The Info List - Cedrus

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(common English name cedar) is a genus of coniferous trees in the plant family Pinaceae
(subfamily Abietoideae). They are native to the mountains of the western Himalayas
and the Mediterranean region, occurring at altitudes of 1,500–3,200 m in the Himalayas
and 1,000–2,200 m in the Mediterranean.[1]


1 Description 2 Taxonomy

2.1 Species and subspecies

3 Ecology 4 Uses 5 Etymology 6 See also 7 References 8 External links


Foliage of Atlas cedar

trees can grow up to 30–40 m (occasionally 60 m) tall with spicy-resinous scented wood, thick ridged or square-cracked bark, and broad, level branches. The shoots are dimorphic, with long shoots, which form the framework of the branches, and short shoots, which carry most of the leaves. The leaves are evergreen and needle-like, 8–60 mm long, arranged in an open spiral phyllotaxis on long shoots, and in dense spiral clusters of 15–45 together on short shoots; they vary from bright grass-green to dark green to strongly glaucous pale blue-green, depending on the thickness of the white wax layer which protects the leaves from desiccation. The seed cones are barrel-shaped, 6–12 cm long and 3–8 cm broad, green maturing grey-brown, and, as in Abies, disintegrate at maturity to release the winged seeds. The seeds are 10–15 mm long, with a 20–30 mm wing; as in Abies, the seeds have two or three resin blisters, containing an unpleasant-tasting resin, thought to be a defence against squirrel predation. Cone maturation takes one year, with pollination in autumn and the seeds maturing the same time a year later. The pollen cones are slender ovoid, 3–8 cm long, produced in late summer, and shedding pollen in autumn.[1][2] Taxonomy[edit] Cedars share a very similar cone structure with the firs (Abies) and were traditionally thought to be most closely related to them, but molecular evidence supports a basal position in the family.[3][4] Species and subspecies[edit] The five taxa of Cedrus
are assigned according to taxonomic opinion to between one and four different species:[1][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]

Cedrus atlantica
Cedrus atlantica
Atlas cedar
Atlas cedar
(syn. C. l. atlantica), Atlas Mountains in Morocco
and Algeria, leaves dark green to glaucous blue-green, 10–25 mm Cedrus brevifolia
Cedrus brevifolia
Cyprus cedar
Cyprus cedar
(syn. C. l. brevifolia, C. libani var. brevifolia), mountains of Cyprus, leaves glaucous blue-green, 8–20 mm Cedrus deodara
Cedrus deodara
(syn. C. l. deodara) — deodar or deodar cedar, native to Western Himalaya, leaves are bright green to pale glaucous green, 25–60 mm; cones have slightly ridged scales Cedrus libani
Cedrus libani
Lebanon cedar
Lebanon cedar
or cedar of Lebanon, native to Mediterranean region
Mediterranean region
mountains in Near East
Near East
and Turkey, cones have smooth scales; two (or up to four) subspecies:

C. l. libani — Lebanon
cedar, mountains of Lebanon, western Syria, and south-central Turkey, leaves dark green to glaucous blue-green, 10–25 mm C. l. stenocoma — Turkish cedar, mountains of southwest Turkey, leaves glaucous blue-green, 8–25 mm

A cedar in Lebanon

Ecology[edit] Cedars are adapted to mountainous climates; in the Mediterranean, they receive winter precipitation, mainly as snow, and summer drought, while in the western Himalaya, they receive primarily summer monsoon rainfall.[1] Cedars are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including pine processionary and turnip moth (recorded on deodar cedar). Uses[edit]

Glaucous Cedrus atlantica
Cedrus atlantica
trained as a bonsai

Cedar wood has a woody, slightly sweet scent, and a distinctive colour and grain.

Cedars are very popular ornamental trees, widely used in horticulture in temperate climates where winter temperatures do not fall below about −25 °C. The Turkish cedar is slightly hardier, to −30 °C or just below. Extensive mortality of planted specimens can occur in severe winters where temperatures do drop lower.[15] Areas with successful long-term cultivation include the entire Mediterranean region, western Europe north to the British Isles, southern Australia and New Zealand, and southern and western North America. Cedar wood and cedar oil are known to be a natural repellent to moths,[16] hence cedar is a popular lining for modern-day cedar chests and closets in which woolens are stored. This specific use of cedar is mentioned in The Iliad
The Iliad
(Book 24), referring to the cedar-roofed or lined storage chamber where Priam goes to fetch treasures to be used as ransom. However, the species typically used for cedar chests and closets in North America is Juniperus virginiana, which is different from the true cedars (note also common confusion with Thuja
spp. below). Cedar is also commonly used to make shoe trees as it can absorb moisture and deodorise. Many species of cedar trees are suitable for training as bonsai. They work well with many styles, including formal and informal upright, slanting, and cascading.[17] In North America, species of the genus Thuja, such as western red cedar, are commonly — though mistakenly — confused with genuine cedar, as is J. virginiana, typically known as red cedar or eastern red cedar. While some naturalized species of cedar (Cedrus, the true cedars) can be found in the Americas, no species is native.

Etymology[edit] Both the Latin word cedrus and the generic name cedrus are derived from Greek κέδρος kédros. Ancient Greek and Latin used the same word, kédros and cedrus, respectively, for different species of plants now classified in the genera Cedrus
and Juniperus (juniper). Species of both genera are native to the area where Greek language
Greek language
and culture originated, though as the word kédros does not seem to be derived from any of the languages of the Middle East, it has been suggested the word may originally have applied to Greek species of juniper and was later adopted for species now classified in the genus Cedrus
because of the similarity of their aromatic woods.[18] The name was similarly applied to citron and the word citrus is derived from the same root.[19] However, as a loan word in English, cedar had become fixed to its biblical sense of Cedrus
by the time of its first recorded usage in AD 1000.[20] The name "cedar" has more recently (since about 1700[20]) been applied to many other trees (such as western red cedar; in some cases the botanical name alludes to this usage, such as the genus Calocedrus (meaning "beautiful cedar"), also known as incense cedar). Such usage is regarded by some authorities [21] as a misapplication of the name to be discouraged. See also[edit]

Cedars of God Cedar wood


^ a b c d Farjon, A. (1990). Pinaceae. Drawings and Descriptions of the Genera. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3-87429-298-3. ^ Frankis, M. & Lauria, F. (1994). The maturation and dispersal of cedar cones and seeds. International Dendrology Society Yearbook 1993: 43–46. ^ Liston A., D.S. Gernandt, T.F. Vining, C.S. Campbell, D. Piñero. 2003. Molecular Phylogeny of Pinaceae
and Pinus. In Mill, R.R. (ed.): Proceedings of the 4th Conifer
Congress. Acta Hort 615: Pp. 107-114. ^ Wang, X.-Q., Tank, D. C. and Sang, T. (2000): Phylogeny and Divergence Times in Pinaceae: Evidence from Three Genomes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 17:773-781. Available online ^ Gymnosperm database Cedrus. ^ NCBI Taxonomy Browser Cedrus. ^ Flora of China
Flora of China
vol. 4 ^ Qiao, C.-Y., Jin-Hua Ran, Yan Li and Xiao-Quan Wang (2007): Phylogeny and Biogeography of Cedrus
(Pinaceae) Inferred from Sequences of Seven Paternal Chloroplast and Maternal Mitochondrial DNA Regions. Annals of Botany 100(3):573-580. Available online ^ Farjon, A. (2008). A Natural History of Conifers. Timber Press ISBN 0-88192-869-0. ^ Christou, K. A. (1991). The genetic and taxonomic status of Cyprus Cedar, Cedrus brevifolia
Cedrus brevifolia
(Hook.) Henry. Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania, Greece. ^ GRIN Taxonomy for Plants Cedrus. ^ Güner, A., Özhatay, N., Ekim, T., & Başer, K. H. C. (ed.). 2000. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 11 (Supplement 2): 5–6. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1409-5 ^ Eckenwalder, J. E. (2009). Conifers of the World: The Complete Reference. Timber Press ISBN 0-88192-974-3. ^ Sell, P. D. (1990). Some new combinations in the British Flora. Watsonia 18: 92. ^ Ødum, S. (1985). Report on frost damage to trees in Denmark after the severe 1981/82 and 1984/85 winters. Hørsholm Arboretum, Denmark. ^ Burfield, Tony (September 2002). "Cedarwood Oils". www.users.globalnet.co.uk. Retrieved 24 August 2016.  ^ Walston, Brent. "Cedars for Bonsai". evergreengardenworks.com. Retrieved 8 May 2015.  ^ Meiggs, R. 1982. Trees and Timber in the Ancient Mediterranean World. ^ Andrews, A. C. 1961. Acclimatization of citrus fruits in the Mediterranean region. Agricultural History 35: 35–46. ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary. ^ Kelsey, H. P., & Dayton, W. A. (1942). Standardized Plant
Names, second edition. American Joint Committee on Horticultural Nomenclature. Horace McFarland Company, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

External links[edit]

Media related to Cedrus
at Wikimedia Commons

v t e

Genera of the Pinaceae

Abies Cathaya Cedrus Keteleeria Larix Nothotsuga Picea Pinus Pseudolarix Pseudotsuga Tsuga

v t e



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Wd: Q128550 APDB: 189209 EoL: 34221 EPPO: 1CEUG FoC: 105979 GRIN: 2217 IPNI: 31965-1 ITIS: 183405 NCBI: 3321 PLANTS: CEDRU