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The Central Bureau of Investigation
Central Bureau of Investigation
(CBI) is the premier investigating agency of India.[3] Operating under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, the CBI is headed by the Cabinet Minister who reports directly to the Prime Minister. The agency has been known to investigate several economic crimes, special crimes, cases of corruption and other high-profile cases.[3] The CBI headquarters are located at Lodhi Road
Lodhi Road
in New Delhi.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Special
Special
Police Establishment (SPE) 1.2 CBI takes shape 1.3 D. P. Kohli

2 Organisational structure 3 Selection committee 4 Infrastructure 5 Jurisdiction, powers and restrictions

5.1 Relationship with state police 5.2 High Courts and the Supreme Court

6 Directors (1963–present) 7 Right to Information (RTI) 8 Controversy and criticism

8.1 Corruption 8.2 Political interference

8.2.1 Bofors
Bofors
scandal 8.2.2 Hawala
Hawala
scandal 8.2.3 Priyadarshini Mattoo murder case 8.2.4 Sister Abhaya 8.2.5 Sohrabuddin case 8.2.6 Sant Singh Chatwal case 8.2.7 Malankara Varghese murder case 8.2.8 Bhopal gas tragedy 8.2.9 2G spectrum case 8.2.10 Indian coal allocation scam 8.2.11 2008 Noida
Noida
double murder case

9 Autonomy 10 Constitutional status 11 Conviction rate 12 References 13 External links

History[edit] Special
Special
Police Establishment (SPE)[edit] The Bureau of Investigation braces its origins to the Special
Special
Police Establishment, is Central Government Police force, which was set up in 1941 by the government. The functions of the SPE were to investigate bribery and corruption in transactions with the War and Supply Department of India, set up during World War II with its headquarters in Lahore. The Superintendent of the War Department and the SPE was Khan Bahadur Qurban Ali Khan, who later became governor of the North West Frontier Province at the creation of Pakistan. The first legal advisor of the War Department was Rai Sahib Karam Chand Jain. After the end of the war, there was a continued need for a central governmental agency to investigate bribery and corruption by central-government employees.Sahib Karam Chand Jain
Karam Chand Jain
remained its legal advisor when the department was transferred to the Home Department by the 1946 Delhi
Delhi
Special
Special
Police Establishment Act[citation needed].

This is DSPE's scope was enlarged to cover all departments of the Government of India. Its jurisdiction extended to the Union Territories, and could be further extended to the states with the consent of the state governments involved. Sardar Patel, first Deputy Prime Minister of free India
India
and head of the Home Department, desired to weed out corruption in erstwhile princely states such as Jodhpur, Rewa and Tonk. Patel directed Legal Advisor Karam Chand Jain
Karam Chand Jain
to monitor criminal proceedings against the dewans and chief ministers of those states. Th DSPE acquired its popular current name, Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), through a Home Ministry resolution dated 1.4.1963. CBI takes shape[edit] The CBI established a reputation as India's foremost investigative agency with the resources for complicated cases, and it was requested to assist the investigation of crimes such as murder, kidnapping and terrorism. The Supreme Court and a number of high courts in the country also began assigning such investigations to the CBI on the basis of petitions filed by aggrieved parties. In 1987, the CBI was divided into two divisions: the Anti-Corruption Division and the Special
Special
Crimes Division. D. P. Kohli[edit] The founding director of the CBI was D. P. Kohli, who held the office from 1 April 1963 to 31 May 1968. Before this, Kohli was Inspector-general of police for the Special
Special
Police Establishment from 1955 to 1963 and held law-enforcement positions in Madhya Bharat
Madhya Bharat
(as chief of police), Uttar Pradesh and local central-government offices. For distinguished service, Kohli was awarded the Padma Bhushan
Padma Bhushan
in 1967. Kohli saw in the Special
Special
Police Establishment the potential to growing into a National Investigative Agency. He nurtured the organisation during his long career as inspector general and director and laid the foundation on which the agency grew. Organisational structure[edit] See also: List of police ranks in India The CBI is headed by a Director, an IPS officer with a rank of Director General of Police
Director General of Police
. The director is selected based on the CVC Act 2003, and has a two-year term. Other ranks in the CBI which may be staffed by the IRS and the IPS are Special
Special
Director, Additional Director, Joint Director, Deputy Inspector
Inspector
General of Police, Senior Superintendent of Police, Superintendent of Police, Additional Superintendent of Police, Deputy Superintendent of Police. Inspector, Sub-Inspector, Assistant Sub-Inspector, Head constable, Constable which are recruited through SSC or through deputation from Police and Income Tax Department. Selection committee[edit] The amended Delhi
Delhi
Special
Special
Police Establishment Act empowers a committee to appoint the director of CBI. The committee consists the following people:

Prime Minister – chairperson Leader of Opposition – member Chief Justice of India
India
or a Supreme Court Judge recommended by the Chief Justice – member

When making recommendations, the committee considers the views of the outgoing director. Above Selection committee was constituted under The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013. Before this central vigilance commissioner, under CVC act, had this power. NDA government, on 25 November 2014, moved an amendment bill to do away with the requirement of quorum in high-profile committee while recommending the names, for the post of director CBI, to the central government by introducing the clause "no appointment of a (CBI) director shall be invalid merely by reason of any vacancy or absence of members in the panel". and to replace the LOP with Leader of single largest opposition party or pre-election coalition as at present there is no Leader of opposition in the Loksabha.[4] Infrastructure[edit] CBI headquarters is a ₹186 crore (US$28 million), state-of-the-art 11-story building in New Delhi, housing all branches of the agency.[5] The 7,000-square-metre (75,000 sq ft) building is equipped with a modern communications system, an advanced record-maintenance system, storage space, computerised access control and an additional facility for new technology. Interrogation rooms, cells, dormitories and conference halls are provided. The building has a staff cafeteria with a capacity of 500, men's and women's gyms, a terrace garden, and bi-level basement parking for 470 vehicles. Advanced fire-control and power-backup systems are provided, in addition to a press briefing room and media lounge.[5] The CBI Academy in Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh (east of Delhi) began in 1996.[6] It is about 40 kilometres (25 mi) from the New Delhi railway station and about 65 km (40 mi) from Indira Gandhi International Airport. The 26.5-acre (10.7 ha) campus, with fields and plantations, houses the administrative, academic, hostel and residential buildings. Before the academy was built a small training centre at Lok Nayak Bhawan, New Delhi, conducted short-term in-service courses. The CBI then relied on state police-training institutions and the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Vallabhbhai Patel
National Police Academy in Hyderabad for basic training courses for deputy superintendents of police, sub-inspectors and constables. The Academy accommodates the training needs of all CBI ranks. Facilities for specialised courses are also made available to the officials of the state police, central police organisations (CPOs), public-sector vigilance organisations, bank and government departments and the Indian Armed Forces. Jurisdiction, powers and restrictions[edit] The legal powers of investigation of the CBI are derived from the DSPE Act 1946, which confers powers, duties, privileges and liabilities on the Delhi
Delhi
Special
Special
Police Establishment (CBI) and officers of the Union Territories. The central government may extend to any area (except Union Territories) the powers and jurisdiction of the CBI for investigation, subject to the consent of the government of the concerned state. Members of the CBI at or above the rank of sub-inspector may be considered officers in charge of police stations. Under the act, the CBI can investigate only with notification by the central government. Relationship with state police[edit] Maintaining law and order is a state responsibility as "police" is a State subject, and the jurisdiction to investigate crime lies with the state police exclusively . The CBI being a Union subject may investigate:

Offences against central-government employees, or concerning affairs of the central government and employees of central public-sector undertakings and public-sector banks Cases involving the financial interests of the central government Breaches of central laws enforceable by the Government of India Major fraud or embezzlement; multi-state organised crime Multi-agency or international cases

High Courts and the Supreme Court[edit] The High Courts and the Supreme Court have the jurisdiction to order a CBI investigation into an offence alleged to have been committed in a state without the state's consent, according to a five-judge constitutional bench of the Supreme Court (in Civil Appeals 6249 and 6250 of 2001) on 17 Feb 2010. The bench ruled:

Being the protectors of civil liberties of the citizens, this Court and the High Courts have not only the power and jurisdiction but also an obligation to protect the fundamental rights, guaranteed by Part III in general and under Article 21 of the Constitution in particular, zealously and vigilantly. — Five-judge constitutional bench of the Supreme Court of India, [7]

The court clarified this is an extraordinary power which must be exercised sparingly, cautiously and only in exceptional situations.[7][8] Directors (1963–present)[edit]

Name[9] Period

D. P. Kohli 1963–68

F. V. Arul 1968–71

D. Sen 1971–77

S. N. Mathur 1977

C. V. Narsimhan 1977

John Lobo 1977–79

R. D. Singh 1979–80

J. S. Bajwa 1980–85

M. G. Katre 1985–89

A. P. Mukherjee 1989–90

R. Sekhar 1990

Vijay Karan 1990–92

S. K. Datta 1992–93

K. V. R. Rao 1993–96

Joginder Singh 1996–97

R. C. Sharma 1997–98

D. R. Karthikeyan 1998

T. N. Mishra 1998–99

R. K. Raghavan 4 Jan 1999 – 30 Apr 2001

P. C. Sharma 30 Apr 2001 – 6 Dec 2003

U. S. Misra 6 Dec 2003 – 6 Dec 2005

Vijay Shanker Tiwari 12 Dec 2005 – 31 Jul 2008

Ashwani Kumar 2 Aug 2008 – 30 Nov 2010

A P Singh 30 Nov 2010 – 30 Nov 2012

Ranjit Sinha 30 Nov 2012 – 30 Nov 2014

Anil Sinha 1 Dec 2014 – 1 Dec 2016

Rakesh Asthana (Acting) 3 Dec 2016 – 31 Jan 2017

Alok Verma 1 Feb 2017 – Present [10]

Right to Information (RTI)[edit] Main article: Right to Information Act CBI is exempted from the provisions of the Right to Information Act. This exemption was granted by the government on 9 June 2011 (with similar exemptions to the National Investigating Agency
National Investigating Agency
(NIA), the Directorate General of Income Tax Investigation and the National Intelligence Grid (Natgrid)) on the basis of national security. It was criticized by the Central Information Commission and RTI activists, who said the blanket exemption violated the letter and intent of the RTI Act.[11] The exemption was upheld in Madras High Court. Controversy and criticism[edit] Corruption[edit] According to Supreme Court of India, the CBI has been criticized for being a "caged parrot speaking in its master's voice", due to its excessive political interference irrespective of which party happened to be in power at the time.[12][13][14] Because of the CBI's political overtones,[15] it has been exposed by former officials such as Joginder Singh and B. R. Lall (director and joint director, respectively) as engaging in nepotism, wrongful prosecution and corruption. In Lall's book, Who Owns CBI, he details how investigations are manipulated and derailed.[16] Corruption within the organisation[17][18] has been revealed in information obtained under the RTI Act,[19] and RTI activist Krishnanand Tripathi has alleged harassment from the CBI to save itself from exposure via RTI.[20] Political interference[edit] Normally, cases assigned to the CBI are sensitive and of national importance. It is standard practice for state police departments to register cases under its jurisdiction; if necessary, the central government may transfer a case to the CBI. The agency has been criticised for its mishandling of several scams.[21][22][23] It has also been criticized for dragging its feet investigating prominent politicians, such as P. V. Narasimha Rao, Jayalalithaa, Lalu Prasad Yadav, Mayawati
Mayawati
and Mulayam Singh Yadav; this tactic leads to their acquittal or non-prosecution.[24] Bofors
Bofors
scandal[edit] Main article: Bofors
Bofors
scandal In January 2006 it was discovered that the CBI had quietly unfrozen bank accounts belonging to Italian businessman Ottavio Quattrocchi, one of those accused in the 1986 Bofors scandal
Bofors scandal
which tainted the government of Rajiv Gandhi.[25] The CBI was responsible for the inquiry into the Bofors
Bofors
case. Associates of then-prime minister Rajiv Gandhi were linked to alleged payoffs made during the mid-1980s by Swedish arms firm AB Bofors, with US$40 million in kickbacks moved from Britain and Panama to secret Swiss banks. The 410 howitzers purchased in the US$1,300 million arms sale were reported to be inferior to those offered by a French competitor. The CBI, which unfroze ₹21 crore (US$3.2 million) in a London bank in accounts held by Bofors, accused Quattrocchi and his wife Maria in 2006 but facilitated his travel by asking Interpol to take him off its wanted list on 29 April 2009. After communications from the CBI, Interpol withdrew the red corner notice on Quattrocchi.[26] Hawala
Hawala
scandal[edit] Main article: Hawala
Hawala
scandal See also: Vineet Narain A 1991 arrest of militants in Kashmir led to a raid on hawala brokers, revealing evidence of large-scale payments to national politicians. The Jain hawala case encompassed former Union ministers Ajit Kumar Panja and P. Shiv Shankar, former Uttar Pradesh governor Motilal Vora, Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
leader Yashwant Sinha. The 20 defendants were discharged by Special
Special
Judge V. B. Gupta in the ₹650-million case, heard in New Delhi. The judge ruled that there was no prima facie evidence against the accused which could be converted into legal evidence. Those freed included Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
president L. K. Advani; former Union ministers V. C. Shukla, Arjun Singh, Madhavrao Scindia, N. D. Tiwari and R. K. Dhawan, and former Delhi
Delhi
chief minister Madan Lal Khurana. In 1997 a ruling by late Chief Justice of India
India
J. S. Verma listed about two dozen guidelines which, if followed, would have ensured the independence of the investigating agency. Sixteen years later, successive governments circumvent the guidelines and treat the CBI as another wing of the government. Although the prosecution was prompted by a public-interest petition, the cases concluded with no convictions. In Vineet Narain & Othrs v Union of India
India
AIR 1996 SC 3386, the Supreme Court ruled that the Central Vigilance Commission should have a supervisory role over the CBI.[27] Priyadarshini Mattoo murder case[edit] Main article: Priyadarshini Mattoo In this case Santosh Kumar Singh, the alleged murderer of a 25-year-old law student, was acquitted for what the judge called "deliberate inaction" by the investigating team. The accused was the son of a high-ranking officer in the Indian Police Service, the reason for the CBI's involvement. The 1999 judgment noted that "the influence of the father of the accused has been there". Embarrassed by the judgment, CBI Director R. K. Raghavan appointed two special directors ( P. C. Sharma and Gopal Achari) to study the judgement. The CBI appealed the verdict in Delhi
Delhi
High Court in 2000, and the court issued a warrant for the accused. The CBI applied for an early hearing in July 2006; in October the High Court found Singh guilty of rape and murder, sentencing him to death.[citation needed] Sister Abhaya[edit] Further information: Sister Abhaya murder case This case concerns 27 March 1992 death of a nun who was found in a water well in the Saint Pius X convent hostel in Kottayam, Kerala. Five CBI investigations have failed to yield any suspects. Sohrabuddin case[edit] The CBI has been accused of supporting the ruling Congress Party against its opposition, the BJP. The CBI is investigating the Sohrabuddin case in Gujarat; Geeta Johri, also investigating the case, claimed that the CBI is pressuring her to falsely implicate former Gujarat minister Amit Shah.[28] Sant Singh Chatwal case[edit] Sant Singh Chatwal was a suspect in CBI records for 14 years. The agency had filed two charge sheets, sent letters rogatory abroad and sent a team to the United States to imprison Chatwal and his wife from 2–5 February 1997. On 30 May 2007 and 10 August 2008 former CBI directors Vijay Shankar and Ashwani Kumar, respectively, signed no-challenge orders on the imprisonment. Later, it was decided not to appeal their release. This closed a case of bank fraud in which Chatwal had been embroiled for over a decade. Along with four others, Chatwal was charged with being part of a "criminal conspiracy" to defraud the Bank of India’s New York branch of ₹28.32 crore (US$4.3 million). Four charges were filed by the CBI, with Chatwal named a defendant in two. The other two trials are still in progress. RTI applicant Krishnanand Tripathi was denied access to public information concerning the closed cases. The Central Information Commission later ordered the CBI to disclose the information; however, the CBI is exempt from the RTI Act (see above). Chatwal is a recipient of the Padma Bhushan.[29][30][31] Malankara Varghese murder case[edit] This case concerns 5 December 2002 death of T. M. Varghese (also known as Malankara Varghese), a member of the Malankara Orthodox Church managing committee and a timber merchant. Varghese Thekkekara, a priest and manager of the Angamali diocese of the rival Jacobite Syrian Christian Church (part of the Syriac Orthodox Church), was charged with murder and conspiracy on 9 May 2010. Thekkekara was not arrested after he was charged, for which the CBI was criticised by the Kerala High Court
Kerala High Court
and the media.[32] Bhopal gas tragedy[edit] The CBI was publicly seen as ineffective in trying the 1984 Bhopal disaster case. Former CBI joint director B. R. Lall has said that he was asked to remain soft on extradition for Union Carbide CEO Warren Anderson[33] and drop the charges (which included culpable homicide). Those accused received two-year sentences.[34] 2G spectrum case[edit] Main article: 2G spectrum case The UPA government has been accused of allocating 2G spectrum to corporations at very low prices through corrupt and illegal means. The Supreme Court cited the CBI many times for its tardiness in the investigations;[35][36] only after the court began monitoring its investigations[37][38][39] were high-profile arrests made. Indian coal allocation scam[edit] Main article: Indian coal allocation scam This is a political scandal concerning the Indian government's allocation of the nation's coal deposits to private companies by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, which cost the government ₹10,673.03 billion (US$160 billion). CBI director Ranjit Sinha submitted an affidavit in the Supreme Court that the coal-scam status report prepared by the agency was shared with Congress Party law minister Ashwani Kumar
Ashwani Kumar
"as desired by him" and with secretary-level officers from the prime minister’s office (PMO) and the coal ministry before presenting it to the court.[40] 2008 Noida
Noida
double murder case[edit] Main article: 2008 Noida
Noida
double murder case This is a double murder case of 14-year-old girl Aarushi Talwar and 45-year-old Hemraj Banjade from Noida, India. On 26 November 2013, Parents of girl named Rajesh and Nupur Talwar were sentenced to life imprisonment for the twin murders.[41] In January 2014, the Talwars challenged the decision in the Allahabad High Court.[42] The High Court's acquitted them of all charges on 12 October 2017 because of the lack of 'irresistible proof'.[43] The Allahabad HC in its verdict said that there were loopholes in the evidence which found the parents not guilty. Court also said that CBI tampered evidences and tutored witnesses. Questions arose by nation on investigation and judgement given by CBI court.[44][45][46][47] Autonomy[edit] Demanding independent investigations, the CBI said that although it deferred to the government's authority in non-corruption cases the agency felt that sufficient financial and administrative powers (including a minimum three-year tenure to ensure "functional autonomy") were required by the director. "As such, it is necessary that the director, CBI, should be vested with ex-officio powers of the Secretary to the Government of India, reporting directly to the minister, without having to go through the DoPT", the agency said, adding that financial powers were not enough and it wanted a separate budget allocation.[48] Some form of autonomy has been granted by the Supreme Court of India to CBI when it held that CBI can prosecute senior bureaucrats without central government’s permission. Indian Supreme Court also held that Section 6A of DSPE Act is unconstitutional.[citation needed] Constitutional status[edit]

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (August 2017)

Assam High Court had given a verdict on 6 November 2013, that CBI is unconstitutional and does not hold a legal status.[49] However, the Supreme Court of India
India
stayed this verdict when challenged by the central government and next hearing on this is fixed on 6 December 2013.[50] Some legal experts believe that the ultimate solution for Indian government is to formulate a law for CBI as sooner or later the Supreme Court may hold the constitution of CBI unconstitutional. Conviction rate[edit] The CBI has a high conviction rate:

Year Conviction rate

2011 67%[51]

2010 70.8%[52]

2009 N/A

2008 66.2%[53]

2007 67.7%[54]

References[edit]

^ "OVER ALL VACANCY POSITION OF CBI AS ON 01.03.2017" (PDF). p. 01. Retrieved 21 March 2017.  ^ CBI gets nominal hike of 2.79 per cent in Budget ^ a b http://cbi.nic.in/aboutus/cbiroles.php ^ "CVC Act" (PDF). CVC. Retrieved 30 April 2012.  ^ a b "PM inaugurates new CBI headquarters building". Indian Express. 2011-04-30. Retrieved 2013-04-26.  ^ "Welcome to CBI Academy School of eLearning". cbiacademy.gov.in.  ^ a b "Supreme Court judgement on power of courts to order CBI probe". indiankanoon.org. Retrieved 11 July 2012.  ^ "Courts can order CBI probe without states' consent: SC". The Economic Times. 17 February 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2012.  ^ "CBI history and former directors". CBI. Retrieved 22 December 2011.  ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/delhi-police-commissioner-alok-verma-appointed-director-of-the-central-bureau-of-investigation/articleshow/56670263.cms ^ " Central Information Commission slams CBI's proposed exemption from RTI". 3 July 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2012.  ^ Ross Colvin and Satarupa Bhattacharjya. "A "caged parrot" - Supreme Court describes CBI". Reuters. Retrieved 10 May 2013.  ^ ABHISHEK BHALLA. "It's been an eventful year for the CBI... So is the agency still a caged parrot?". Daily Mail. Retrieved 31 December 2013.  ^ "CBI a 'caged parrot', 'heart' of Coalgate report changed: Supreme Court". Times of India. Retrieved 8 May 2013.  ^ Venky Vembu (21 Mar 2013). "CBI's on-off raids: How 'Congress Bureau of Investigation' works". firstpost.com. Retrieved 2013-04-26.  ^ Mohan, Vishwa (27 November 2006). "Origin of Hawala
Hawala
funds were not traced". India
India
Times.  ^ "CBI Arrests Own Cop in Bribery Case". The Outlook India. 17 September 2012. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2012.  ^ "Adarsh Scam: CBI Arrests Own Lawyer, Ex-Cong MLC". 6 March 2012. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2012.  ^ Saikat Datta (21 September 2009). "Grease on the Lens". outlookindia.com. Retrieved 9 October 2010.  ^ Anshuman G Dutta (4 June 2011). "CBI is harassing me". mid-day.com. Retrieved 14 June 2011.  ^ "CBI has long history of listening to its political master's voice". The Sunday Guardian. Retrieved 1 February 2012.  ^ "Restoring Public Confidence in CBI". outlook india. 30 December 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2012.  ^ "The Congress Bureau of Investigation: Big stick politics. Will it ever end?". Open The Magazine. 6 April 2013. Retrieved 22 Apr 2013.  ^ "CBI ineffective in dealing with political cases". The Guardian. 26 Jan 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-19.  ^ " Central Bureau of Investigation
Central Bureau of Investigation
(CBI) – India".  ^ " Bofors
Bofors
scam: Quattrocchi off CBI's wanted list". The Times of India. NEW DELHI. 28 Apr 2009. Retrieved 22 December 2011.  ^ " Vineet Narain Case, Directions of the Court" (PDF). 2 November 2006.  ^ J. Venkatesan (29 August 2010). "CBI putting pressure on me: Geeta Johri". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 October 2010.  ^ Ritu Sarin (30 January 2010). "For his Padma, Chatwal should thank two directors of the CBI". The Indian Express. Retrieved 14 June 2011.  ^ "CIC tells CBI to release Chatwal discharge reports". The Times of India. 12 May 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2011.  ^ "CIC Judgment for disclosure of information by CBI". 11 May 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2011.  ^ "Malankara Varghese murder: HC questions CBI". The New Indian Express. 1 June 2010. Retrieved 9 October 2010.  ^ "Was told to go soft on Warren Anderson: Former CBI official". NDTV.  ^ "UCIL The Indian Sub-continent Times". Theistimes.com. Retrieved 2013-04-26.  ^ Last Updated: 14 December 20:18 pm IST (15 January 2010). "SC pulls up CBI for tardy spectrum probe". Thestatesman.co.in. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2011.  ^ "2G spectrum scam: Supreme Court pulls up CBI India
India
News Indian Current Affairs News Today India
India
News Latest News News Today". International Reporter. 29 October 2010. Archived from the original on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2011.  ^ "2G spectrum scam: Don't let anyone influence you, says Supreme Court to CBI". Ndtv.com. 16 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2011.  ^ "Supreme Court decides to monitor 2G scam probe: Investigations News – India
India
Today". Indiatoday. intoday.in. 16 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2011.  ^ "SC to monitor CBI probe into 2G spectrum scam – India News – IBNLive". Ibnlive.in.com. Retrieved 14 December 2011.  ^ Liz Mathew, Sahil Makkar (2013-04-26). "Coal scam report shared with law minister: CBI". Livemint. Retrieved 2013-05-09.  ^ HT Correspondent and Agencies, Hindustan Times (26 November 2013). "Rajesh and Nupur Talwar get life sentence in Aarushi-Hemraj double murder case". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 26 November 2013.  ^ "Aarushi-Hemraj twin murder case: Rajesh, Nupur Talwar challenge conviction in Allahabad HC". CNN-IBN. 22 January 2014.  ^ " Allahabad High Court
Allahabad High Court
acquits the Talwars". NDTV.  ^ "Aarushi murder case: 'CBI tampered with evidence, tutored and planted witnesses". The Times of India. Retrieved 14 October 2017.  ^ "Aarushi murder case: CBI, CDFD connived to put Talwars in dock, says Allahabad HC". The Economic Times. Retrieved 14 October 2017.  ^ "Aarushi-Hemraj murder case: CBI goofed up in rush to prosecute Talwars; probe agencies should get their act right". Firstpost. Retrieved 14 October 2017.  ^ "Aarushi-Hemraj murder: Allahabad HC demolishes CBI, says witness was tutored and evidence tampered". The Indian Express. Retrieved 14 October 2017.  ^ Unhappy with autonomy offer, CBI wants more. Indian Express (2013-06-12). Retrieved on 2013-07-18. ^ http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/cbi-unconctitutional-illegal-guwahati-high-court/1/322095.html ^ http://www.ndtv.com/article/cheat-sheet/supreme-court-stays-gauhati-high-court-s-order-that-held-cbi-unconstitutional-443884 ^ "cbi_annual_report_2011" (PDF). Central Bureau of Investigation. p. 107. Retrieved 10 September 2012.  ^ "CBI annual report 2010" (PDF). cbi.gov.in.  ^ "CBI annual report 2008" (PDF). cbi.gov.in.  ^ "CBI annual report 2007" (PDF). cbi.gov.in. 

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Indian rupee

History Historical exchange rates data of the Indian rupee Coinage

Reserve Bank of India

Governors

India
India
Government Mint

Financial services

Banking

Banks

Insurance Foreign exchange reserves Bombay Stock Exchange National Stock Exchange Multi Commodity Exchange Bullion Black money

History

Economic Development Economic liberalisation Licence Raj Green revolution Government initiatives Numbering system

People

Billionaires Businesspeople Demography Income

Poverty

Labour law Pensions

EPFO NPS PPF

States

Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Mizoram Nagaland Odisha Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Telangana Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh West Bengal

Sectors

Agriculture

Livestock Fishing

Automotive Defence Construction Education Energy

Nuclear Solar Wind

Entertainment Forestry Gambling Healthcare Information technology Media

Cinema Television Printing

Mining Pharmaceuticals Retail Science and technology

Biotechnology

Telecommunications Textiles Tourism Transport

Aviation

Civil

Ports Rail

Utilities

Electricity Water

Society Culture

Society

Caste system Corruption Demographics Education

Universities in India Medical colleges in India Law colleges in India Engineering colleges in India

Ethnic relations Healthcare

Hospitals in India

Languages Literacy Poverty Prisons Religion Socio-economic issues Standard of living Water supply and sanitation Crime

Culture

Arts and entertainment Architecture Blogging Cinema Comics

Webcomics

Cuisine

wine

Dance Dress Folklore Festivals Literature Media

television

Martial arts Music Public holidays Sport

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Indian intelligence agencies

National Security Council

National Security Council National Security Advisor Joint Intelligence Committee National Technical Research Organisation

Internal security

Intelligence Bureau Central Bureau of Investigation National Investigation Agency All India
India
Radio Monitoring Service Narcotics Control Bureau

External intelligence

Research and Analysis Wing Aviation Research Centre Radio Research Center Electronics and Technical Services

Defence intelligence

Defence Intelligence
Defence Intelligence
Agency Directorate of Military Intelligence Directorate of Naval Intelligence Directorate of Air Intelligence Image Processing and Analysis Centre Directorate of Signals Intelligence Joint Cipher Bureau

Economic intelligence

Economic Intelligence Council Central Economic Intelligence Bureau Directorate of Revenue Intelligence Directorate General of Income Tax Investigation Directorate General of Economic Enforcement

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Law enforcement
Law enforcement
in India

Cross civil service: Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service and Indian Revenue Service

Union Home Ministry

Ministry of Home Affairs

State Home Departments

Bihar Home Department Tamil Nadu Home Department Uttar Pradesh Home Department West Bengal Home Department

Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

Andaman and Nicobar Police Border Security Force
Border Security Force
(BSF) Central Industrial Security Force
Central Industrial Security Force
(CISF) Central Reserve Police Force
Central Reserve Police Force
(CRPF) Chandigarh Police Commando Battalion for Resolute Action
Commando Battalion for Resolute Action
(COBRA) Delhi
Delhi
Police Dadra and Nagar Haveli Police Daman and Diu Police Home Guard Indo-Tibetan Border Police
Indo-Tibetan Border Police
(ITBP) Lakshadweep Police National Security Guard
National Security Guard
(NSG) Puducherry Police Railway Protection Force
Railway Protection Force
(RPF) Rapid Action Force
Rapid Action Force
(RAF) Special Protection Group
Special Protection Group
(SPG)

Central Intelligence Agencies

Bureau of Police Research and Development
Bureau of Police Research and Development
(BPR&D) Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) Intelligence Bureau (IB) Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) Research and Analysis Wing
Research and Analysis Wing
(R&AW) National Technical Research Organisation

Central Investigative Agencies

Directorate General of Income Tax Investigation Investigation Division of the Central Board of Direct Taxes Chief Commissioner of Income Tax Central Central Bureau of Investigation
Central Bureau of Investigation
(CBI) Narcotics Control Bureau
Narcotics Control Bureau
(NCB) National Investigation Agency
National Investigation Agency
(NIA)

State police
State police
forces

Andhra Pradesh Police Arunachal Pradesh Police Assam Police Bihar Police Chhattisgarh Police Goa Police Gujarat Police Haryana Police Himachal Pradesh Police Jammu and Kashmir Police Jharkhand Police Karnataka Police Kerala Police Madhya Pradesh Police Maharashtra Police Manipur Police Meghalaya Police Mizoram Police Nagaland Police Odisha Police Punjab Police Rajasthan Police Sikkim Police Tamil Nadu Police Telangana Police Tripura Police Uttar Pradesh Police Uttarakhand Police West Bengal Police

Police Commissionerates

North India

Delhi
Delhi
Police

East India

Asansol–Durgapur Police Commissionerate Barrackpore Police Commissionerate Bidhannagar Police Commissionerate Chandannagar Police Commissionerate Howrah Police Commissionerate Kolkata Police Siliguri Police Commissionerate

Central India

Bhubaneswar–Cuttack Police Commissionerate

West India

Mumbai Police Nagpur Police Pune Police

South India

Bangalore City Police Coimbatore City Police Chennai Metropolitan Police Hyderabad City Police Kochi City Police Kollam City Police Nizamabad Police Thrissur City Police Thiruvananthapuram City Police Vijayawada City Police Visakhapatnam City Police

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National intelligence agencies

Foreign intelligence

Afghanistan: NDS Albania: SHISH Algeria: DRS Argentina: AFI Armenia: SNB Australia: ASIS Azerbaijan: MTN Bahrain: NSA Bangladesh: NSI Belarus: KGB RB Belgium: ADIV/SGRS Bosnia and Herzegovina: OSA-OBA Brazil: ABIN Brunei: BRD Bulgaria: NRS Cameroon: BMM Canada: CSIS Chad: ANS Chile: ANI China: MSS Croatia: SOA Cuba: DI Czech Republic: ÚZSI Denmark: FE Djibouti: BSRG Ecuador: SENAIN Egypt: Mukhabarat Estonia: EFIS France: DGSE Gambia: SIS Georgia: GIS Germany: BND Ghana: BNI, BGU, RDU Greece: EYP Hungary: IH India: RAW Indonesia: BIN Iran: VAJA Iraq: GSD Ireland: G2 Israel: Mossad Italy: AISE Ivory Coast: NSC Japan: NPA CIRO Jordan: GID Kazakhstan: Syrbar Kenya: NIS Kyrgyzstan: SNB Kuwait: KSS Latvia: SAB Lithuania: VSD Lebanon: GDGS Libya: MJ Republic of Macedonia: UBK Malaysia: MEIO Maldives: NSS Mexico: CISEN Mongolia: GIA Montenegro: ANB Morocco: DGST Mozambique: SISE Netherlands: AIVD New Zealand: NZSIS Nigeria: NIA North Korea: RGB Norway: E-tjenesten Oman: Palace Office Pakistan: ISI Papua New Guinea: NIO Philippines: NICA Poland: AW Portugal: SIED Qatar: QSS Romania: SIE Russia: SVR Saudi Arabia: Al Mukhabarat Al A'amah Serbia: BIA Sierra Leone: CISU Singapore: SID Slovakia: SIS Slovenia: SOVA Somalia: NISA South Africa: SSA South Korea: NIS Spain: CNI Sri Lanka: SIS Sudan: JAWM Sweden: KSI Switzerland: NDB Syria: GSD Taiwan: NSB Tajikistan: MoS Thailand: NIA Togo: NIA Tunisia: TIA Turkey: MİT Turkmenistan: KNB Uganda: ISO Ukraine: SZRU United Arab Emirates: UAEI United Kingdom: SIS (MI6) United States: CIA Uzbekistan: SNB Vietnam: TC2

Domestic intelligence

Algeria: DRS Argentina: AFI Australia: ASIO Azerbaijan: MTN Bangladesh: SB Belarus: KGB RB Belgium: VS/SE Bosnia and Herzegovina: SIPA Brazil: PF Brunei: IRD Canada: CSIS Chile: ANI China: MSS Croatia: SOA Czech Republic: BIS Denmark: PET Egypt: EHS Estonia: KAPO Finland: Supo France: DGSI Germany: BfV Ghana: GPS, CID Greece: EYP Hong Kong: CIB Hungary: AH India: IB, CBI, NSC, AIRMS Iran: VAJA, IRGC, PAVA Ireland: CSB, SDU, NSU Israel: Shin Bet Italy: AISI Kazakhstan: NSC Kenya: NIS Latvia: DP Lithuania: STT Republic of Macedonia: IA Malaysia: SB Japan: NPA, PSIA Netherlands: NCTb New Zealand: NZSIS Nigeria: SSS Norway: PST North Korea: SSD Oman: ISS Pakistan: IB, FIA Philippines: NBI Poland: ABW Portugal: SIS Romania: SRI Russia: FSB Saudi Arabia: Mabahith Serbia: BIA Singapore: ISD South Africa: SSA South Korea: SPO Spain: CITCO Sri Lanka: SIS Sweden: SÄPO Switzerland: NDB Syria: GSD Taiwan: MJIB Thailand: ISOC, SB Turkey: KDGM Ukraine: SBU United Kingdom: Security Service (MI5), NDEDIU, NCA, NBIS United States: FBI Uzbekistan: SNB Venezuela: SEBIN Vietnam: TC5 Zimbabwe: CIO

Military intelligence

Australia: DIO Bangladesh: DGFI Belgium: ADIV/SGRS Brazil: DIE Canada: Int Branch China: MID Croatia: VSOA Czech Republic: VZ Denmark: FE Egypt: DMISR Finland: PE TIEDOS France: DRM, DGSE Germany: MAD Ghana: MIU Hungary: KNBSZ Iran: General Staff, SAHEFAJA, SAHEFASA, SAHEFAVEDJA India: DMI, DIA Indonesia: BAIS Ireland: G2 Israel: Aman Italy: CII Japan: MIC Kazakhstan: NSC Lithuania: AOTD Republic of Macedonia: MSSI Malaysia: DSID Morocco: DGED Netherlands: MIVD New Zealand: DDIS Norway: E-tjenesten Pakistan: MI, NI, AI Philippines: ISAFP Poland: SKW, SWW Portugal: CISMIL Romania: DGIA Russia: GRU Serbia: VOA, VBA Singapore: MIO Slovakia: VSS Slovenia: OVS South Africa: SANDF-ID South Korea: DSC Spain: Armed Forces Intelligence Center Sri Lanka: DMI Sweden: MUST Switzerland: MND Syria: MI, AFID Taiwan: MND Thailand: AFSC Turkey: GENKUR İ.D.B., JİTEM Ukraine: HUR MO United Kingdom: DI United States: DIA Venezuela: DGCIM Vietnam: TC2

Signals intelligence

Australia: ASD Brazil: 2ª Sch/EMD Canada: CSE China: SIGINT Croatia: OTC Finland: PVTIEDL France: DGSE Germany: BND Ghana: RDU India: JCB,NTRO Indonesia: LEMSANEG Ireland: CIS Israel: 8200 Japan: DIH Kazakhstan: NSC Netherlands: AIVD New Zealand: GCSB Pakistan: JSIB Russia: Spetssvyaz South Africa: SSA Sweden: FRA Switzerland: NDB Syria: MI Turkey: MİT-ETİB, MİT-SİB Ukraine: Derzhspetszviazok United Kingdom: GCHQ United States: NSA

Imagery intelligence

Australia: AGO Finland: PVTIEDL India: DAI Israel: Air Intelligence Group New Zealand: GEOINT NZ Portugal: CIGeoE Russia: TsVTI GRU United Kingdom: DGIFC United States: NGA

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