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Central Africa
Africa
is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda. Middle Africa
Africa
(as used by the United Nations
United Nations
when categorising geographic subregions) is an analogous term that includes Angola, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, the Republic of the Congo, and São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe.[1] All of the states in the UN subregion of Middle Africa, plus those otherwise commonly reckoned in Central Africa
Africa
(11 states in total), constitute the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS).[2] Since its independence in 2011, South Sudan
South Sudan
has also been commonly included in the region.[3][4]

Contents

1 List of Central African countries 2 Background 3 Geography 4 History

4.1 Prehistory 4.2 Ancient history

4.2.1 Sao civilization

4.3 Kanem Empire 4.4 Bornu Empire 4.5 Shilluk Kingdom 4.6 Baguirmi Kingdom 4.7 Wadai Empire 4.8 Lunda Empire 4.9 Congo Empire 4.10 Modern history

5 Economy 6 Demographics 7 Culture 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

List of Central African countries[edit]

Region Country

Central Africa  Angola

 Cameroon

 Central African Republic

 Chad

 Democratic Republic of the Congo

 Equatorial Guinea

 Gabon

 Republic of the Congo

  São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe

Background[edit]

Membership of ECCAS

The Central African Federation
Central African Federation
(1953–1963), also called the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, was made up of what are now the nations of Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Similarly, the Anglican Church of the Province of Central Africa
Africa
covers dioceses in Botswana, Malawi, Zambia
Zambia
and Zimbabwe, while the Church of Central Africa, Presbyterian has synods in Malawi, Zambia
Zambia
and Zimbabwe. These states are now typically considered part of East Africa
Africa
or Southern Africa.[5] Geography[edit] The basin of Lake Chad
Chad
has historically been ecologically significant to the populations of Central Africa, with the Lake Chad
Chad
Basin Commission serving as an important supra-regional organization in Central Africa. History[edit] Further information: Archaeology of Central Africa Prehistory[edit] Archeological finds in Central Africa
Africa
have been discovered dating back over 100,000 years.[6] According to Zangato and Holl, there is evidence of iron-smelting in the Central African Republic
Central African Republic
and Cameroon that may date back to 3000 to 2500 BCE.[7] Extensive walled settlements have recently been found in Northeast Nigeria, approximately 60 km (37 mi) southwest of Lake Chad
Chad
dating to the first millennium BCE.[8][9] Trade and improved agricultural techniques supported more sophisticated societies, leading to the early civilizations of Sao, Kanem, Bornu, Shilluk, Baguirmi, and Wadai.[10] Around 1000 BCE, Bantu migrants had reached the Great Lakes Region
Region
in Central Africa. Halfway through the first millennium BCE, the Bantu had also settled as far south as what is now Angola. Ancient history[edit] Sao civilization[edit] Main article: Sao civilization The Sao civilization
Sao civilization
flourished from ca. the sixth century BCE to as late as the sixteenth century CE in northern Central Africa. The Sao lived by the Chari River south of Lake Chad
Chad
in territory that later became part of Cameroon
Cameroon
and Chad. They are the earliest people to have left clear traces of their presence in the territory of modern Cameroon. Today, several ethnic groups of northern Cameroon
Cameroon
and southern Chad
Chad
but particularly the Sara people
Sara people
claim descent from the civilization of the Sao. Sao artifacts show that they were skilled workers in bronze, copper, and iron.[11] Finds include bronze sculptures and terra cotta statues of human and animal figures, coins, funerary urns, household utensils, jewelry, highly decorated pottery, and spears.[12] The largest Sao archaeological finds have been made south of Lake Chad. Kanem Empire[edit]

The Kanem and Bornu Empires in 1810

Main article: Kanem Empire The Kanem- Bornu Empire
Bornu Empire
was centered in the Chad
Chad
Basin. It was known as the Kanem Empire
Kanem Empire
from the 9th century CE onward and lasted as the independent kingdom of Bornu until 1900. At its height it encompassed an area covering not only much of Chad, but also parts of modern southern Libya, eastern Niger, northeastern Nigeria, northern Cameroon, parts of South Sudan
South Sudan
and the Central African Republic. The history of the Empire is mainly known from the Royal Chronicle or Girgam discovered in 1851 by the German traveller Heinrich Barth.[13] Kanem rose in the 8th century in the region to the north and east of Lake Chad. The Kanem empire went into decline, shrank, and in the 14th century was defeated by Bilala invaders from the Lake Fitri region.[14] Bornu Empire[edit] Main article: Bornu Empire The Kanuri people
Kanuri people
led by the Sayfuwa migrated to the west and south of the lake, where they established the Bornu Empire. By the late 16th century the Bornu empire had expanded and recaptured the parts of Kanem that had been conquered by the Bulala.[15] Satellite states of Bornu included the Damagaram in the west and Baguirmi to the southeast of Lake Chad. Shilluk Kingdom[edit] Main article: Shilluk Kingdom The Shilluk Kingdom
Shilluk Kingdom
was centered in South Sudan
South Sudan
from the 15th century from along a strip of land along the western bank of White Nile, from Lake No
Lake No
to about 12° north latitude. The capital and royal residence was in the town of Fashoda. The kingdom was founded during the mid-fifteenth century CE by its first ruler, Nyikang. During the nineteenth century, the Shilluk Kingdom
Shilluk Kingdom
faced decline following military assaults from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and later British and Sudanese colonization in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Baguirmi Kingdom[edit] Main article: Baguirmi Kingdom The Kingdom of Baguirmi
Kingdom of Baguirmi
existed as an independent state during the 16th and 17th centuries southeast of Lake Chad
Chad
in what is now the country of Chad. Baguirmi emerged to the southeast of the Kanem-Bornu Empire. The kingdom's first ruler was Mbang Birni Besse. Later in his reign, the Bornu Empire
Bornu Empire
conquered and made the state a tributary. Wadai Empire[edit] Main article: Wadai Empire

Abéché, capital of Wadai, in 1918 after the French had taken over

The Wadai Empire
Wadai Empire
was centered on Chad
Chad
and the Central African Republic from the 17th century. The Tunjur people founded the Wadai Kingdom to the east of Bornu in the 16th century. In the 17th century there was a revolt of the Maba people
Maba people
who established a Muslim dynasty. At first Wadai paid tribute to Bornu and Durfur, but by the 18th century Wadai was fully independent and had become an aggressor against its neighbors.[10] Lunda Empire[edit] Main article: Lunda Empire Further information: List of Rulers of the Lunda Empire

Lunda town and dwelling

Following the Bantu Migration
Bantu Migration
from Western Africa, Bantu kingdomes and empires began to develop in southern Central Africa. In the 1450s, a Luba from the royal family Ilunga Tshibinda married Lunda queen Rweej and united all Lunda peoples. Their son Mulopwe Luseeng expanded the kingdom. His son Naweej expanded the empire further and is known as the first Lunda emperor, with the title Mwata Yamvo (mwaant yaav, mwant yav), the "Lord of Vipers". The Luba political system was retained, and conquered peoples were integrated into the system. The mwata yamvo assigned a cilool or kilolo (royal adviser) and tax collector to each state conquered.[16][17] Numerous states claimed descent from the Lunda. The Imbangala
Imbangala
of inland Angola
Angola
claimed descent from a founder, Kinguri, brother of Queen Rweej, who could not tolerate the rule of mulopwe Tshibunda. Kinguri became the title of kings of states founded by Queen Rweej's brother. The Luena (Lwena) and Lozi (Luyani) in Zambia
Zambia
also claim descent from Kinguri. During the 17th century, a Lunda chief and warrior called Mwata Kazembe
Mwata Kazembe
set up an Eastern Lunda kingdom in the valley of the Luapula River. The Lunda's western expansion also saw claims of descent by the Yaka and the Pende. The Lunda linked Central Africa
Africa
with the western coast trade. The kingdom of Lunda came to an end in the 19th century when it was invaded by the Chokwe, who were armed with guns.[17][18] Congo Empire[edit] Further information: List of rulers of Kongo

Kongo in 1711

By the 15th century CE, the farming Bakongo people (ba being the plural prefix) were unified as the Kingdom of Kongo
Kingdom of Kongo
under a ruler called the manikongo, residing in the fertile Pool Malebo
Pool Malebo
area on the lower Congo River. The capital was M'banza-Kongo. With superior organization, they were able to conquer their neighbors and extract tribute. They were experts in metalwork, pottery, and weaving raffia cloth. They stimulated interregional trade via a tribute system controlled by the manikongo. Later, maize (corn) and cassava (manioc) would be introduced to the region via trade with the Portuguese at their ports at Luanda
Luanda
and Benguela. The maize and cassava would result in population growth in the region and other parts of Africa, replacing millet as a main staple. By the 16th century, the manikongo held authority from the Atlantic in the west to the Kwango River
Kwango River
in the east. Each territory was assigned a mani-mpembe (provincial governor) by the manikongo. In 1506, Afonso I (1506–1542), a Christian, took over the throne. Slave trading increased with Afonso's wars of conquest. About 1568 to 1569, the Jaga invaded Kongo, laying waste to the kingdom and forcing the manikongo into exile. In 1574, Manikongo
Manikongo
Álvaro I was reinstated with the help of Portuguese mercenaries. During the latter part of the 1660s, the Portuguese tried to gain control of Kongo. Manikongo
Manikongo
António I (1661–1665), with a Kongolese army of 5,000, was destroyed by an army of Afro-Portuguese at the Battle of Mbwila. The empire dissolved into petty polities, fighting among each other for war captives to sell into slavery.[19][20][21] Kongo gained captives from the Kingdom of Ndongo
Kingdom of Ndongo
in wars of conquest. Ndongo was ruled by the ngola. Ndongo would also engage in slave trading with the Portuguese, with São Tomé
São Tomé
being a transit point to Brazil. The kingdom was not as welcoming as Kongo; it viewed the Portuguese with great suspicion and as an enemy. The Portuguese in the latter part of the 16th century tried to gain control of Ndongo but were defeated by the Mbundu. Ndongo experienced depopulation from slave raiding. The leaders established another state at Matamba, affiliated with Queen Nzinga, who put up a strong resistance to the Portuguese until coming to terms with them. The Portuguese settled along the coast as trade dealers, not venturing on conquest of the interior. Slavery wreaked havoc in the interior, with states initiating wars of conquest for captives. The Imbangala
Imbangala
formed the slave-raiding state of Kasanje, a major source of slaves during the 17th and 18th centuries.[22][23] Modern history[edit] Main articles: History of Chad, History of South Sudan, History of Cameroon, History of Central African Republic, and History of the Democratic Republic of the Congo During the Conference of Berlin
Conference of Berlin
in 1884-85 Africa
Africa
was divided up between the European colonial powers, defining boundaries that are largely intact with today's post-colonial states.[24]On 5 August 1890 the British and French concluded an agreement to clarify the boundary between French West Africa
Africa
and what would become Nigeria. A boundary was agreed along a line from Say on the Niger
Niger
to Barruwa on Lake Chad, but leaving the Sokoto Caliphate
Sokoto Caliphate
in the British sphere.[25] Parfait-Louis Monteil
Parfait-Louis Monteil
was given charge of an expedition to discover where this line actually ran.[26] On 9 April 1892 he reached Kukawa
Kukawa
on the shore of the lake.[27] Over the next twenty years a large part of the Chad
Chad
Basin was incorporated by treaty or by force into French West Africa. On 2 June 1909, the Wadai capital of Abéché
Abéché
was occupied by the French.[28] The remainder of the basin was divided by the British in Nigeria
Nigeria
who took Kano in 1903,[29] and the Germans in Cameroon. The countries of the basin regained their independence between 1956 and 1962, retaining the colonial administrative boundaries. In 2011, South Sudan
South Sudan
gained its independence from the Republic of Sudan after over 50 years of war. In the 21st century, many jihadist and Islamist groups began to operate in the Central African region, including the Seleka and the Ansaru. Economy[edit]

Fishing in Central Africa

The main economic activities of Central Africa
Africa
are farming, herding and fishing. At least 40% of the rural population of northern and eastern Central Africa
Africa
lives in poverty and routinely face chronic food shortages.[30] Crop production based on rain is possible only in the southern belt. Flood recession agriculture is practiced around Lake Chad
Chad
and in the riverine wetlands.[31]Nomadic herders migrate with their animals into the grasslands of the northern part of the basin for a few weeks during each short rainy season, where they intensively graze the highly nutritious grasses. When the dry season starts they move back south, either to grazing lands around the lakes and floodplains, or to the savannas further to the south.[32] In the 2000-01 period, fisheries in the Lake Chad
Chad
basin provided food and income to more than 10 million people, with a harvest of about 70,000 tons.[30] Fisheries have traditionally been managed by a system where each village has recognized rights over a defined part of the river, wetland or lake, and fishers from elsewhere must seek permission and pay a fee to use this area. The governments only enforced rules and regulations to a limited extent.[33] Local governments and traditional authorities are increasingly engaged in rent-seeking, collecting license fees with the help of the police or army.[34] Oil is also a major export of the countries of northern and eastern Central Africa, notably making up a large proportion of the GDPs of Chad
Chad
and South Sudan. Demographics[edit]

UN Macroregion of Central Africa

Following the Bantu Migration, Central Africa
Africa
is primarily inhabited by Bantu peoples
Bantu peoples
and Bantu languages
Bantu languages
predominate. These include the Mongo, Kongo and Luba peoples. Central Africa
Africa
also includes many Nilo-Saharan
Nilo-Saharan
and Niger-Congo
Niger-Congo
Ubangian communities: in north western Central Africa
Africa
the Nilo-Saharan
Nilo-Saharan
Kanuri[35][36] predominate. Most of the Ubangian speakers in Africa
Africa
(often grouped with Niger-Congo) are also found in Central Africa, such as the Gbaya,[37] Banda[37] and Zande,[3][37] in northern Central Africa. Notable Central African supra-regional organizations include the Lake Chad
Chad
Basin Commission and the Economic Community of Central African States. Christianity
Christianity
and African Traditional Religion
African Traditional Religion
are the predominant religions in Central Africa. Islam
Islam
is also practiced in some areas in Chad
Chad
and the Central African Republic.

Name Capital Currency Official languages Area (km2) Population (2016)[38]

 Angola[39] Luanda Kwanza Portuguese 1,246,700 28,813,463

 Cameroon[40] Yaoundé Central African CFA franc French, English 475,442 23,439,189

 Central African Republic[37] Bangui Central African CFA franc Sango, French 622,984 4,594,621

 Chad[36] N'Djamena Central African CFA franc French, Arabic 1,284,000 14,452,543

 Democratic Republic of the Congo[41] Kinshasa Congolese franc French 2,344,858 78,736,153

 Republic of the Congo[42] Brazzaville Central African CFA franc French 342,000 5,125,821

 Equatorial Guinea[43] Malabo Central African CFA franc Spanish, French 28,051 1,221,490

 Gabon[44] Libreville Central African CFA franc French 267,668 1,979,786

  São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe[45] São Tomé São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe
Dobra Portuguese 964 199,910

Culture[edit]

Art from Cameroon

Due to common historical processes and widespread demographic movements between the countries of Central Africa
Africa
before the Bantu Migration into much of southern Central Africa, the cultures of the region evidence many similarities and interrelationships. Similar cultural practices stemming from common origins as largely Nilo-Saharan
Nilo-Saharan
or Bantu peoples
Bantu peoples
is also evident in Central Africa including in music, dance, art, body adornment, initiation and marriage rituals. Some major ethnic groups in Central Africa
Africa
are as follows:

Name Family Language Region Country Population (million) Notes

Sara Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic Sara Chad
Chad
Basin Chad,[36] Cameroon,[46] Central African Republic[47] 3.5

Gbaya Niger-Congo, Ubangian Gbaya language Chad
Chad
Basin Central African Republic[37] 1.5

Zande Niger–Congo, Ubangian Zande Chad
Chad
Basin South Sudan,[3] Central African Republic,[37] Democratic Republic of Congo 1-4

Kanuri Nilo-Saharan, Western Saharan Kanuri Chad
Chad
Basin Eastern Nigeria,[35] Niger,[48] Cameroon,[49] Chad[36] 10

Banda Niger-Congo, Ubangian Banda language Chad
Chad
Basin Central African Republic[37] 1.5

Luba Niger-Congo, Bantu Luba language Sub-Equatorial Democratic Republic of Congo 10-15

Mongo Niger-Congo, Bantu Mongo language Sub-Equatorial Democratic Republic of Congo 10-15

Kongo Niger-Congo, Bantu Kongo language Sub-Equatorial Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Republic of Congo 10

See also[edit]

Geography portal Africa
Africa
portal

British Central Africa
Africa
Protectorate (1891–1907, now Malawi) Royal Museum for Central Africa
Africa
(Brussels, Belgium) French Equatorial Africa Mittelafrika Centrafrique

References[edit]

^ "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". United Nations. 2013-10-31. Retrieved 2015-01-28.  ^ "Economic Community of Central African States". Africa-Union.org. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-12-14. Retrieved 2007-12-16.  ^ a b c "The World Factbook: South Sudan". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-12-31.  ^ http://www.upi.com/Top_News/US/2013/12/24/US-Marines-poised-to-enter-South-Sudan/UPI-73481387863000/: "Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon requested the surge in U.N. peacekeepers, saying the troops would be used to help protect tens of thousands of civilians under siege in the landlocked 2-year-old Middle Africa
Africa
nation." ^ "The Central African Federation". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-16.  ^ Philippe Lavachery et al., Komé-Kribi: Rescue Archaeology Along the Chad- Cameroon
Cameroon
Oil Pipeline (2012), ISBN 3937248285 ^ Zangato, É.; Holl, A. F. C. (2010). "On the Iron
Iron
Front: New Evidence from North-Central Africa". Journal of African Archaeology. 8 (1): 7–23. doi:10.3213/1612-1651-10153.  ^ J. Cameron Monroe, Akinwumi Ogundiran, Power and Landscape in Atlantic West Africa: Archeological Perspectives, p. 316, ISBN 1107009391, citing Magnavita 2004; Magnavita et al. 2004, 2006; Magnavita and Schleifer 2004. ^ Peter Mitchell et al., The Oxford Handbook of African Archeology (2013), p. 855: "The relatively recent discovery of extensive walled settlements at the transition from the Neolithic to the Early Iron
Iron
Age in the Chad
Chad
Basin (Magnavita et al., 2006) indicates what enormous sites and processes may still await recognition." ^ a b Appiah & Gates 2010, p. 254. ^ Fanso 19. ^ Fanso 19; Hudgens and Trillo 1051. ^ Barth, Travels, II, 16–17. ^ Falola 2008, p. 26. ^ Falola 2008, p. 27. ^ Shillington (2005), p. 141. ^ a b Davidson (1991), p. 161. ^ Shillington (2005), p. 139, 141. ^ Collins and Burns (2007), pp. 185–188 ^ Shillington (2005), p. 196–198 ^ Davidson (1991), pp. 156–157 ^ Shillington (2005), p. 198, 199. ^ Davidson (1991), p. 158. ^ Harlow 2003, p. 139. ^ Hirshfield 1979, p. 26. ^ Hirshfield 1979, p. 37-38. ^ Lengyel 2007, p. 170. ^ Mazenot 2005, p. 352. ^ Falola 2008, p. 105. ^ a b Kenmore 2004, p. 220. ^ Rangeley, Thiam & Anderson 1994, p. 49. ^ Kenmore 2004, p. 230. ^ Kenmore 2004, p. 215. ^ Kenmore 2004, p. 218. ^ a b "The World Factbook: Nigeria". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-12-31.  ^ a b c d "The World Factbook: Chad". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 2013-04-24. Retrieved 2013-12-31.  ^ a b c d e f g "The World Factbook: Central African Republic". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-12-31.  ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations
United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ "The World Factbook
World Factbook
— Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.  ^ "The World Factbook
World Factbook
— Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.  ^ "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2016-05-08.  ^ "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2016-05-08.  ^ "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2016-05-08.  ^ "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2016-05-08.  ^ "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2016-05-08.  ^ Stefan Goodwin, Africas Legacies Of Urbanization (2006),p. 191, https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0739133489:"...and further west the even more numerous Sara [western Central African Republic, southern Chad, and northern Cameroon." ^ Peoples of Africa: Burkina Faso-Comoros - Volume 2 (2001), p. 86, https://books.google.com/books?isbn=076147160X:"The Central African Republic is a land of many different peoples... The Sara (SAHR) live in the grain-growing lands of the north as well as across the border in Chad." ^ "The World Factbook: Niger". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-12-31.  ^ "The World Factbook: Cameroon". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Central Africa.

Afrique Centrale.org Africa
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Interactive Map from the United States Army Africa African Pygmies—Among the earliest inhabitants of Central Africa

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West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

v t e

Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

v t e

Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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