin-based NGO Transparency International, Germany
Germany and Switzerland, the only two Central European countries examined in the study, were respectively ranked 2nd and 4th in 2011.
Infrastructure Industrialisation occurred early in Central Europe. That caused construction of rail and other types of infrastructure.
Rail network density.
Europe contains the continent's earliest railway systems, whose greatest expansion was recorded in Austro-Hungarian and German territories between 1860-1870s. By the mid-19th century Berlin, Vienna, and Buda/Pest were focal points for network lines connecting industrial areas of Saxony, Silesia, Bohemia, Moravia
Moravia and Lower Austria
Austria with the Baltic (Kiel, Szczecin) and Adriatic (Rijeka, Trieste). Rail infrastructure in Central Europe
Europe remains the densest in the world. Railway density, with total length of lines operated (km) per 1,000 km2, is the highest in the Czech Republic (198.6), Poland
Poland (121.0), Slovenia
Slovenia (108.0), Germany
Germany (105.5), Hungary (98.7), Serbia
Serbia (87.3), Slovakia
Slovakia (73.9) and Croatia (72.5). when compared with most of Europe and the rest of the world.
River transport and canals
Before the first railroads appeared in the 1840s, river transport
constituted the main means of communication and trade.
Earliest canals included Plauen Canal (1745), Finow Canal, and also
Bega Canal (1710) which connected
Timișoara to Novi Sad
Novi Sad and Belgrade via Danube. The most significant achievement in this regard was the facilitation of navigability on Danube
Danube from the Black sea to Ulm in the 19th century.
Compared to most of Europe, the economies of Austria, Croatia, the
Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia,
Slovenia and Switzerland
Switzerland tend to demonstrate high complexity. Industrialisation has reached Central Europe
Europe relatively early: Luxembourg
Luxembourg and Germany
Germany by 1860, the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia
Slovakia and Switzerland
Switzerland by 1870, Austria, Croatia, Hungary, Liechtenstein, Romania, Serbia
Serbia and Slovenia by 1880.
Central European countries are some of the most significant food
producers in the world.
Germany is the world's largest hops producer with 34.27% share in 2010, third producer of rye and barley, 5th rapeseed producer, sixth largest milk producer, and fifth largest potato producer. Poland
Poland is the world's largest triticale producer, second largest producer of raspberry, currant, third largest of rye, the fifth apple and buckwheat producer, and seventh largest producer of potatoes. The Czech Republic
Czech Republic is world's fourth largest hops producer and 8th producer of triticale. Hungary
Hungary is world's fifth hops and seventh largest triticale producer. Serbia
Serbia is world's second largest producer of plums and second largest of raspberries. Slovenia
Slovenia is world's sixth hops producer.
Central European business has a regional organisation, Central
European Business Association (CEBA), founded in 1996 in New York as a
non-profit organization dedicated to promoting business opportunities
Europe and supporting the advancement of professionals in America with a Central European background.
Central European countries, especially Austria, Croatia,
Germany and Switzerland
Switzerland are some of the most competitive tourism destinations. Poland
Poland is presently a major destination for outsourcing.
Kraków, Warsaw, and Wrocław, Poland;
Prague and Brno, Czech Republic; Budapest, Hungary; Bucharest, Romania; Bratislava, Slovakia; Ljubljana, Slovenia, Belgrade, Serbia
Serbia and Zagreb, Croatia
Croatia are among the world's top 100 outsourcing destinations.
Education Central European countries are very literate. All of them have the literacy rate of 96% or over (for both sexes):
Country Literacy rate (all) Male Female Criteria
-9e99 -9e99 !a -9e99
World 84.1% 88.6% 79.7% age 15 and over can read and write (2010 est.)
Liechtenstein 100% 100% 100% age 10 and over can read and write
Poland 99.7% 99.9% 99.6% age 15 and over can read and write (2011 est.)
Slovenia 99.7% 99.7% 99.7% (2010 est.)
Slovakia 99.6% 99.7% 99.6% age 15 and over can read and write (2004)
Czech Republic 99% 99% 99% (2011 est.)
Germany 99% 99% 99% age 15 and over can read and write (2003 est.)
Hungary 99% 99.2% 98.9% age 15 and over can read and write (2011 est.)
Switzerland 99% 99% 99% age 15 and over can read and write (2003 est.)
Croatia 98.9% 99.5% 98.3% age 15 and over can read and write (2011 est.)
Austria 98% N/A N/A age 15 and over can read and write
age 15 and over can read and write
Languages taught as the first language in Central
Europe are: Croatian, Czech, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Romansh, Serbian, Slovak and Slovenian. The most popular language taught at schools in Central Europe
Europe as foreign languages are: English, French and German. Proficiency in English is ranked as high or moderate, according to the EF English Proficiency Index:
Slovenia (position 6) Luxembourg
Luxembourg (position 8) Poland
Poland (position 9) Austria
Austria (position 10) Germany
Germany (position 11) Serbia
Serbia (position 18) Hungary
Hungary (position 21) Czech Republic
Czech Republic (position 18) Switzerland
Switzerland (position 19) Slovakia
Slovakia (position 25) Croatia
Croatia (not ranked) Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein (not ranked) Other languages, also popular (spoken by over 5% as a second language):
Slovenia (61%) Czech in Slovakia
Slovakia (82%) French in Romania
Romania (17%), Germany
Germany (14%) and Austria
Austria (11%) German in Slovenia
Slovenia (42%), Croatia
Croatia (34%), Slovakia
Slovakia (22%), Poland
Poland (20%), Hungary
Hungary (18%), the Czech Republic
Czech Republic (15%) and Romania
Romania (5%) Hungarian in Romania
Romania (9%), Serbia
Serbia (7%) Slovakia
Slovakia (12%) Italian in Croatia
Croatia (14%), Slovenia
Slovenia (12%), Austria
Austria (9%) and Romania (7%) Russian in Poland
Poland (28%), Slovakia
Slovakia (17%), the Czech Republic
Czech Republic (13%) and Germany
Germany (6%) Polish in Slovakia
Slovakia (5%) Slovak in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic (16%), Serbia
Serbia (2%) Spanish in Romania
Romania (5%) Education performance Student performance has varied across Central Europe, according to the Programme for International Student Assessment. In the last study, countries scored medium, below or over the average scores in three fields studied. In maths:
The results for the 2012 "Maths" section on a world map.
Liechtenstein (position 8) – above the OECD
OECD average Switzerland
Switzerland (position 9) – above the OECD
OECD average Poland
Poland (position 14) – above the OECD
OECD average Germany
Germany (position 16) – above the OECD
OECD average Austria
Austria (position 18) – above the OECD
OECD average Slovenia
Slovenia (position 21) – above the OECD
OECD average Czech Republic
Czech Republic (position 24) – similar to the OECD
OECD average Slovakia
Slovakia (position 35) – below the OECD
OECD average Hungary
Hungary (position 39) – below the OECD
OECD average Croatia
Croatia (position 40) – below the OECD
OECD average Serbia
Serbia (position 43) – below the OECD
OECD average In the sciences:
The results for the 2012 "Science" section on a world map.
Poland (position 9) – above the OECD
OECD average Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein (position 10) – above the OECD
OECD average Germany
Germany (position 12) – above the OECD
OECD average Switzerland
Switzerland (position 19) – above the OECD
OECD average Slovenia
Slovenia (position 20) – above the OECD
OECD average Czech Republic
Czech Republic (position 22) – above the OECD
OECD average Austria
Austria (position 23) – similar to the OECD
OECD average Hungary
Hungary (position 33) – below the OECD
OECD average Serbia
Serbia (position 34) – below the OECD
OECD average Croatia
Croatia (position 35) – below the OECD
OECD average Slovakia
Slovakia (position 40) – below the OECD
OECD average In reading:
The results for the 2012 "Reading" section on a world map.
Poland (position 10) – above the OECD
OECD average Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein (position 11) – above the OECD
OECD average Switzerland
Switzerland (position 17) – above the OECD
OECD average Germany
Germany (position 19) – above the OECD
OECD average Czech Republic
Czech Republic (position 26) – similar to the OECD
OECD average Austria
Austria (position 27) – below the OECD
OECD average Hungary
Hungary (position 33) – below the OECD
OECD average Croatia
Croatia (position 35) – below the OECD
OECD average Slovenia
Slovenia (position 38) – below the OECD
OECD average Serbia
Serbia (position 49) – below the OECD
OECD average Higher education Universities Karolinum
Karolinum of the Charles University in Prague The first university east of France
France and north of the Alps
Alps was the Charles University in Prague
Prague established in 1347 or 1348 by Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and modeled on the University of Paris, with the full number of faculties (law, medicine, philosophy and theology). The list of Central Europe's oldest universities in continuous operation, established by 1500, include (by their dates of foundation):
Czech Republic Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic (1348) Poland
Poland Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland
Poland (1364) Austria
Austria University of Vienna in Vienna, Austria
Austria (1365) Hungary
Hungary University of Pécs in Pécs, Hungary
Hungary (1367) Germany
Germany Heidelberg University in Heidelberg, Germany (1386) Germany
Germany Cologne University in Cologne, Germany
Germany (1388) Croatia
Croatia University of Zadar in Zadar, Croatia
Croatia (1396) Germany
Germany University of Leipzig in Leipzig, Germany
Germany (1409) Germany
Germany University of Rostock in Rostock, Germany
Germany (1419) Germany
Germany University of Greifswald in Greifswald, Germany (1456) Germany
Germany University of Freiburg in Freiburg, Germany (1457) Switzerland
Switzerland University of Basel in Basel, Switzerland (1460) Germany
Germany Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich in Munich, Germany
Germany (1472) Germany
Germany University of Tübingen in Tübingen, Germany (1477) Central European University The entrance of the Central European University
Central European University in Budapest The Central European University
Central European University (CEU) is a graduate-level, English-language university promoting a distinctively Central European perspective. It was established in 1991 by the Hungarian philanthropist George Soros, who has provided an endowment of US$880 million, making the university one of the wealthiest in Europe. In the academic year 2013/2014, the CEU had 1,381 students from 93 countries and 388 faculty members from 58 countries.
Regional exchange program Central European Exchange Program for University Studies (CEEPUS) is an international exchange program for students and teachers teaching or studying in participating countries. Its current members include (year it joined for the first time in brackets):
Austria (2005) Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina (2008) Bulgaria (2005) Croatia
Croatia (2005) Czech Republic
Czech Republic (2005) Hungary
Hungary (2005) Kosovo* (2008) Macedonia (2006) Moldova (2011) Montenegro (2006) Poland
Poland (2005) Romania
Romania (2005) Serbia
Serbia (2005) Slovakia
Slovakia (2005) Slovenia
Slovenia (2005) Culture
Culture and society See also: Magdeburg rights Research centres of Central European literature include Harvard (Cambridge, MA), and Purdue University.
Central European architecture has been shaped by major European styles
including but not limited to: Brick Gothic, Rococo,
Secession (art) and Modern architecture. Seven Central European countries are amongst those countries with higher numbers of World Heritage Sites:
Germany (position 5th, 42 sites) Poland
Poland (position 18th, 16 sites) Czech Republic
Czech Republic (position 22nd, 12 sites) Switzerland
Switzerland (position 25th, 12 sites) Austria
Austria (position 27th, 10 sites) Croatia
Croatia (position 29th, 10 sites) Serbia
Serbia (position 35th, 6 sites) Religion Central European major Christian denomination is Catholicism
Catholicism (map) as well as large Protestant
Protestant populations Jews in Central Europe
Europe (1881) Central European countries are mostly Catholic
Catholic (Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia) or mixed Catholic
Catholic and Protestant, ( Germany
Germany and Switzerland). Large Protestant
Protestant groups include Lutheran
Lutheran and Calvinist. Significant populations of Eastern Catholicism
Catholicism and Old Catholicism
Catholicism are also prevalent throughout Central Europe. Central Europe
Europe has been a centre of Protestantism in the past; however, it has been mostly eradicated by the Counterreformation. The Czech Republic
Czech Republic (Bohemia) was historically the first Protestant country, then violently recatholised, and now overwhelmingly non-religious, nevertheless the largest number of religious people are Catholic
Catholic (10.3%). Romania
Romania and Serbia
Serbia are mostly Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox with significant Protestant
Protestant and Catholic
Catholic minorities. Before the Holocaust
Holocaust (1941–45), there was also a sizeable Ashkenazi Jewish community in the region, numbering approximately 16.7 million people. In some of these countries, there is a number of atheists, undeclared and non-religious people: the Czech Republic
Czech Republic (non-religious 34.2% and undeclared 45.2%), Germany
Germany (non-religious 38%), Slovenia
Slovenia (atheist 30.2%), Luxembourg
Luxembourg (25% non-religious), Switzerland
Switzerland (20.1%), Hungary (27.2% undeclared, 16.7% "non-religious" and 1.5% atheists), Slovakia (atheists and non-religious 13.4%, "not specified" 10.6%) Austria (19.7% of "other or none"), Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein (10.6% with no religion), Croatia
Croatia (4%) and Poland
Poland (3% of non-believers/agnostics and 1% of undeclared).
Europe church buildings gallery
St. Vitus Cathedral,
Prague (Catholic), Czech Republic
Wrocław Cathedral (Catholic), Poland
St. Mary's Basilica in
Kraków (Catholic), Poland
Jesuit Church, Lucerne
Jesuit Church, Lucerne (Catholic), Switzerland
Grossmünster (Calvinist), Switzerland
Reformed Great Church of
Debrecen (Calvinist), Hungary
Abbey of Saint Gall
Abbey of Saint Gall (Catholic), Switzerland
Cologne Cathedral (Catholic), Germany
Cathedral of St. Peter and Paul in
Brno (Catholic), Czech Republic
Vaduz Cathedral (Catholic), Liechtenstein
St. Stephen's Cathedral in
Vienna (Catholic), Austria
St. Theresa of Avila Cathedral, Subotica,
Evangelical church in
Partizánska Ľupča (Lutheran), Slovakia
Esztergom Basilica (Catholic), is an ecclesiastic basilica in Esztergom, Hungary
Central European cuisine
Central European cuisine has evolved through centuries due to social and political change. Most countries share many dishes. The most popular dishes typical to Central Europe
Europe are sausages and cheeses, where the earliest evidence of cheesemaking in the archaeological record dates back to 5,500 BCE (Kujawy, Poland). Other foods widely associated with Central Europe
Europe are goulash and beer. List of countries by beer consumption per capita is led by the Czech Republic, followed by Germany
Germany and Austria. Poland
Poland comes 5th, Croatia 7th and Slovenia
Human rights have a long tradition in Central Europe. In 1222 Hungary
defined for the first time the rights of the nobility in its "Golden
Bull". In 1264 the Statute of Kalisz and the General Charter of Jewish
Liberties introduced numerous rights for the Jews in Poland, granting
them de facto autonomy. In 1783 for the first time,
Poland forbid corporal punishment of children in schools. In the same year, a German state of Baden banned slavery. On the other hand, there were also major regressions, such as "Nihil novi" in Poland
Poland in 1505 which forbade peasants from leaving their land without permission from their feudal lord.
Generally, the countries in the region are progressive on the issue of
human rights: death penalty is illegal in all of them, corporal
punishment is outlawed in most of them and people of both genders can
vote in elections. Nevertheless, Central European countries struggle
to adopt new generations of human rights, such as same-sex marriage.
Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, and
Poland also have a history of participation in the CIA's extraordinary rendition and detention program, according to the Open Society Foundation.
Literature Regional writing tradition revolves around the turbulent history of the region, as well as its cultural diversity. Its existence is sometimes challenged. Specific courses on Central European literature are taught at Stanford University, Harvard University and Jagiellonian University The as well as cultural magazines dedicated to regional literature. Angelus Central European Literature Award is an award worth 150,000.00 PLN (about $50,000 or £30,000) for writers originating from the region. Likewise, the Vilenica International Literary Prize is awarded to a Central European author for "outstanding achievements in the field of literature and essay writing."
Press Freedom Index
Press Freedom Index results. There is a whole spectrum of media active in the region: newspapers, television and internet channels, radio channels, internet websites etc. Central European media are regarded as free, according to the Press Freedom Index, although the situation in Poland, Hungary
Hungary and Croatia is described as "problematic". Some of the top scoring countries in the Press Freedom Index
Press Freedom Index are in Central Europe, and include:
Switzerland (position 7) Austria
Austria (position 11) Germany
Germany (position 16) Slovakia
Slovakia (position 17) Czech Republic
Czech Republic (position 23) Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein (position 32) Slovenia
Slovenia (position 37) Poland
Poland (position 54) Hungary
Hungary (position 71) Croatia
Croatia (position 74) Serbia
Serbia (position 76) Sport There is a number of Central European Sport events and leagues. They include:
Central European Tour Miskolc GP (Hungary)*
Central European Tour
Budapest GP (Hungary) Central Europe
Europe Rally ( Romania
Romania and Hungary)* Central European Football League (Austria, Croatia, Hungary, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia
Slovenia and Turkey) Central European International Cup (Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Switzerland
Switzerland and Yugoslavia; 1927–1960) Central Europe
Europe Throwdown* Football is one of the most popular sports. Countries of Central Europe
Europe had many great national teams throughout history and hosted several major competitions. Yugoslavia hosted UEFA Euro 1976
UEFA Euro 1976 before the competition expanded to 8 teams and Germany
Germany (at that times as West Germany) hosted UEFA Euro 1988. Recently, 2008 and 2012 UEFA European Championships were held in Austria
Austria & Switzerland
Switzerland and Poland
Poland & Ukraine
Ukraine respectively. Germany
Germany hosted 2 FIFA World Cups (1974 and 2006) and are the current champions (as of 2014).
Europe is a birthplace of regional political organisations:
Visegrád Group Centrope Central European Initiative Central European Free Trade Agreement Middleeuropean Initiative Central European Defence Cooperation Three Seas Initiative
Central European Initiative
Central European Defence Cooperation
CEFTA founding states
CEFTA members in 2003, before joining the EU
The Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy index map for 2016, with greener colours representing more democratic countries Central Europe
Europe is a home to some of world's oldest democracies. However, most of them have been impacted by totalitarianism, particularly Fascism
Fascism and Nazism. Germany
Germany and Italy
Italy occupied all Central European countries, except Switzerland. In all occupied countries, the Axis powers
Axis powers suspended democracy and installed puppet regimes loyal to the occupation forces. Also, they forced conquered countries to aplly racial laws and formed military forces for helping German and Italian struggle against Communists. After World War II, almost the whole of Central Europe
Europe (the Eastern and Middle part) was occupied by Communists. Communism
Communism also banned democracy and free elections, and human rights did not exist in Communist countries. Most of Central Europe
Europe had been occupied and later allied with the Soviet Union, often against their will through forged referendum (e.g., Polish people's referendum in 1946) or force (northeast Germany, Poland, Hungary
Hungary et alia). Nevertheless, these experiences have been dealt in most of them. Most of Central European countries score very highly in the Democracy Index:
Switzerland (position 6) Germany
Germany (position 13) Austria
Austria (position 14) Czech Republic
Czech Republic (position 25) Slovenia
Slovenia (position 37) Poland
Poland (position 40) Slovakia
Slovakia (position 45) Croatia
Croatia (position 50) Hungary
Hungary (position 51) Serbia
Serbia (position 57) Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein (not listed) Global Peace Index Global Peace Index Scores. In spite of its turbulent history, Central Europe
Europe is currently one of world's safest regions. Most Central European countries are in top 20%:
Austria (position 3) Switzerland
Switzerland (position 5) Czech Republic
Czech Republic (position 11) Slovenia
Slovenia (position 14) Germany
Germany (position 17) Slovakia
Slovakia (position 19) Poland
Poland (position 23) Hungary
Hungary (position 22) Serbia
Serbia (position 23) Croatia
Croatia (position 26) Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein (not listed) Central European Time Central European Time
Central European Time Zone (dark red) The time zone used in most parts of the European Union
European Union is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. It is commonly called Central European Time
Central European Time because it has been first adopted in central Europe
Europe (by year):
Poland (1893) Serbia Slovenia Switzerland Liechtenstein In popular culture Central Europe
Europe is mentioned in 35th episode of Lovejoy, entitled "The Prague
Prague Sun", filmed in 1992. While walking over the famous Charles Bridge, the main character, Lovejoy
Lovejoy says: " I've never been to Prague before. Well, it is one of the great unspoiled cities in Central Europe. Notice: I said: "Central", not "Eastern"! The Czechs are a bit funny about that, they think of Eastern Europeans as turnip heads." Wes Anderson's Oscar-winning film The Grand Budapest
Budapest Hotel is regarded as a fictionalised celebration of the 1930s in Central Europe, and the region's musical tastes.
Europe portal Geographical midpoint of Europe Central and Eastern Europe Central European Initiative Central European Time
Central European Time (CET) Central European University East-Central Europe Eurovoc Life zones of central Europe Międzymorze
Międzymorze (Intermarum) Mitteleuropa
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Variorum Collected Studies. Ashgate. ISBN 0-86078-905-5.
Ádám, Magda (1993). The
Little Entente and Europe(1920–1929). Akadémiai Kiadó. ISBN 963-05-6420-3. Ágh, Attila (1998). The politics of Central Europe. Sage. ISBN 0-7619-5032-X. Hayes, Bascom Barry (1994). Bismarck and Mitteleuropa. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. ISBN 978-0-8386-3512-4. Johnson, Lonnie R. (1996). Central Europe: enemies, neighbors, friends. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-510071-6. Katzenstein, Peter J. (1997). Mitteleuropa: Between Europe
Europe and Germany. Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-57181-124-0. O. Benson, Forgacs (2002). Between Worlds. A Sourcebook of Central European Avant-Gardes, 1910–1930. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-02530-0. Tiersky, Ronald (2004). Europe
Europe today. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-2805-5. Tötösy de Zepetnek, Steven (2002), Comparative Central European culture, Purdue University Press, ISBN 1-55753-240-0 Shared Pasts in Central and Southeast Europe, 17th–21st Centuries. Eds. G. Demeter, P. Peykovska. 2015 Further reading Jacques Rupnik, "In Search of Central Europe: Ten Years Later", in Gardner, Hall, with Schaeffer, Elinore & Kobtzeff, Oleg, (ed.), Central and South-central Europe
Europe in Transition, Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 2000 (translated from French by Oleg Kobtzeff) Article 'Mapping Central Europe' in hidden europe, 5, pp. 14–15 (November 2005) Journal of East Central Europe Central European Political Science Association's journal "Politics in Central Europe" CEU Political Science Journal (PSJ) Central European Journal of International and Security Studies Central European Political Studies Review External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Central Europe.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: East/Central Europe
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Central Europe.
The dictionary definition of central europe at Wiktionary
Halecki, Oscar. "BORDERLANDS OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION A History of East
Central Europe" (PDF). Oscar Halecki. Archived from the original (PDF)
on 30 October 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
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