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The Central Semitic languages[2][3] are a proposed intermediate group of Semitic languages, comprising the Late Iron Age, modern dialect of Arabic (prior to which Arabic was a Southern Semitic language), and older Bronze Age Northwest Semitic languages
Semitic languages
(which include Aramaic, Ugaritic, and the Canaanite languages of Hebrew and Phoenician). In this reckoning, Central Semitic itself is one of three divisions of Semitic along with East Semitic ( Akkadian
Akkadian
and Eblaite) and South Semitic (South Arabian and the Ethiopian Semitic languages). Distinctive features of Central Semitic languages
Semitic languages
include the following:[4]

The realization of the common Semitic emphatic consonants as pharyngealized rather than ejectives:

For example, Proto-Semitic
Proto-Semitic
*ṭ [tʼ] and *ṣ [tsʼ] are realized as [tˤ] and [sˤ] in Arabic and Neo-Aramaic, in contrast to remaining ejectives in South Arabian and in Ethiopian Semitic. Additionally, Proto-Semitic
Proto-Semitic
*ḳ [kʼ] becomes a uvular stop [q].

An innovative negation marker *bal, of uncertain origin. The generalization of t as the suffix conjugation past tense marker, levelling an earlier alternation between *k in the first person and *t in the second person. A new prefix conjugation for the non-past tense, of the form ya-qtulu, replacing the inherited ya-qattal form (they are schematic verbal forms, as if derived from an example triconsonantal root q-t-l). Leveling of vowels in verb prefixes. The evidence of Akkadian
Akkadian
suggests four Proto-Semitic
Proto-Semitic
prefixes: *ʔa-, *ta-, *ni-, *yi-. In Central Semitic, all prefixes have the same vowel within a given verb paradigm. It, however, developed slightly differently in the different languages: Arabic has generalized a in all prefixes, but Northwest Semitic has generalized either a or i, depending on the verb stem in question. (Note that in modern dialectal Arabic all of a, i, u, and zero may be used, depending on the consonantal and vocalic pattern of the verb; again, however, the same vowel is used for all persons.)

Different classification systems disagree on the precise structure of the group. The most common approach divides it into Arabic and Northwest Semitic, while SIL Ethnologue
SIL Ethnologue
has South Central Semitic (including Arabic and Hebrew) vs. Aramaic. The main distinction between Arabic and the Northwest Semitic languages is the presence of broken plurals in the former. The majority of Arabic nouns (apart from participles) form plurals in this manner, whereas virtually all nouns in the Northwest Semitic languages form their plurals with a suffix. For example, the Arabic بيت bayt ("house") becomes بيوت buyūt ("houses"); the Hebrew בית bayit ("house") becomes בתים bāttīm ("houses"). References[edit]

Sabatino Moscati (1980). An Introduction to Comparative Grammar of Semitic Languages Phonology and Morphology. Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 3-447-00689-7. 

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Central Semitic". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ https://books.google.pl/books?id=LfruK29pVl8C&pg=PA124&lpg=PA124&dq=old+south+arabian+languages+grammar&source=bl&ots=C_2xqghETA&sig=iAxC60ax0rjqVYtObzAAP_RQLCY&hl=pl&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi-3_2N8PLTAhUFGZoKHdHxCKUQ6AEIczAN#v=onepage&q=old%20south%20arabian%20languages%20grammar&f=false ^ https://books.google.pl/books?id=KQpFAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=old+south+arabian+central+semitic&source=bl&ots=pEV0cdsVOu&sig=o8Mg12NX6BsfCLes-2Roh2-AK5Y&hl=pl&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj4gOyTr_PTAhXE1xoKHf-4BbUQ6AEIfzAN#v=onepage&q=old%20south%20arabian%20central%20semitic&f=false ^ Faber, Alice (1997). "Genetic Subgrouping of the Semitic Languages". In Hetzron, Robert. The Semitic Languages. London: Routledge. pp. 3–15. ISBN 0-415-05767-1. 

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Semitic languages

East Semitic languages

Akkadian Eblaite

West Semitic and Central Semitic languages

Northwest

Canaanite

Hebrew

Biblical Mishnaic Medieval Mizrahi Yemenite Sephardi Ashkenazi Samaritan Modern

Phoenician

Punic

Others

Ammonite Moabite Edomite

Aramaic

Western

Jewish Palestinian Samaritan Christian Palestinian Nabataean Western Neo-Aramaic

Eastern

Biblical Hatran Syriac Jewish Babylonian Aramaic Chaldean Neo-Aramaic Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Senaya Koy Sanjaq Surat Hértevin Turoyo Mlahsô Mandaic Judeo-Aramaic Syriac Malayalam

Others

Amorite Eteocypriot Ugaritic

Arabic

Literary

Classical Modern Standard

Dialects

Mashriqi (Eastern)

Arabian Peninsular

Dhofari Gulf

Bahrani Shihhi

Hejazi Najdi Omani Yemeni

Judeo-Yemeni

Bedouin

Eastern Egyptian and Peninsular Bedawi

Others

Egyptian

Sa'idi Arabic

Levantine

Cypriot Lebanese Palestinian

Mesopotamian

North Mesopotamian Judeo-Iraqi

Sudanese Central Asian

Tajiki Uzbeki

Shirvani

Maghrebi (Western)

Algerian Saharan Shuwa Hassānīya Andalusian Libyan Arabic

Judeo-Tripolitanian

Sicilian

Maltese

Moroccan Arabic

Judeo-Moroccan

Tunisian Arabic

Judeo-Tunisian

Others

Old Arabic Nabataean Arabic

South Semitic languages

Western South

Old South

Sabaean Minaean Qatabanian Hadramautic Awsānian

Ethiopian

North

Ge'ez Tigrinya Tigre Dahalik

South

Amharic

Argobba

Harari

Silt'e (Wolane, Ulbareg, Inneqor) Zay

Outer

n-group

Gafat Soddo

tt-group

Mesmes Muher West Gurage

Mesqan Ezha Chaha Gura Gumer Gyeto Ennemor Endegen

Modern South Arabian

Bathari Harsusi Hobyot Mehri Shehri Soqotri

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