Domestication of the horse
* Steppe cultures
* Sredny Stog
* Corded ware
* Middle Dnieper
* Multi-cordoned ware
Globular Amphora culture
Globular Amphora culture
* Corded ware
* Gandhara grave
* Painted Grey Ware
Northern Black Polished Ware
Northern Black Polished Ware
Peoples and societies
* Hellenic peoples
Balkans /Anatolia :
Religion and mythology Reconstructed
Winter solstice /
Indo-European studies Scholars
Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European
Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture
The Horse, the Wheel and Language
Journal of Indo-European Studies
Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch
Indo-European Etymological Dictionary
The CELTIC LANGUAGES (usually pronounced /ˈkɛltɪk/ but sometimes
/ˈsɛltɪk/ ) are descended from
Proto-Celtic , or "Common Celtic";
a branch of the greater Indo-European language family . The term
"Celtic" was first used to describe this language group by Edward
Lhuyd in 1707, following
Paul-Yves Pezron who had already made the
explicit link between the
Celts described by classical writers and the
Welsh and Breton languages.
Celtic languages are mostly spoken on the north-western edge
Europe , notably in
Cornwall , and the
Isle of Man . There are also a substantial number
of Welsh speakers in the
Patagonia area of
Argentina and some speakers
Scottish Gaelic on
Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island in
Nova Scotia . Some people
Celtic languages in the other Celtic diaspora areas of the
United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. In all these
Celtic languages are now only spoken by minorities though
there are continuing efforts at revitalisation . Welsh is the only
Celtic language not classified as "endangered" by
During the 1st millennium BC, they were spoken across much of Europe,
Iberian Peninsula , from the Atlantic and
North Sea coastlines,
up to the
Rhine valley and down the
Danube valley to the
Black Sea ,
the northern Balkan Peninsula and in central
Asia Minor . The spread
to Cape Breton and
Patagonia occurred in modern times.
* 1 Living languages
* 1.1 Demographics
* 2 Classification
* 2.1 Eska (2010)
* 3 Characteristics
* 3.1 Comparison table
* 3.2 Examples
* 4 Possibly
* 5 See also
* 6 Notes
* 7 References
* 8 External links
SIL Ethnologue lists six living Celtic languages, of which four have
retained a substantial number of native speakers. These are the
Goidelic languages (i.e. Irish and
Scottish Gaelic , which are both
Middle Irish ) and the
Brittonic languages (i.e. Welsh
and Breton , which are both descended from
Common Brittonic ).
The other two, Cornish (a Brittonic language) and Manx (a Goidelic
language), died in modern times with their presumed last native
speakers in 1777 and 1974 respectively. For both these languages,
however, revitalisation movements have led to the adoption of these
languages by adults and children and produced some native speakers.
Taken together, there were roughly one million native speakers of
Celtic languages as of the 2000s. In 2010, there were more than 1.4
million speakers of Celtic languages.
NUMBER OF NATIVE SPEAKERS
NUMBER OF PEOPLE WHO HAVE ONE OR MORE SKILLS IN THE LANGUAGE
MAIN AREA(S) IN WHICH THE LANGUAGE IS SPOKEN
REGULATED BY/LANGUAGE BODY
ESTIMATED NUMBER OF SPEAKERS IN MAJOR CITIES
562,000 (19.0% of the population of Wales) self-certify that they
"can speak Welsh" (2011)
Around 947,700 (2011) total speakers
Wales : 788,000 speakers, 26.7% of the population of Wales,
England : 150,000
Chubut Province , Argentina: 5,000
United States : 2,500
Canada : 2,200
Y Wladfa , Chubut —
Welsh Language Commissioner (
Meri Huws )
Welsh Language Board Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg) Cardiff
Swansea : 45,085
Newport : 18,490 Bangor : 7,190
In the Republic of Ireland, 94,000 people use Irish daily outside the
education system. 1,887,437
United Kingdom :
United States :
Foras na Gaeilge
Dublin : 184,140
Galway : 37,614
Cork : 57,318
Belfast : 30,360
Ofis Publik ar Brezhoneg
Rennes : 7,000
Brest : 40,000
Nantes : 4,000
57,375 (2011) in
Scotland as well as 1,275 (2011) in
87,056 (2011) in Scotland
Bòrd na Gàidhlig
Glasgow : 5,726
Edinburgh : 3,220
Aberdeen : 1,397
Keskowethyans an Taves Kernewek
Truro : 118
100+, including a small number of children who are new native
Isle of Man
Coonceil ny Gaelgey
Douglas : 507
Shelta , based largely on Irish with influence from an
undocumented source (some 86,000 speakers in 2009).
* Some forms of Welsh-Romani or Kååle also combined Romany itself
Welsh language and
English language forms (extinct).
Beurla-reagaird , Highland travellers' language
Celtic languages according to Insular vs.
Continental hypothesis. (click to enlarge) Classification of
Indo-European languages. (click to enlarge)
Celtic divided into various branches:
* Lepontic , the oldest attested Celtic language (from the 6th
century BC). Anciently spoken in
Switzerland and in Northern-Central
Italy , from the
Umbria . Coins with Lepontic inscriptions
have been found in
Gallia Narbonensis .
The second of the four Botorrita plaques . The third plaque is
the longest text discovered in any ancient Celtic language.
* Northeastern Hispano-Celtic /Eastern Hispano-Celtic or Celtiberian
, anciently spoken in the
Iberian peninsula , Pre-Roman map of
Iberian Peninsula in the eastern part of
Old Castile and south
Aragon . Modern provinces of Segovia, Burgos, Soria, Guadalajara,
Cuenca, Zaragoza and Teruel. The relationship of Celtiberian with
Gallaecian , in the northwest of the peninsula, is uncertain.
* Northwestern Hispano-Celtic /Western Hispano-Celtic or Gallaecian
, anciently spoken in the former
Gallaecia , northwest of the
peninsula (modern Galicia ,
Asturias , northern
Portugal and parts of
Old Castile ).
* Gaulish languages , including Galatian and possibly Noric . These
languages were once spoken in a wide arc from
Turkey . They
are now all extinct.
* Brittonic , including the living languages Breton , Cornish , and
Welsh , and the extinct languages
Cumbric and Pictish though Pictish
may be a sister language rather than a daughter of
Common Brittonic .
Before the arrival of Scotti on the
Isle of Man in the 9th century,
there may have been a Brittonic language in the Isle of Man.
Goidelic , including the living languages Irish , Manx , and
Scottish Gaelic .
Scholarly handling of the
Celtic languages has been rather
argumentative owing to scarceness of primary source data. Some
scholars (such as Cowgill 1975; McCone 1991, 1992; and Schrijver 1995)
distinguish Continental Celtic and
Insular Celtic , arguing that the
differences between the
Brittonic languages arose after
these split off from the Continental Celtic languages. Other scholars
(such as Schmidt 1988) distinguish between
P-Celtic and Q-Celtic,
putting most of the Gaulish and
Brittonic languages in the former
group and the
Goidelic and Celtiberian languages in the latter. The
P-Celtic languages (also called
Gallo-Brittonic ) are sometimes seen
(for example by Koch 1992) as a central innovating area as opposed to
the more conservative peripheral
Breton language is Brittonic, not Gaulish, though there may be
some input from the latter, having been introduced from Southwestern
regions of Britain in the post-Roman era and having evolved into
Breton – still partially intelligible by modern Welsh and Cornish
In the P/Q classification schema, the first language to split off
Proto-Celtic was Gaelic. It has characteristics that some
scholars see as archaic, but others see as also being in the Brittonic
languages (see Schmidt). In the Insular/Continental classification
schema, the split of the former into Gaelic and Brittonic is seen as
The distinction of Celtic into these four sub-families most likely
occurred about 900 BC according to Gray and Atkinson but, because of
estimation uncertainty, it could be any time between 1200 and 800 BC.
However, they only considered Gaelic and Brythonic. The controversial
paper by Forster and Toth included Gaulish and put the break-up much
earlier at 3200 BC ± 1500 years. They support the Insular Celtic
hypothesis. The early
Celts were commonly associated with the
Urnfield culture , the
Hallstatt culture , and the La
Tène culture , though the earlier assumption of association between
language and culture is now considered to be less strong. The
Celtic nations , where
Celtic languages are spoken today, or were
spoken into the modern era:
Ireland (Irish )
Isle of Man (Manx )
Wales (Welsh )
Cornwall (Cornish )
Brittany (Breton )
There are legitimate scholarly arguments in favour of both the
Insular Celtic hypothesis and the P-Celtic/
Proponents of each schema dispute the accuracy and usefulness of the
other's categories. However, since the 1970s the division into Insular
and Continental Celtic has become the more widely held view (Cowgill
1975; McCone 1991, 1992; Schrijver 1995), but in the middle of the
1980s, the P-Celtic/
Q-Celtic hypothesis found new supporters (Lambert
1994), because of the inscription on the Larzac piece of lead (1983),
the analysis of which reveals another common phonetical innovation
-nm- > -nu (Gaelic ainm / Gaulish anuana,
Old Welsh enuein "names"),
that is less accidental than only one. The discovery of a third common
innovation, would allow the specialists to come to the conclusion of a
Gallo-Brittonic dialect (Schmidt 1986; Fleuriot 1986).
The interpretation of this and further evidence is still quite
contested, and the main argument in favour of
Insular Celtic is
connected with the development of the verbal morphology and the syntax
in Irish and British Celtic, which Schumacher regards as convincing,
while he considers the P-Celtic/
Q-Celtic division unimportant and
Gallo-Brittonic as an outdated hypothesis. Stifter affirms
Gallo-Brittonic view is "out of favour" in the scholarly
community as of 2008 and the
Insular Celtic hypothesis "widely
When referring only to the modern Celtic languages, since no
Continental Celtic language has living descendants, "Q-Celtic" is
equivalent to "Goidelic" and "P-Celtic" is equivalent to "Brittonic".
Within the Indo-European family, the
Celtic languages have sometimes
been placed with the
Italic languages in a common Italo-Celtic
subfamily, a hypothesis that is now largely discarded, in favour of
the assumption of language contact between pre-Celtic and pre-Italic
How the family tree of the
Celtic languages is ordered depends on
which hypothesis is used:
"INSULAR CELTIC HYPOTHESIS"
* Continental Celtic
Eska (2010) evaluates the evidence as supporting the following tree,
based on shared innovations , though it is not always clear that the
innovations are not areal features . It seems likely that Celtiberian
split off before Cisalpine Celtic, but the evidence for this is not
robust. On the other hand, the unity of Gaulish, Goidelic, and
Brittonic is reasonably secure. Schumacher (2004, p. 86) had already
cautiously considered this grouping to be likely genetic, based, among
others, on the shared reformation of the sentence-initial, fully
inflecting relative pronoun *i̯os, *i̯ā, *i̯od into an uninflected
enclitic particle. Eska sees
Cisalpine Gaulish as more akin to
Lepontic than to Transalpine Gaulish.
* Nuclear Celtic?
* Cisalpine Celtic: Lepontic →
* Transalpine–Goidelic–Brittonic (secure)
Transalpine Gaulish ("Transalpine Celtic")
Eska considers a division of Transalpine–Goidelic–Brittonic into
Insular Celtic to be most probable because of the
greater number of innovations in
Insular Celtic than in P-Celtic, and
Insular Celtic languages were probably not in great enough
contact for those innovations to spread as part of a sprachbund .
However, if they have another explanation (such as an SOV substratum
language), then it is possible that
P-Celtic is a valid clade, and the
top branching would be:
* Transalpine–Goidelic–Brittonic (
Transalpine Gaulish ("Transalpine Celtic")
Although there are many differences between the individual Celtic
languages, they do show many family resemblances.
* consonant mutations (
Insular Celtic only)
* inflected prepositions (
Insular Celtic only)
* two grammatical genders (modern
Insular Celtic only;
Old Irish and
the Continental languages had three genders)
* a vigesimal number system (counting by twenties)
* Cornish hwetek ha dew ugens "fifty-six" (literally "sixteen and
* verb–subject–object (VSO) word order (probably Insular Celtic
* an interplay between the subjunctive, future, imperfect, and
habitual, to the point that some tenses and moods have ousted others
* an impersonal or autonomous verb form serving as a passive or
* Welsh dysgaf "I teach" vs. dysgir "is taught, one teaches"
* Irish múinim "I teach" vs. múintear "is taught, one teaches"
* no infinitives , replaced by a quasi-nominal verb form called the
verbal noun or verbnoun
* frequent use of vowel mutation as a morphological device, e.g.
formation of plurals, verbal stems, etc.
* use of preverbal particles to signal either subordination or
illocutionary force of the following clause
* mutation-distinguished subordinators/relativisers
* particles for negation , interrogation, and occasionally for
* infixed pronouns positioned between particles and verbs
* lack of simple verb for the imperfective "have" process, with
possession conveyed by a composite structure, usually BE + preposition
* Cornish yma kath dhymm "I have a cat", literally "there is a cat
* use of periphrastic constructions to express verbal tense, voice,
or aspectual distinctions
* distinction by function of the two versions of BE verbs
traditionally labelled substantive (or existential) and copula
* bifurcated demonstrative structure
* suffixed pronominal supplements, called confirming or
* use of singulars or special forms of counted nouns, and use of a
singulative suffix to make singular forms from plurals, where older
singulars have disappeared
Examples: Irish : Ná bac le mac an bhacaigh is ní bhacfaidh mac an
bhacaigh leat. (Literal translation) Don't bother with son the
beggar's and not will-bother son the beggar's with-you.
* bhacaigh is the genitive of bacach. The igh the result of
affection ; the bh is the lenited form of b.
* leat is the second person singular inflected form of the
* The order is verb–subject–object (VSO) in the second half.
Compare this to English or French (and possibly Continental Celtic)
which are normally subject–verb–object in word order.
Welsh : pedwar ar bymtheg a phedwar ugain (Literally) four on
fifteen and four twenties
* bymtheg is a mutated form of pymtheg, which is pump ("five") plus
deg ("ten"). Likewise, phedwar is a mutated form of pedwar.
* The multiples of ten are deg, ugain, deg ar hugain, deugain,
hanner cant, trigain, deg a thrigain, pedwar ugain, deg a phedwar
estuary, mouth of a river
tu fas, tu allan
Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They
are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one
another in a spirit of brotherhood.
* Irish : Saolaítear na daoine uile saor agus comhionann ina
ndínit agus ina gcearta. Tá bua an réasúin agus an choinsiasa acu
agus dlíd iad féin d'iompar de mheon bráithreachas i leith a
* Manx : Ta dagh ooilley pheiagh ruggit seyr as corrym ayns
ard-cheim as kiartyn. Ren Jee feoiltaghey resoon as cooinsheanse orroo
as by chair daue ymmyrkey ry cheilley myr braaraghyn.
Scottish Gaelic : Tha gach uile dhuine air a bhreith saor agus
co-ionnan ann an urram 's ann an còirichean. Tha iad air am breith le
reusan is le cogais agus mar sin bu chòir dhaibh a bhith beò nam
measg fhèin ann an spiorad bràthaireil.
* Breton : Dieub ha par en o dellezegezh hag o gwirioù eo ganet an
holl dud. Poell ha skiant zo dezho ha dleout a reont bevañ an eil
gant egile en ur spered a genvreudeuriezh.
* Cornish : Genys frank ha par yw oll tus an bys yn aga dynita hag
yn aga gwiryow. Enduys yns gans reson ha kowses hag y tal dhedha
omdhon an eyl orth y gila yn spyrys a vrederedh.
* Welsh : Genir pawb yn rhydd ac yn gydradd â'i gilydd mewn urddas
a hawliau. Fe'u cynysgaeddir â rheswm a chydwybod, a dylai pawb
ymddwyn y naill at y llall mewn ysbryd cymodlon.
POSSIBLY CELTIC LANGUAGES
It has been suggested that several poorly-documented languages may
possibly have been Celtic.
* CAMUNIC is an extinct language which was spoken in the first
millennium BC in the
Valtellina valleys of the Central
Alps . It has most recently been proposed to be a Celtic language.
* LIGURIAN was spoken in the Northern Mediterranean Coast straddling
the southeast French and northwest Italian coasts, including parts of
Elba island and
Corsica . Xavier Delamarre argues that
Ligurian was a Celtic language, similar to, but not the same as
Gaulish. The Ligurian-Celtic question is also discussed by Barruol
(1999). Ancient Ligurian is either listed as Celtic (epigraphic), or
* LUSITANIAN was spoken in the area between the Douro and Tagus
rivers of western
Iberia (a region straddling the present border of
Spain ). It is known from only five inscriptions and
various place names. It is an Indo-European language and some
scholars have proposed that it may be a para-Celtic language, which
evolved alongside Celtic or formed a dialect continuum or sprachbund
with Tartessian and Gallaecian. This is tied to a theory of an Iberian
origin for the Celtic languages.
It is also possible that the
Q-Celtic languages alone, including
Goidelic, originated in western
Iberia (a theory that was first put
Edward Lhuyd in 1707) or shared a common linguistic
ancestor with Lusitanian. Secondary evidence for this hypothesis has
been found in research by biological scientists, who have identified
(firstly) deep-rooted similarities in human DNA found precisely in
both the former
Ireland , and; (secondly) the
so-called "Lusitanian distribution " of animals and plants unique to
Iberia and Ireland. Both of these phenomena are now generally
believed to have resulted from human emigration from
Ireland, during the late
Paleolithic or early
Mesolithic eras. Other
scholars see greater linguistic affinities between Lusitanian,
proto-Italic and Old European .
* PICTISH was for a long time thought to be a pre-Celtic,
non-Indo-European language of Scotland. Some believe it was an Insular
Celtic language allied to the
P-Celtic language Brittonic (descendants
Welsh , Cornish ,
Cumbric , Breton ).
* RHAETIAN was spoken in central parts of present-day
Austria , and the Alpine regions of northeastern
Italy . It
is documented by a limited number of short inscriptions (found through
Italy and Western Austria) in two variants of the Etruscan
alphabet . Its linguistic categorization is not clearly established,
and it presents a confusing mixture of what appear to be Etruscan ,
Indo-European , and uncertain other elements. Howard Hayes Scullard
argues that Rhaetian was also a Celtic language.
* TARTESSIAN (or CUNETIC), spoken in the southwest of the Iberia
Peninsula (mainly southern
Portugal and southwestern
Tartessian is known by 95 inscriptions, with the longest having 82
John T. Koch argues that Tartessian was also a
* A Swadesh list of the modern Celtic languages
Celtic League (political organisation)
Celtic League (political organisation)
Continental Celtic languages
Language families and languages
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LANGUAGES, ed. Donald MacAulay, (Cambridge University Press, 1992), 3.
* ^ Cunliffe, Barry W. 2003. The Celts: a very short introduction.
* ^ The Celts, Alice Roberts, (Heron Books 2015)
* ^ "Language by State – Scottish Gaelic" on Modern Language
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* ^ "Languages Spoken At Home" Archived 25 March 2009 at the
Wayback Machine . from Australian Government Office of Multicultural
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Many Voices: Australian English--The National Language, 2004, pg. 74
* ^ Languages Spoken:Total Responses from Statistics New Zealand
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Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 34, 365–366, 529, 973, 1053. Retrieved
15 June 2010.
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* ^ Beresford Ellis, Peter (1990, 1998, 2005). The Story of the
Cornish Language. Tor Mark Press. pp. 20–22. ISBN 0-85025-371-3 .
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* ^ A B Staff. "Fockle ny ghaa: schoolchildren take charge".
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19 August 2011.
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Council website. BBC. 2010. Archived from the original on 8 January
2010. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
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* ^ A B "
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* ^ A B Office for National Statistics 2011
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of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – UK: Welsh". UNHCR. Retrieved
23 May 2010.
* ^ "
Wales and Argentina". Wales.com website. Welsh Assembly
Government . 2008. Archived from the original on 16 October 2012.
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* ^ "Table 1. Detailed Languages Spoken at Home and Ability to
Speak English for the Population 5 Years and Over for the United
States: 2006–2008 Release Date: April 2010" (xls). United States
Census Bureau . 27 April 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
* ^ "2006 Census of Canada: Topic based tabulations: Various
Languages Spoken (147), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) for the
Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan
Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census – 20% Sample Data".
Canada . 7 December 2010. Retrieved 3 January 2011.
* ^ StatsWales. "
Welsh language skills by local authority, gender
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* ^ "Irish Examiner". Archives.tcm.ie. 24 November 2004. Retrieved
19 August 2011.
* ^ Christina Bratt Paulston. Linguistic Minorities in Multilingual
Settings: Implications for Language Policies. J. Benjamins Pub. Co. p.
81. ISBN 1-55619-347-5 .
* ^ Pierce, David (2000). Irish Writing in the Twentieth Century.
Cork University Press. p. 1140. ISBN 1-85918-208-9 .
* ^ Ó hÉallaithe, Donncha (1999). Cuisle. Missing or empty
title= (help )
* ^ A B www.cso.ie Central Statistics Office, Census 2011 – This
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* ^ Central Statistics Office. "Population Aged 3 Years and Over by
Province County or City, Sex, Ability to Speak Irish and Census Year".
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* ^ DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE AND PERSONNEL. "Census 2011 Key
Statistics for Northern Ireland" (PDF). The Northern Ireland
Statistics and Research Agency. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
* ^ (in French) Données clés sur breton, Ofis ar Brezhoneg
* ^ POLE ÉTUDES ET DÉVELOPPEMENT OBSERVATOIRE DES PRATIQUES
LINGUISTIQUES. "SITUATION DE LA LANGUE". Office Public de la Langue
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* ^ A B 2011
Scotland Census, Table QS211SC.
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Press and Journal. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
* ^ some 600 children brought up as bilingual native speakers (2003
SIL Ethnologue ).
* ^ Around 2,000 fluent speakers. "\'South
West:TeachingEnglish:British Council:BBC". BBC/British Council
website. BBC. 2010. Archived from the original on 8 January 2010.
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* ^ Equalities and Wellbeing Division. "Language in
Wales: 2011". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
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* ^ "Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: glv". Sil.org. 14
January 2008. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 19
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* ^ "ROMLEX: Romani dialects". Romani.uni-graz.at. Retrieved 19
* ^ A B Schumacher, Stefan; Schulze-Thulin, Britta; aan de Wiel,
Caroline (2004). Die keltischen Primärverben. Ein vergleichendes,
etymologisches und morphologisches Lexikon (in German). Innsbruck:
Institut für Sprachen und Kulturen der Universität Innsbruck. pp.
84–87. ISBN 3-85124-692-6 .
* ^ Percivaldi, Elena (2003). I Celti: una civiltà europea. Giunti
Editore. p. 82.
* ^ A B Kruta, Venceslas (1991). The Celts. Thames and Hudson. p.
* ^ Stifter, David (2008). Old Celtic Languages (PDF). p. 12.
* ^ MORANDI 2004, pp. 702-703, n. 277
* ^ Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia John T. Koch, Vol 1,
* ^ Prósper, B.M. (2002). Lenguas y religiones prerromanas del
occidente de la península ibérica. Ediciones Universidad de
Salamanca. pp. 422–27. ISBN 84-7800-818-7 .
* ^ Villar F., B. M. Prósper. (2005). Vascos, Celtas e
Indoeuropeos: genes y lenguas. Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca.
pgs. 333–350. ISBN 84-7800-530-7 .
* ^ "In the northwest of the Iberian Peninula, and more
specifically between the west and north Atlantic coasts and an
imaginary line running north-south and linking Oviedo and Merida,
there is a corpus of Latin inscriptions with particular
characteristics of its own. This corpus contains some linguistic
features that are clearly Celtic and others that in our opinion are
not Celtic. The former we shall group, for the moment, under the label
northwestern Hispano-Celtic. The latter are the same features found in
well-documented contemporary inscriptions in the region occupied by
the Lusitanians, and therefore belonging to the variety known as
LUSITANIAN, or more broadly as GALLO-LUSITANIAN. As we have already
said, we do not consider this variety to belong to the Celtic language
family." Jordán Colera 2007: p.750
Kenneth H. Jackson suggested that there were two Pictish
languages, a pre-Indo-European one and a Pritenic Celtic one. This has
been challenged by some scholars. See
Katherine Forsyth 's "Language
in Pictland: the case against 'non-Indo-European Pictish'" "Etext"
(PDF). (27.8 MB ). See also the introduction by James ">(PDF).
Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 February 2006. (172 KB ).
Compare also the treatment of Pictish in Price's The Languages of
Britain (1984) with his Languages in Britain &
* ^ Barbour and Carmichael, Stephen and Cathie (2000). Language and
nationalism in Europe. Oxford University Press. p. 56. ISBN
* ^ Gray and Atkinson, RD; Atkinson, QD (2003). "Language-tree
divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European
origin". Nature. 426 (6965): 435–439.
PMID 14647380 . doi :10.1038/nature02029 .
* ^ Rexova, K.; Frynta, D; Zrzavy, J. (2003). "Cladistic analysis