HOME
The Info List - Central America


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

CENTRAL AMERICA (Spanish : América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent , which connects with the South American continent on the southeast. Central America is bordered by Mexico
Mexico
to the north, Colombia
Colombia
to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
to the east, and the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the west. Central America
Central America
consists of seven countries: Belize
Belize
, Costa Rica
Costa Rica
, El Salvador , Guatemala
Guatemala
, Honduras
Honduras
, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
, and Panama
Panama
. The combined population of Central America
Central America
is between 41,739,000 (2009 estimate) and 42,688,190 (2012 estimate).

Central America
Central America
is a part of the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot , which extends from northern Guatemala
Guatemala
through to central Panama. Due to the presence of several active geologic faults and the Central America Volcanic Arc , there is a great deal of seismic activity in the region. Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occur frequently; these natural disasters have resulted in the loss of many lives and much property.

In the Pre-Columbian era , Central America
Central America
was inhabited by the indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
to the north and west and the Isthmo-Colombian peoples to the south and east. Soon after Christopher Columbus 's voyages to the Americas
Americas
, the Spanish began to colonize the Americas
Americas
. From 1609 until 1821, most of the territory within Central America—except for the lands that would become Belize
Belize
and Panama—was governed by the Viceroyalty of New Spain
New Spain
from Mexico
Mexico
City as the Captaincy General of Guatemala
Guatemala
. After New Spain
New Spain
achieved independence from Spain in 1821, some of its provinces were annexed to the First Mexican Empire
First Mexican Empire
, but soon seceded from Mexico
Mexico
to form the Federal Republic of Central America , which lasted from 1823 to 1838. The seven states finally became independent autonomous states: beginning with Nicaragua, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Guatemala
Guatemala
(1838); followed by El Salvador
El Salvador
(1841); then Panama
Panama
(1903); and finally Belize (1981). Even today, people in Central America
Central America
sometimes refer to their nations as if they were provinces of a Central American state. For example, it is not unusual to write "C.A." after the country names in formal and informal contexts and the automobile licence plates of many of the countries in the region show the legend "Centroamerica" in addition to the country name.

CONTENTS

* 1 Different definitions * 2 History * 3 Geography

* 4 Biodiversity
Biodiversity

* 4.1 Flora * 4.2 Fauna

* 5 Geology

* 6 Demographics

* 6.1 Languages * 6.2 Ethnic groups * 6.3 Religious groups

* 7 Culture

* 7.1 Sport

* 8 Politics

* 8.1 Central American Integration * 8.2 Foreign relations * 8.3 Central American Parliament

* 9 Economy

* 9.1 Tourism

* 10 Transport

* 10.1 Roads * 10.2 Waterways * 10.3 Ports and harbors * 10.4 Airports * 10.5 Railways

* 11 Education * 12 See also * 13 Notes * 14 References * 15 Further reading * 16 External links

DIFFERENT DEFINITIONS

"Central America" may mean different things to various people, based upon different contexts:

* The United Nations geoscheme
United Nations geoscheme
for the Americas
Americas
defines the region as all states of mainland North America
North America
south of the United States and specifically includes all of Mexico.

* Middle America is usually thought to comprise Mexico
Mexico
to the north of the 7 states of Central America
Central America
as well as Colombia
Colombia
and Venezuela to the south. Usually the whole of the Caribbean
Caribbean
to the north-east and sometimes the Guyanas
Guyanas
are also included. According to one source, the term "Central America" was used as a synonym for "Middle America " at least as recently as 1962. * In Ibero-America
Ibero-America
( Latin America
Latin America
and Iberia ), the Americas
Americas
is considered a single continent, and Central America
Central America
is considered a subcontinent separate from North America
North America
comprising the seven countries south of Mexico
Mexico
and north of Colombia. * In Brazil, Central America
Central America
comprises all countries between Mexico and Colombia, including those in the Caribbean. * Mexico, in whole or in part, is sometimes included by British people. * For the people living in the five countries formerly part of the Federal Republic of Central America there is a distinction between the Spanish language
Spanish language
terms "América Central" and "Centroamérica". While both can be translated into English as "Central America", "América Central" is generally used to refer to the geographical area of the seven countries between Mexico
Mexico
and Colombia
Colombia
, while "Centroamérica" is used when referring to the former members of the Federation emphasizing the shared culture and history of the region.

HISTORY

Main article: History of Central America Central America, 1798 Tikal
Tikal
, Guatemala
Guatemala
.

In the Pre-Columbian era , the northern areas of Central America
Central America
were inhabited by the indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
. Most notable among these were the Mayans , who had built numerous cities throughout the region, and the Aztecs , who had created a vast empire. The pre-Columbian cultures of eastern El Salvador
El Salvador
, eastern Honduras
Honduras
, Caribbean
Caribbean
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
, most of Costa Rica
Costa Rica
and Panama
Panama
were predominantly speakers of the Chibchan languages at the time of European contact and are considered by some

In 1538, Spain established the Real Audiencia of Panama
Panama
, which had jurisdiction over all land from the Strait of Magellan
Strait of Magellan
to the Gulf of Fonseca . This entity was dissolved in 1543, and most of the territory within Central America
Central America
then fell under the jurisdiction of the Audiencia Real de Guatemala
Guatemala
. This area included the current territories of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the Mexican state of Chiapas
Chiapas
, but excluded the lands that would become Belize
Belize
and Panama. The president of the Audiencia, which had its seat in Antigua Guatemala
Guatemala
, was the governor of the entire area. In 1609 the area became a captaincy general and the governor was also granted the title of captain general. The Captaincy General of Guatemala
Guatemala
encompassed most of Central America, with the exception of present-day Belize
Belize
and Panama.

The Captaincy General of Guatemala
Guatemala
lasted for more than two centuries, but began to fray after a rebellion in 1811 which began in the intendancy of San Salvador. The Captaincy General formally ended on 15 September 1821, with the signing of the Act of Independence of Central America
Central America
. Mexican independence was achieved at virtually the same time with the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba and the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire
Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire
, and the entire region was finally independent from Spanish authority by 28 September 1821.

From its independence from Spain in 1821 until 1823, the former Captaincy General remained intact as part of the short-lived First Mexican Empire . When the Emperor of Mexico
Mexico
abdicated on 19 March 1823, Central America
Central America
again became independent. On 1 July 1823, the Congress of Central America
Central America
peacefully seceded from Mexico
Mexico
and declared absolute independence from all foreign nations, and the region formed the Federal Republic of Central America .

The Federal Republic of Central America was a representative democracy with its capital at Guatemala
Guatemala
City . This union consisted of the provinces of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Los Altos , Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast
, and Nicaragua. The lowlands of southwest Chiapas, including Soconusco, initially belonged to the Republic until 1824, when Mexico
Mexico
annexed most of Chiapas
Chiapas
and began its claims to Soconusco. The Republic lasted from 1823 to 1838, when it disintegrated as a result of civil wars.

* Historic Coat of Arms of Central American Unions

*

The United Providences of Central America
Central America
*

United Provinces of Central America
Central America
*

Federal Republic of Central America *

Greater Republic of Central America

* Coat of Arms of modern Central America

*

Guatemala
Guatemala
*

El Salvador
El Salvador
*

Honduras
Honduras
*

Nicaragua
Nicaragua
*

Costa Rica
Costa Rica
*

Panama
Panama
*

Belize
Belize

The territory that now makes up Belize
Belize
was heavily contested in a dispute that continued for decades after Guatemala
Guatemala
achieved independence (see History of Belize
Belize
(1506–1862) . Spain, and later Guatemala, considered this land a Guatemalan department . In 1862, Britain formally declared it a British colony and named it British Honduras
Honduras
. It became independent as Belize
Belize
in 1981.

Panama, situated in the southernmost part of Central America
Central America
on the Isthmus of Panama
Panama
, has for most of its history been culturally linked to South America. Panama
Panama
was part of the Province of Tierra Firme from 1510 until 1538 when it came under the jurisdiction of the newly formed Audiencia Real de Panama. Beginning in 1543, Panama
Panama
was administered as part of the Viceroyalty of Peru , along with all other Spanish possessions in South America. Panama
Panama
remained as part of the Viceroyalty of Peru until 1739, when it was transferred to the Viceroyalty of New Granada
Viceroyalty of New Granada
, the capital of which was located at Santa Fé de Bogotá
Bogotá
. Panama
Panama
remained as part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada until the disestablishment of that viceroyalty in 1819. A series of military and political struggles took place from that time until 1822, the result of which produced the republic of Gran Colombia . After the dissolution of Gran Colombia
Colombia
in 1830, Panama
Panama
became part of a successor state, the Republic of New Granada
Republic of New Granada
. From 1855 until 1886, Panama
Panama
existed as Panama
Panama
State , first within the Republic of New Granada, then within the Granadine Confederation , and finally within the United States of Colombia
Colombia
. The United States of Colombia was replaced by the Republic of Colombia
Colombia
in 1886. As part of the Republic of Colombia, Panama
Panama
State was abolished and it became the Isthmus Department . Despite the many political reorganizations, Colombia
Colombia
was still deeply plagued by conflict, which eventually led to the secession of Panama
Panama
on 3 November 1903. Only after that time did some begin to regard Panama
Panama
as a North or Central American entity.

By the 1930s the United Fruit Company owned 3.5 million acres of land in Central America
Central America
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
and was the single largest land owner in Guatemala. Such holdings gave it great power over the governments of small countries. That was one of the factors that led to the coining of the phrase Banana Republic
Banana Republic
.

After more than two hundred years of social unrest, violent conflict and revolution, Central America
Central America
today remains in a period of political transformation. Poverty, social injustice and violence are still widespread. Nicaragua
Nicaragua
is the second poorest country in the western hemisphere (only Haiti
Haiti
is poorer).

GEOGRAPHY

See also: Geography of Belize
Belize
, Geography of Costa Rica
Costa Rica
, Geography of El Salvador
El Salvador
, Geography of Guatemala
Guatemala
, Geography of Honduras
Honduras
, Geography of Nicaragua
Nicaragua
, Geography of Panama
Panama
, List of islands of Central America
Central America
, and List of mountain peaks of Central America The seven countries of Central America
Central America
and their capitals

Central America
Central America
is the tapering isthmus of southern North America, with unique and varied geographic features. The Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
lies to the southwest, the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
lies to the northeast, and the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
lies to the north. Some physiographists define the Isthmus of Tehuantepec as the northern geographic border of Central America, while others use the northwestern borders of Belize
Belize
and Guatemala. From there, the Central American land mass extends southeastward to the Isthmus of Panama
Panama
, where it connects to the Pacific Lowlands in northwestern South America.

Of the many mountain ranges within Central America, the longest are the Sierra Madre de Chiapas
Chiapas
, the Cordillera Isabelia and the Cordillera de Talamanca
Cordillera de Talamanca
. At 4,220 meters (13,850 ft), Volcán Tajumulco is the highest peak in Central America. Other high points of Central America
Central America
are as listed in the table below:

HIGH POINTS IN CENTRAL AMERICA

COUNTRY NAME ELEVATION (METERS) RANGE

Belize
Belize
Doyle\'s Delight 1124 Cockscomb Range

Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Cerro Chirripó
Cerro Chirripó
3820 Cordillera de Talamanca
Cordillera de Talamanca

El Salvador
El Salvador
Cerro El Pital 2730 Sierra Madre de Chiapas
Chiapas

Guatemala
Guatemala
Volcán Tajumulco 4220 Sierra Madre de Chiapas
Chiapas

Honduras
Honduras
Cerro Las Minas 2780 Cordillera de Celaque

Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Mogotón 2107 Cordillera Isabelia

Panama
Panama
Volcán Barú 3474 Cordillera de Talamanca
Cordillera de Talamanca

Between the mountain ranges lie fertile valleys that are suitable for the raising of livestock and for the production of coffee, tobacco, beans and other crops. Most of the population of Honduras, Costa Rica and Guatemala
Guatemala
lives in valleys.

Trade winds have a significant effect upon the climate of Central America. Temperatures in Central America
Central America
are highest just prior to the summer wet season , and are lowest during the winter dry season , when trade winds contribute to a cooler climate. The highest temperatures occur in April, due to higher levels of sunlight, lower cloud cover and a decrease in trade winds.

BIODIVERSITY

See also: Central America bioregion El Chorreron in El Salvador

Central America
Central America
is part of the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot , boasting 7% of the world's biodiversity . The Pacific Flyway is a major north-south flyway for migratory birds in the Americas, extending from Alaska
Alaska
to Tierra del Fuego . Due to the funnel-like shape of its land mass, migratory birds can be seen in very high concentrations in Central America, especially in the spring and autumn. As a bridge between North America
North America
and South America, Central America has many species from the Nearctic and the Neotropic ecozones . However the southern countries ( Costa Rica
Costa Rica
and Panama) of the region have more biodiversity than the northern countries ( Guatemala
Guatemala
and Belize), meanwhile the central countries (Honduras, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and El Salvador) have the least biodiversity. The table below shows recent statistics:

BIODIVERSITY IN CENTRAL AMERICA (NUMBER OF DIFFERENT SPECIES OF TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE ANIMALS AND VASCULAR PLANTS)

COUNTRY Amphibian species Bird species Mammal species Reptile species Total terrestrial vertebrate species Vascular plants species BIODIVERSITY

Belize
Belize
46 544 147 140 877 2894 3771

Costa Rica
Costa Rica
183 838 232 258 1511 12119 13630

El Salvador
El Salvador
30 434 137 106 707 2911 3618

Guatemala
Guatemala
133 684 193 236 1246 8681 9927

Honduras
Honduras
101 699 201 213 1214 5680 6894

Nicaragua
Nicaragua
61 632 181 178 1052 7590 8642

Panama
Panama
182 904 241 242 1569 9915 11484

Over 300 species of the region's flora and fauna are threatened, 107 of which are classified as critically endangered. The underlying problems are deforestation , which is estimated by FAO at 1.2% per year in Central America
Central America
and Mexico
Mexico
combined, fragmentation of rainforests and the fact that 80% of the vegetation in Central America has already been converted to agriculture.

Efforts to protect fauna and flora in the region are made by creating ecoregions and nature reserves. 36% of Belize's land territory falls under some form of official protected status, giving Belize
Belize
one of the most extensive systems of terrestrial protected areas in the Americas. In addition, 13% of Belize's marine territory are also protected. A large coral reef extends from Mexico
Mexico
to Honduras: the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System . The Belize
Belize
Barrier Reef is part of this. The Belize
Belize
Barrier Reef is home to a large diversity of plants and animals, and is one of the most diverse ecosystems of the world. It is home to 70 hard coral species, 36 soft coral species, 500 species of fish and hundreds of invertebrate species. So far only about 10% of the species in the Belize
Belize
barrier reef have been discovered.

FLORA

One of the hanging bridges of the skywalk at the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve in Monteverde, Costa Rica
Costa Rica
disappearing into the clouds

From 2001 to 2010, 5,376 square kilometers (2,076 sq mi) of forest were lost in the region. In 2010 Belize
Belize
had 63% of remaining forest cover, Costa Rica
Costa Rica
46%, Panama
Panama
45%, Honduras
Honduras
41%, Guatemala
Guatemala
37%, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
29%, and El Salvador
El Salvador
21%. Most of the loss occurred in the moist forest biome , with 12,201 square kilometers (4,711 sq mi). Woody vegetation loss was partially set off by a gain in the coniferous forest biome with 4,730 square kilometers (1,830 sq mi), and a gain in the dry forest biome at 2,054 square kilometers (793 sq mi). Mangroves and deserts contributed only 1% to the loss in forest vegetation. The bulk of the deforestation was located at the Caribbean slopes of Nicaragua
Nicaragua
with a loss of 8,574 square kilometers (3,310 sq mi) of forest in the period from 2001 to 2010. The most significant regrowth of 3,050 square kilometers (1,180 sq mi) of forest was seen in the coniferous woody vegetation of Honduras.

The Central American pine-oak forests ecoregion, in the tropical and subtropical coniferous forests biome, is found in Central America
Central America
and southern Mexico. The Central American pine-oak forests occupy an area of 111,400 square kilometers (43,000 sq mi), extending along the mountainous spine of Central America, extending from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas
Chiapas
in Mexico's Chiapas
Chiapas
state through the highlands of Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras
Honduras
to central Nicaragua. The pine-oak forests lie between 600–1,800 metres (2,000–5,900 ft) elevation, and are surrounded at lower elevations by tropical moist forests and tropical dry forests . Higher elevations above 1,800 metres (5,900 ft) are usually covered with Central American montane forests . The Central American pine-oak forests are composed of many species characteristic of temperate North America
North America
including oak , pine , fir , and cypress .

Laurel forest
Laurel forest
is the most common type of Central American temperate evergreen cloud forest , found in almost all Central American countries, normally more than 1,000 meters (3,300 ft) above sea level. Tree species include evergreen oaks , members of the laurel family , and species of Weinmannia , Drimys , and Magnolia
Magnolia
. The cloud forest of Sierra de las Minas , Guatemala, is the largest in Central America. In some areas of southeastern Honduras
Honduras
there are cloud forests, the largest located near the border with Nicaragua. In Nicaragua, cloud forests are situated near the border with Honduras, but many were cleared to grow coffee. There are still some temperate evergreen hills in the north. The only cloud forest in the Pacific coastal zone of Central America
Central America
is on the Mombacho
Mombacho
volcano in Nicaragua. In Costa Rica, there are laurel forests in the Cordillera de Tilarán and Volcán Arenal , called Monteverde
Monteverde
, also in the Cordillera de Talamanca .

The Central American montane forests
Central American montane forests
are an ecoregion of the tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests biome, as defined by the World Wildlife Fund . These forests are of the moist deciduous and the semi-evergreen seasonal subtype of tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests and receive high overall rainfall with a warm summer wet season and a cooler winter dry season. Central American montane forests consist of forest patches located at altitudes ranging from 1,800–4,000 metres (5,900–13,100 ft), on the summits and slopes of the highest mountains in Central America
Central America
ranging from Southern Mexico, through Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras, to northern Nicaragua. The entire ecoregion covers an area of 13,200 square kilometers (5,100 sq mi) and has a temperate climate with relatively high precipitation levels.

FAUNA

See also: List of Central American mammals and List of Central American monkey species

Ecoregions are not only established to protect the forests themselves but also because they are habitats for an incomparably rich and often endemic fauna. Almost half of the bird population of the Talamancan montane forests in Costa Rica
Costa Rica
and Panama
Panama
are endemic to this region. Several birds are listed as threatened, most notably the resplendent quetzal (Pharomacrus mocinno), three-wattled bellbird (Procnias tricarunculata), bare-necked umbrellabird (Cephalopterus glabricollis), and black guan (Chamaepetes unicolor). Many of the amphibians are endemic and depend on the existence of forest. The golden toad that once inhabited a small region in the Monteverde Reserve, which is part of the Talamancan montane forests, has not been seen alive since 1989 and is listed as extinct by IUCN. The exact causes for its extincition are unknown. Global warming may have played a role, because the development of fog that is typical for this area may have been compromised. Seven small mammals are endemic to the Costa Rica-Chiriqui highlands within the Talamancan montane forest region. Jaguars , cougars , spider monkeys , as well as tapirs , and anteaters live in the woods of Central America. The Central American red brocket is a brocket deer found in Central America's tropical forest.

GEOLOGY

Central America
Central America
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
Plate See also: Central America Volcanic Arc , List of earthquakes in Costa Rica
Costa Rica
, List of earthquakes in El Salvador
El Salvador
, List of earthquakes in Guatemala
Guatemala
, and List of earthquakes in Nicaragua
Nicaragua

Central America
Central America
is geologically very active, with volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occurring frequently, and tsunamis occurring occasionally. Many thousands of people have died as a result of these natural disasters.

Most of Central America
Central America
rests atop the Caribbean
Caribbean
Plate . This tectonic plate converges with the Cocos , Nazca , and North American plates to form the Middle America Trench , a major subduction zone . The Middle America Trench is situated some 60–160 kilometers (37–99 mi) off the Pacific coast of Central America
Central America
and runs roughly parallel to it. Many large earthquakes have occurred as a result of seismic activity at the Middle America Trench. For example, subduction of the Cocos Plate
Cocos Plate
beneath the North American Plate at the Middle America Trench is believed to have caused the 1985 Mexico
Mexico
City earthquake that killed as many as 40,000 people. Seismic activity at the Middle America Trench is also responsible for earthquakes in 1902 , 1942 , 1956 , 1982 , 1992 , 2001 , 2007 , 2012 , 2014 , and many other earthquakes throughout Central America.

The Middle America Trench is not the only source of seismic activity in Central America. The Motagua Fault is an onshore continuation of the Cayman Trough which forms part of the tectonic boundary between the North American Plate and the Caribbean
Caribbean
Plate. This transform fault cuts right across Guatemala
Guatemala
and then continues offshore until it merges with the Middle America Trench along the Pacific coast of Mexico, near Acapulco . Seismic activity at the Motagua Fault has been responsible for earthquakes in 1717 , 1773 , 1902 , 1976 , 1980 , and 2009 .

Another onshore continuation of the Cayman Trough is the Chixoy-Polochic Fault , which runs parallel to, and roughly 80 kilometers (50 mi) to the north, of the Motagua Fault. Though less active than the Motagua Fault, seismic activity at the Chixoy-Polochic Fault is still thought to be capable of producing very large earthquakes, such as the 1816 earthquake of Guatemala.

Managua
Managua
, the capital of Nicaragua, was devastated by earthquakes in 1931 and 1972 .

Volcanic eruptions are also common in Central America. In 1968 the Arenal Volcano , in Costa Rica, erupted killing 87 people as the 3 villages of Tabacon, Pueblo Nuevo and San Luis were buried under pyroclastic flows and debris. Fertile soils from weathered volcanic lava have made it possible to sustain dense populations in the agriculturally productive highland areas.

DEMOGRAPHICS

See also: Ethnic groups in Central America and Latin Americans

The population of Central America
Central America
is estimated at 47,448,333 as of 2016. With an area of 523,780 square kilometers (202,230 sq mi), it has a population density of 81 per square kilometer (210/sq mi).

Countries of Central America
Central America
Name of territory, with flag Area (km²) Population (2016 est.) Population density (per km²) CAPITAL Official language HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX

Belize
Belize
7004229660000000000♠22,966 366,954 7001130000000000000♠13 Belmopan English 0,715 HIGH

Costa Rica
Costa Rica
7004511000000000000♠51,100 4,857,274 7001820000000000000♠82 San José Spanish 0,766 HIGH

El Salvador
El Salvador
7004210400000000000♠21,040 6,344,722 7002292000000000000♠292 San Salvador Spanish 0,666 MEDIUM

Guatemala
Guatemala
7005108890000000000♠108,890 16,582,469 7002129000000000000♠129 Guatemala
Guatemala
City Spanish 0,627 MEDIUM

Honduras
Honduras
7005112090000000000♠112,090 9,112,867 7001670000000000000♠67 Tegucigalpa
Tegucigalpa
Spanish 0,606 MEDIUM

Nicaragua
Nicaragua
7005130373000000000♠130,373 6,149,928 7001440000000000000♠44 Managua
Managua
Spanish 0,631 MEDIUM

Panama
Panama
7004782000000000000♠78,200 4,034,119 7001440000000000000♠44 Panama
Panama
City Spanish 0,780 HIGH

TOTAL 7005523780000000000♠523,780 7007474483330000000♠47,448,333 7001800000000000000♠80 - - -

Largest metropolitan areas in Central America
Central America
CITY COUNTRY POPULATION CENSUS YEAR % of National population

(1) Guatemala
Guatemala
City Guatemala
Guatemala
5,700,000 2010 26%

(2) San Salvador El Salvador
El Salvador
2,415,217 2009 39%

(3) Managua
Managua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
1,918,000 2012 34%

(4) Tegucigalpa
Tegucigalpa
Honduras
Honduras
1,819,000 2010 24%

(5) San Pedro Sula Honduras
Honduras
1,600,000 2010 21%+4

(6) Panama
Panama
City Panama
Panama
1,400,000 2010 37%

(7) San José Costa Rica
Costa Rica
1,275,000 2013 30%

LANGUAGES

Linguistic variations of classic Central American Spanish
Central American Spanish
. See also: Central American Spanish
Central American Spanish

The official language majority in all Central American countries is Spanish , except in Belize, where the official language is English . Mayan languages constitute a language family consisting of about 26 related languages. Guatemala
Guatemala
formally recognized 21 of these in 1996. Xinca and Garifuna are also present in Central America.

LANGUAGES IN CENTRAL AMERICA (2010)

POS. COUNTRIES POPULATION % SPANISH % MAYAN LANGUAGES % ENGLISH % XINCA % GARIFUNA

1 Guatemala 17,284,000 64.7% 34.3% 0.0% 0.7% 0.3%

2 Honduras 8,447,000 97.1% 2.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.9%

3 El Salvador 6,108,000 99.0% 1.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

4 Nicaragua 6,028,000 87.4% 7.1% 5.5% 0.0% 0.0%

5 Costa Rica 4,726,000 97.2% 1.8% 1.0% 0.0% 0.0%

6 Panamá 3,652,000 86.8% 9.2% 4.0% 0.0 0.0%

7 Belize 334,000 52.1% 8.9% 37.0% 0.0% 2.0%

ETHNIC GROUPS

Central America
Central America
map of indigenous people before European contact

This region of the continent is very rich in terms of ethnic groups. The majority of the population is mestizo , with sizable Mayan and White populations present, including Xinca and Garifuna minorities. The immigration of Arabs, Jews, Chinese, Europeans and others brought additional groups to the area.

ETHNIC GROUPS IN CENTRAL AMERICA (2010)

COUNTRY POPULATION1 % AMERINDIAN % WHITE % MESTIZO /MIXED % BLACK % OTHER

BELIZE 324,528 6.3% 5.0% 49.6% 32.0% 4.1%

COSTA RICA 4,301,712 4.0% 65.8% 13.8% 7.2% 9.0%

EL SALVADOR 6,340,889 1.0% 12.0% 86.0% 0.0% 1.0%

GUATEMALA 15,700,000 38.5% 18.5% 40.0% 1.0% 2.0%

HONDURAS 8,143,564 6.0% 5.5% 82.0% 6.0% 0.5%

NICARAGUA 5,815,500 5.0% 17.0% 69.0% 9.0% 0.0%

PANAMA 3,474,562 6.0% 10.0% 65.0% 14.0% 5.0%

TOTAL 42,682,190 16.24% 20.18% 58.05% 4.43% 1.17%

RELIGIOUS GROUPS

Further information: Anglican Church in Central America , Bahá\'í Faith in Central America
Central America
, Buddhism in Central America , and Roman Catholicism in North America
North America

The predominant religion in Central America
Central America
is Christianity
Christianity
(95.6%). Beginning with the Spanish colonization of Central America
Central America
in the 16th century, Roman Catholicism became the most popular religion in the region until the first half of the 20th century. Since the 1960s, there has been an increase in other Christian groups, particularly Protestantism
Protestantism
, as well as other religious organizations, and individuals identifying themselves as having no religion.

Countries % Roman Catholicism (2010) % Protestantism
Protestantism
(2010) % Non-affiliated (2010) % Other (2010)

Belize
Belize
40% 31% 15% 14%

Costa Rica
Costa Rica
69% 17% 11% 3%

El Salvador
El Salvador
46% 29% 24% 1%

Guatemala
Guatemala
47% 39% 12% 2%

Honduras
Honduras
52% 35% 10% 3%

Nicaragua
Nicaragua
58% 23% 13% 4%

Panama
Panama
77% 14% 6% 3%

CULTURE

* Central American music * Central American cuisine * List of cuisines of the Americas
Americas
– Central American cuisine

SPORT

* Central American Games

* Central American and Caribbean Games

* 1926 Central American and Caribbean Games – the first time this event occurred

* Central American Football Union * Surfing

POLITICS

CENTRAL AMERICAN INTEGRATION

Central American Integration System Sistema de Integración Centroamericana

Coat of arms

Motto(s): "Peace, Development, Liberty and Democracy"

Anthem: La Granadera

COUNTRIES

* Belize
Belize
* Costa Rica
Costa Rica
* El Salvador
El Salvador
* Guatemala
Guatemala
* Honduras
Honduras
* Nicaragua
Nicaragua
* Panama
Panama
* Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic

AREA

• TOTAL 560,988 km2 (216,599 sq mi)

POPULATION

• TOTAL 50,807,778

• DENSITY 91/km2 (230/sq mi)

Main article: Central American Integration System

Central America
Central America
is currently undergoing a process of political, economic and cultural transformation that started in 1907 with the creation of the Central American Court of Justice .

In 1951 the integration process continued with the signature of the San Salvador Treaty, which created the ODECA, the Organization of Central American States. However, the unity of the ODECA was limited by conflicts between several member states.

In 1991, the integration agenda was further advanced by the creation of the Central American Integration System (Sistema para la Integración Centroamericana, or SICA). SICA provides a clear legal basis to avoid disputes between the member states. SICA membership includes the 7 nations of Central America
Central America
plus the Dominican Republic, a state that is traditionally considered part of the Caribbean.

* Central American flags

*

Guatemala
Guatemala
*

El Salvador
El Salvador
*

Honduras
Honduras
*

Nicaragua
Nicaragua
*

Costa Rica
Costa Rica
*

Panama
Panama
*

Belize
Belize

On 6 December 2008 SICA announced an agreement to pursue a common currency and common passport for the member nations. No timeline for implementation was discussed.

Central America
Central America
already has several supranational institutions such as the Central American Parliament , the Central American Bank for Economic Integration and the Central American Common Market .

On 22 July 2011 President Mauricio Funes of El Salvador
El Salvador
became the first president pro tempore to SICA. El Salvador
El Salvador
also became the headquarters of SICA with the inauguration of a new building.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

See also: China– Latin America
Latin America
relations

Until recently, all Central American countries have maintained diplomatic relations with Taiwan
Taiwan
instead of China. President Óscar Arias of Costa Rica, however, established diplomatic relations with China in 2007, severing formal diplomatic ties with Taiwan. After breaking off relations with the Republic of China in 2017, Panama established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China.

CENTRAL AMERICAN PARLIAMENT

Flag of the Central American Parliament Main article: Central American Parliament

The Central American Parliament (also known as PARLACEN) is a political and parliamentary body of SICA. The parliament started around 1980, and its primary goal was to resolve conflicts in Nicaragua, Guatemala, and El Salvador. Although the group was disbanded in 1986, ideas of unity of Central Americans still remained, so a treaty was signed in 1987 to create the Central American Parliament and other political bodies. Its original members were Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and Honduras. The parliament is the political organ of Central America, and is part of SICA. New members have since then joined including Panama
Panama
and the Dominican Republic.

ECONOMY

See also: Economy of Belize
Belize
, Economy of Costa Rica
Costa Rica
, Economy of El Salvador , Economy of Guatemala
Guatemala
, Economy of Honduras
Honduras
, Economy of Nicaragua
Nicaragua
, and Economy of Panama
Panama

Signed in 2004, the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) is an agreement between the United States, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
. The treaty is aimed at promoting free trade among its members.

Guatemala
Guatemala
has the largest economy in the region. Its main exports are coffee, sugar, bananas, petroleum, clothing, and cardamom . Of its 10.29 billion dollar annual exports, 40.2% go to the United States, 11.1% to neighboring El Salvador, 8% to Honduras, 5.5% to Mexico, 4.7% to Nicaragua, and 4.3% to Costa Rica.

Economic growth in Central America
Central America
is projected to slow slightly in 2014–15, as country-specific domestic factors offset the positive effects from stronger economic activity in the United States.

ECONOMY SIZE FOR LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES PER GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT COUNTRY GDP (NOMINAL) GDP (NOMINAL) PER CAPITA GDP (PPP)

Belize
Belize
1,552 $4,602 2,914

Costa Rica
Costa Rica
44,313 $10,432 57,955

El Salvador
El Salvador
24,421 $3,875 46,050

Guatemala
Guatemala
50,303 $3,512 78,012

Honduras
Honduras
18,320 $2,323 37,408

Nicaragua
Nicaragua
7,695 $1,839 19,827

Panama
Panama
34,517 $10,838 55,124

TOURISM

See also: Tourism in Belize
Belize
, Tourism in Costa Rica
Costa Rica
, Ecotourism
Ecotourism
in Costa Rica
Costa Rica
, and Tourism in Nicaragua
Nicaragua
The Great Blue Hole
Great Blue Hole
off the coast of Belize
Belize
is a prime ecotourism destination. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
Semuc Champey
Semuc Champey
, Guatemala
Guatemala
.

Tourism in Belize
Belize
has grown considerably in more recent times, and it is now the second largest industry in the nation. Belizean Prime Minister Dean Barrow has stated his intention to use tourism to combat poverty throughout the country. The growth in tourism has positively affected the agricultural, commercial, and finance industries, as well as the construction industry. The results for Belize's tourism-driven economy have been significant, with the nation welcoming almost one million tourists in a calendar year for the first time in its history in 2012. Belize
Belize
is also the only country in Central America
Central America
with English as its official language, making this country a comfortable destination for English-speaking tourists.

Costa Rica
Costa Rica
is the most visited nation in Central America. Tourism in Costa Rica
Costa Rica
is one of the fastest growing economic sectors of the country, having become the largest source of foreign revenue by 1995. Since 1999, tourism has earned more foreign exchange than bananas, pineapples and coffee exports combined. The tourism boom began in 1987, with the number of visitors up from 329,000 in 1988, through 1.03 million in 1999, to a historical record of 2.43 million foreign visitors and $1.92-billion in revenue in 2013. In 2012 tourism contributed with 12.5% of the country's GDP and it was responsible for 11.7% of direct and indirect employment.

Tourism in Nicaragua
Nicaragua
has grown considerably recently, and it is now the second largest industry in the nation. Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega has stated his intention to use tourism to combat poverty throughout the country. The growth in tourism has positively affected the agricultural, commercial, and finance industries, as well as the construction industry. The results for Nicaragua's tourism-driven economy have been significant, with the nation welcoming one million tourists in a calendar year for the first time in its history in 2010.

TRANSPORT

See also: Transport in Belize
Belize
, Transport in Costa Rica
Costa Rica
, Transport in El Salvador
El Salvador
, Transport in Guatemala
Guatemala
, Transport in Honduras
Honduras
, Transport in Nicaragua
Nicaragua
, and Transport in Panama
Panama

ROADS

See also: Roads in Belize
Belize

The Inter-American Highway is the Central American section of the Pan-American Highway , and spans 5,470 kilometers (3,400 mi) between Nuevo Laredo, Mexico
Mexico
, and Panama
Panama
City, Panama
Panama
. Because of the 87 kilometers (54 mi) break in the highway known as the Darién Gap , it is not possible to cross between Central America
Central America
and South America
South America
in an automobile.

WATERWAYS

See also: Category:Water transport in Belize
Belize
, Category:Water transport in Costa Rica
Costa Rica
, Category:Water transport in Guatemala
Guatemala
, Category:Water transport in Honduras
Honduras
, Category:Water transport in Nicaragua
Nicaragua
, Category:Water transport in Panama
Panama
, List of rivers of Belize
Belize
, List of rivers of Costa Rica
Costa Rica
, List of rivers of El Salvador , List of rivers of Guatemala
Guatemala
, List of rivers of Honduras
Honduras
, List of rivers of Nicaragua
Nicaragua
, List of rivers of Panama
Panama
, Ecocanal , Nicaragua Canal , and Panama
Panama
Canal

PORTS AND HARBORS

See also: Ports of Belize
Belize
, Category:Ports and harbours of Guatemala , and Category:Ports and harbours of Panama
Panama

AIRPORTS

See also: List of airports in Belize
Belize
, List of airports in Costa Rica , List of airports in El Salvador
El Salvador
, List of airports in Guatemala
Guatemala
, List of airports in Honduras
Honduras
, List of airports in Nicaragua
Nicaragua
, and List of airports in Panama
Panama

RAILWAYS

Main article: Rail transport in Central America
Rail transport in Central America
See also: Rail transport in Belize
Belize
, Rail transport in Costa Rica
Costa Rica
, Rail transport in El Salvador
El Salvador
, Rail transport in Guatemala
Guatemala
, Rail transport in Honduras , Rail transport in Nicaragua
Nicaragua
, and Rail transport in Panama
Panama
City rail in La Ceiba
La Ceiba
, Honduras
Honduras
is one of the few remaining passenger train services in Central America
Central America

EDUCATION

* List of Architecture schools in Central America
Central America
* List of universities in Belize
Belize
* List of universities in Costa Rica
Costa Rica
* List of universities in El Salvador
El Salvador
* List of universities in Guatemala
Guatemala
* List of universities in Honduras
Honduras
* List of universities in Nicaragua
Nicaragua
* List of universities in Panama
Panama

SEE ALSO

* North America
North America
portal * Latin America
Latin America
portal * Geography portal

* Americas (terminology)
Americas (terminology)
* Central American Seaway
Central American Seaway

* List of largest cities in Central America

* List of cities in Belize
Belize
* List of cities in Costa Rica
Costa Rica
* List of cities in El Salvador
El Salvador
* List of places in Guatemala
Guatemala
* List of cities in Honduras
Honduras
* List of cities in Nicaragua
Nicaragua
* List of cities in Panama
Panama

* Index of Central America-related articles

* Index of Belize-related articles * Index of Costa Rica-related articles * Index of El Salvador-related articles * Index of Guatemala-related articles * Index of Honduras-related articles * Index of Nicaragua-related articles * Index of Panama-related articles

NOTES

* ^ A B Values listed in millions USD.

REFERENCES

* ^ Hubbard, K (2015). "The biggest cities in Central America". Central America
Central America
statistics, facts & figures for every country. New York City: About.com. Retrieved 2015-01-01. * ^ A B IBP, Inc (2009). Central America
Central America
Economic Integration and Cooperation Handbook Volume 1 Strategic Information, Organizations and Programs. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-4387-4280-9 . * ^ Index Mundi (2012). "Population – Central America
Central America
& the Caribbean". Index Mundi. Retrieved 2015-01-01. * ^ United Nations Statistics Division (2013). "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". New York City: United Nations Statistics Division. Retrieved 2015-01-01. * ^ Augelli, JP (1962). "The Rimland-Mainland concept of culture areas in Middle America". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 52 (2): 119–29. doi :10.1111/j.1467-8306.1962.tb00400.x . JSTOR
JSTOR
2561309 . * ^ "Central America". central-america.org. Retrieved September 4, 2016. Central America
Central America
is located between North and South America
South America
and consists of multiple countries. Central America
Central America
is not a continent but a subcontinent since it lies within the continent America. It borders on the northwest to the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and in the northeast to the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. The countries that belong to the subcontinent of Central America
Central America
are Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and Panama. * ^ A B "Central America". Merriam-Webster\'s collegiate dictionary . Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved 2015-01-01. * ^ Burchfield, RW (2004). Fowler's modern English usage (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0198610212 . * ^ A B International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(2014). World economic outlook October 2014: legacies, clouds, uncertainties (PDF). World economic and financial surveys. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund. ISBN 978-1-48438-0-666 . Retrieved 2015-01-01. * ^ The Daily Telegraph http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/maps-and-graphics/nationalities-that-work-the-longest-hours/. Retrieved 24 February 2017. Missing or empty title= (help ) * ^ Hoopes, John W. and Oscar Fonseca Z. (2003). Goldwork and Chibchan Identity:Endogenous Change and Diffuse Unity in the Isthmo-Colombian Area (PDF). Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks. ISBN 0-82631-000-1 . Archived from the original (Online text reproduction) on 25 February 2009. * ^ Livingstone, Grace (2013). America\'s Backyard: The United States and Latin America
Latin America
from the Monroe Doctrine to the War on Terror. Zed Books Ltd. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-84813-611-3 . * ^ Argueta, O; Huhn, S; Kurtenbach, S; Peetz, P (2011). "Blocked democracies in Central America" (PDF). GIGA Focus International Edition. Hamburg, Germany: GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies (5): 1–8. ISSN 1862-3581 . * ^ "Extreme poverty increases in Nicaragua
Nicaragua
in 2013, study finds". American Free Press . 13 November 2014. Retrieved 2015-01-02. * ^ IBP, Inc. (2015). Central American Countries Mineral Industry Handbook Volume 1 Strategic Information and Regulations. pp. 7, 8. ISBN 978-1-329-09114-6 . * ^ Taylor, MA; Alfaro, EJ (2005). " Central America
Central America
and the Caribbean, Climate of". In Oliver, JE. Encyclopedia of world climatology. Encyclopedia of Earth
Earth
Sciences Series (1st ed.). New York: Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 183–9. doi :10.1007/1-4020-3266-8_37 . ISBN 978-1-4020-3264-6 . * ^ A B (PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20141006185346/http://www.webng.com/jerbarker/home/eia-toolkit/downloads/Van04/RojasVancouver.pdf. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2016. Missing or empty title= (help )CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ Butler, RA (2006). " Belize
Belize
forest information and data". Tropical rainforests: deforestation rates tables and charts. Menlo Park, California: Mongabay.com. Retrieved 2015-01-01. * ^ Butler, RA (2006). " Costa Rica
Costa Rica
forest information and data". Tropical rainforests: deforestation rates tables and charts. Menlo Park, California: Mongabay.com. Retrieved 2015-01-01. * ^ Butler, RA (2006). " El Salvador
El Salvador
forest information and data". Tropical rainforests: deforestation rates tables and charts. Menlo Park, California: Mongabay.com. Retrieved 2015-01-01. * ^ Butler, RA (2006). " Guatemala
Guatemala
forest information and data". Tropical rainforests: deforestation rates tables and charts. Menlo Park, California: Mongabay.com. Retrieved 2015-01-01. * ^ Butler, RA (2006). " Honduras
Honduras
forest information and data". Tropical rainforests: deforestation rates tables and charts. Menlo Park, California: Mongabay.com. Retrieved 2015-01-01. * ^ Butler, RA (2006). " Nicaragua
Nicaragua
forest information and data". Tropical rainforests: deforestation rates tables and charts. Menlo Park, California: Mongabay.com. Retrieved 2015-01-01. * ^ Butler, RA (2006). " Panama
Panama
forest information and data". Tropical rainforests: deforestation rates tables and charts. Menlo Park, California: Mongabay.com. Retrieved 2015-01-01. * ^ Harvey, CA; Komar, O; Chazdon, R; Ferguson, BG (2008). "Integrating agricultural landscapes with biodiversity conservation in the Mesoamerican hotspot" (PDF). Conservation Biology. 22 (1): 8–15. doi :10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00863.x . PMID 18254848 . * ^ Ramos, A (2 July 2010). " Belize
Belize
protected areas 26% – not 40-odd percent". Amandala . Belize
Belize
City. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 2015-01-01. * ^ Belize
Belize
Barrier Reef case study. Westminster.edu. Retrieved on 21 October 2011. * ^ Redo, DJ; Grau, HR; Aide, TM; Clark, ML (2012). "Asymmetric forest transition driven by the interaction of socioeconomic development and environmental heterogeneity in Central America" . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109 (23): 8839–44. Bibcode :2012PNAS..109.8839R. doi :10.1073/pnas.1201664109 . PMC 3384153  . PMID 22615408 . * ^ A B "Central American pine-oak forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 2012-11-04. * ^ A B "Talamancan montane forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 2014-10-19. * ^ A B "Central American montane forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 2013-08-20. * ^ Astiz, L; Kanamori, H; Eissler, H (1987). "Source characteristics of earthquakes in the Michoacan seismic gap in Mexico" (PDF). Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 77 (4): 1326–46. * ^ White, RA (1985). "The Guatemala
Guatemala
earthquake of 1816 on the Chixoy-Polochic fault". Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 75 (2): 455–73. * ^ A B "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs , Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017. * ^ Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(2014). "The world factbook". Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency. * ^ Christianity
Christianity
in its Global Context Archived 29 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Holland, CL (November 2005). Ethnic and religious diversity in Central America: a historical perspective (PDF). 2005 Annual Meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion. pp. 1–34. Retrieved 2015-01-04. * ^ British Embassy San Salvador (10 June 2013). "Extra-Regional Observer of Central American Integration System". Strengthening UK relationships with El Salvador. London: Government Digital Service. Retrieved 2015-01-04. * ^ " Taiwan
Taiwan
cuts ties with Costa Rica
Costa Rica
over recognition for China". The New York Times
The New York Times
. Retrieved 19 October 2014. * ^ https://america.cgtn.com/2017/06/12/panama-establishes-diplomatic-relations-with-china In historic move, Panama
Panama
and China establish diplomatic relations * ^ A B International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(2012). "Report for selected countries and subjects". World economic outlook database, April 2012. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2015-01-01. * ^ A B International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(2012). "Gross domestic product based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) valuation of country GDP". World economic outlook database, April 2012. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2015-01-01. * ^ Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(2014). "World exports by country". The world factbook. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency. * ^ Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(2014). "Export partners of Guatemala". The world factbook. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency. * ^ Data mostly refers to IMF staff estimates for the year 2013, made in April 2014. World Economic Outlook Database-April 2014, International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
. Accessed on 9 April 2014. * ^ Data refers mostly to the year 2012. World Development Indicators database, World Bank
World Bank
. Database updated on 18 December 2013. Accessed on 18 December 2013. * ^ Cuellar, M (1 March 2013). "Foreign direct investments and tourism up". Channel 5 Belize. Belize: Great Belize
Belize
Productions Ltd. Retrieved 2015-01-04. * ^ "2012: a remarkable year for Belize\'s tourism industry". The San Pedro Sun . San Pedro, Belize. 8 February 2013. Retrieved 2015-01-04. * ^ " Belize
Belize
Tours & Activities - Project Expedition". Project Expedition. Retrieved 2016-06-30. * ^ A B Rodríguez, A (16 January 2014). " Costa Rica
Costa Rica
registró la llegada de más de 2,4 millones de turistas en 2013" . La Nación (in Spanish). San José, Costa Rica. Retrieved 2015-01-02. * ^ Rojas, JE (29 December 2004). "Turismo, principal motor de la economía durante el 2004" . La Nación (in Spanish). San José, Costa Rica. Retrieved 2015-01-02. * ^ A B Inman, C (1997). "Impacts on developing countries of changing production and consumption patterns in developed countries: the case of ecotourism in Costa Rica" (PDF). Alajuela, Costa Rica: INCAE Business School . Retrieved 2015-01-01. * ^ Departamento de Estadísticas ICT (2006). "Anuário estadísticas de demanda 2006" (PDF) (in Spanish). Intituto Costarricense de Turismo. Retrieved 2008-06-13. * ^ Jennifer Blanke and Thea Chiesa, Editors (2013). "Travel ">(PDF). World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum
, Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved 2013-04-14. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Carroll, R (6 January 2007). "Ortega banks on tourism to beat poverty". The Guardian
The Guardian
. London: theguardian.com . Retrieved 2015-01-03. * ^ http://www.sify.com/news/nicaragua-exceeds-one-mn-foreign-tourists-for-first-time-news-international-km4ladiidea.html Nicaragua
Nicaragua
exceeds one mn foreign tourists for first time

FURTHER READING

* Central America. Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2001–6. New York: Columbia University Press. * American Heritage Dictionaries, Central America. * WordNet Princeton University: Central America. * Central America. Columbia Gazetteer of the World Online. 2006. New York: Columbia University Press. * Hernández, Consuelo (2009). Reconstruyendo a Centroamérica a través de la poesía. Voces y perspectivas en la poesia latinoamericana del siglo XX. Madrid: Visor.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Find more aboutCENTRAL AMERICAat's sister projects

* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from

.