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Coordinates: 19°30′N 80°30′W / 19.500°N 80.500°W / 19.500; -80.500

Cayman Islands

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto: "He hath founded it upon the seas"[1]

Anthem: "God Save the Queen" (official) National song: "Beloved Isle Cayman"

Status British Overseas Territory

Capital and largest city George Town 19°20′N 81°24′W / 19.333°N 81.400°W / 19.333; -81.400

Official languages English

Local dialect Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
English

Ethnic groups (2011[2])

40% Mixed 20% Black 20% White 20% other

Demonym Caymanian

Government Parliamentary dependency under constitutional monarchy

• Monarch

Elizabeth II

• Governor

Anwar Choudhury

• Premier

Alden McLaughlin

• Responsible Ministera (UK)

Baron Ahmad of Wimbledon

Legislature Legislative Assembly

Established as a separate Crown colony

• Established

1962

• Current constitution

6 November 2009

Area

• Total

264 km2 (102 sq mi)

• Water (%)

1.6

Population

• Census

60,765

• Density

212[3]/km2 (549.1/sq mi) (59th)

GDP (PPP) 2014[4] estimate

• Total

$2.507 billion[4] (192 th)

• Per capita

$43,800 (2004 est.)[4] (11th)

GDP (nominal) 2014[5] estimate

• Total

$3.480 billion[5][6] (160th)

• Per capita

$58,808[5][6] (9th)

HDI (2013) 0.888 very high

Currency Cayman Islands dollar (KYD)

Time zone EST (UTC-5)

Drives on the left

Calling code +1-345

ISO 3166 code KY

Internet TLD .ky

Website https://www.cayman.com.ky

The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
(/ˈkeɪmən/ or /keɪˈmæn/) is an autonomous British Overseas Territory in the western Caribbean Sea. The 264-square-kilometre (102-square-mile) territory comprises the three islands of Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac
Cayman Brac
and Little Cayman
Little Cayman
located south of Cuba, northeast of Costa Rica, north of Panama, east of Mexico
Mexico
and northwest of Jamaica. Its population is approximately 60,765,[7] and its capital is George Town. The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
is considered to be part of the geographic Western Caribbean Zone as well as the Greater Antilles. The territory is often considered a major world offshore financial haven for international businesses and many wealthy individuals.[8]

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Fauna 2.2 Climate

3 Demographics

3.1 District populations

4 Economy

4.1 Tourism 4.2 Shipping 4.3 Financial services
Financial services
industry

4.3.1 Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act

4.4 Labour

4.4.1 Work permits for non-citizens 4.4.2 CARICOM Single Market Economy

5 Government

5.1 Defence and law enforcement 5.2 Taxation 5.3 Foreign relations

6 Infrastructure

6.1 Ports 6.2 Air transport

7 Education

7.1 Primary and secondary schools 7.2 Colleges and universities

8 Health and public safety

8.1 Healthcare 8.2 Emergency services 8.3 Health City Cayman Islands

9 Sports 10 Music 11 Media 12 Notable Caymanians 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of the Cayman Islands The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
remained largely uninhabited until the 17th century. While there is no archaeological evidence for an indigenous people on the islands, a variety of settlers from various backgrounds made their home on the islands, including pirates, shipwrecked sailors, and deserters from Oliver Cromwell's army in Jamaica.[9]

Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
National Museum, George Town, Grand Cayman

The first recorded permanent inhabitant of the Cayman Islands, Isaac Bodden, was born on Grand Cayman
Grand Cayman
around 1661. He was the grandson of the original settler named Bodden who was probably one of Oliver Cromwell's soldiers at the taking of Jamaica
Jamaica
in 1655.[10] England
England
took formal control of the Cayman Islands, along with Jamaica, as a result of the Treaty of Madrid of 1670. Following several unsuccessful attempts at settlement, a permanent English-speaking population in the islands dates from the 1730s. With settlement, after the first royal land grant by the Governor of Jamaica
Jamaica
in 1734, came the perceived need for slaves.[11] Many were brought to the islands from Africa; this is evident today with the majority of native Caymanians being of African and English descent. The results of the first census taken in the islands in 1802 showed the population on Grand Cayman
Grand Cayman
to be 933 with 545 of those inhabitants being enslaved. Slavery was abolished in the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
in 1833. At the time of abolition, there were over 950 Blacks of African ancestry enslaved by 116 white families of English ancestry.[12] The islands continued to be governed as part of the Colony of Jamaica until 1962, when they became a separate Crown colony while Jamaica became an independent Commonwealth realm.[13]

The Heroes Square in the centre of George Town, which commemorates Cayman Islands' war dead. The Legislative Assembly building is at the left.

On 8 February 1794, the Caymanians rescued the crews of a group of ten merchant ships, including HMS Convert, an incident that has since become known as the Wreck of the Ten Sail. The ships had struck a reef and run aground during rough seas.[14] Legend has it that King George III rewarded the island with a promise never to introduce taxes as compensation for their generosity, as one of the ships carried a member of the King's own family. While this remains a popular legend, the story is not true.[15] The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
historically has been a tax-exempt destination. The government of the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
has always relied on indirect and not direct taxes. The territory has never levied income tax, capital gains tax, or any wealth tax, making them a popular tax haven.[16] On 11 September 2004 the island of Grand Cayman, which lies largely unprotected at sea level, was hit by Hurricane Ivan, creating an 8-ft (2.4 m) storm surge which flooded many areas of Grand Cayman. An estimated 83% of the dwellings on the island were damaged including 4% requiring complete reconstruction. A reported 70% of all dwellings suffered severe damage from flooding or wind. Another 26% sustained minor damage from partial roof removal, low levels of flooding, or impact with floating or wind driven hurricane debris.[17] Power, water and communications were disrupted for months in some areas as Ivan was the worst hurricane to hit the islands in 86 years.[18] Grand Cayman began a major rebuilding process and within two years its infrastructure was nearly returned to pre-hurricane status. Due to the tropical location of the islands, more hurricanes or tropical systems have affected the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
than any other region in the Atlantic basin; it has been brushed or directly hit, on average, every 2.23 years.[19] Geography[edit]

Map of the Cayman Islands, showing the three main islands about 120 kilometres (75 miles) apart

Main article: Geography of the Cayman Islands The islands are in the western Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
and are the peaks of a massive underwater ridge, known as the Cayman Ridge (or Cayman Rise). This ridge flanks the Cayman Trough, 6,000 m (20,000 ft) deep[20] which lies 6 km (3.7 mi) to the south.[21] The islands lie in the northwest of the Caribbean Sea, east of Quintana Roo, Mexico
Mexico
and Yucatán State, Mexico, northeast of Costa Rica, north of Panama, south of Cuba
Cuba
and west of Jamaica. They are situated about 700 km (430 mi) south of Miami,[22] 750 km (470 mi) east of Mexico,[23] 366 km (227 mi) south of Cuba,[24] and about 500 km (310 mi) northwest of Jamaica.[25] Grand Cayman
Grand Cayman
is by far the largest, with an area of 197 km2 (76 sq mi).[26] Grand Cayman's two "sister islands", Cayman Brac
Cayman Brac
and Little Cayman, are about 120 km (75 mi) east north-east of Grand Cayman
Grand Cayman
and have areas of 38 and 28.5 km2 (14.7 and 11.0 sq mi)[27] respectively.

George Town waterfront

All three islands were formed by large coral heads covering submerged ice age peaks of western extensions of the Cuban Sierra Maestra
Sierra Maestra
range and are mostly flat. One notable exception to this is The Bluff on Cayman Brac's eastern part, which rises to 43 m (141 ft) above sea level, the highest point on the islands.[28] Terrain is mostly a low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs. Fauna[edit] Further information: List of mammals of the Cayman Islands Further information: List of birds of the Cayman Islands Further information: List of butterflies of the Cayman Islands The mammalian species in the islands include the introduced Central American agouti[29] and eight species of bats. At least three now extinct native rodent species were present up until the discovery of the islands by Europeans. A number of cetaceans are found in offshore waters. Cayman avian fauna includes two endemic subspecies of Amazona
Amazona
parrots: A. l. hesterna Bangs, 1916 or Cuban amazon, now restricted to the island of Cayman Brac, but formerly also on Little Cayman, and Amazona leucocephala caymanensis or Grand Cayman
Grand Cayman
parrot, which is native to the Cayman Islands, forested areas of Cuba, and the Isla de la Juventud. Little Cayman
Little Cayman
and Cayman Brac
Cayman Brac
are also home to red-footed and brown boobies.[30][31] There are five endemic subspecies of butterflies on the islands.[32] Among other notable fauna is the endangered blue iguana, which is endemic to Grand Cayman.[33] Climate[edit]

Signs at Rum Point commemorating landed and near-miss hurricanes

Main article: Climate of the Cayman Islands The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
has a tropical wet and dry climate, with a wet season from May to October, and a dry season that runs from November to April. Seasonally, there is little temperature change.[34] A major natural hazard is the tropical cyclones that form during the Atlantic hurricane season
Atlantic hurricane season
from June to November. On 11 and 12 September 2004, Hurricane Ivan
Hurricane Ivan
struck the Cayman Islands. The storm resulted in two deaths and caused great damage to the infrastructure on the islands. The total economic impact of the storms was estimated to be $3.4 billion.[35] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of the Cayman Islands The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
have more registered businesses than people.[36] In 2016 the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
had an estimated population of about 60,765,[7] representing a mix of more than 100 nationalities. Out of that number, about half are of Caymanian descent. About 60% of the population is of mixed race (mostly mixed African-Caucasian). The islands are almost exclusively Christian, with large numbers of Baptists, Presbyterians and Catholics, but also hosts Jewish,[37] Muslim and Hindu communities. The vast majority of the population resides on Grand Cayman, followed by Cayman Brac
Cayman Brac
and Little Cayman, respectively.[4] The population is projected to rise to 60,000 by 2020. The capital of the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
is George Town, on the southwest coast of Grand Cayman. District populations[edit]

Traditional Caymanian home at East End, Grand Cayman

According to the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
2016 Compendium of Statistics released by the Economics and Statistics Office (ESO) the estimated resident population is above 61,000 people,[38] broken down as follows:

George Town: 31,935 West Bay: 11,686 Bodden Town: 12,669 North Side: 1,460 East End: 1,511 Cayman Brac
Cayman Brac
and Little Cayman
Little Cayman
(Sister Islands): 2,099

Economy[edit]

Graphical depiction of the Cayman Islands' product exports

Main article: Economy of the Cayman Islands

Sir Vassel Johnson, who became the only Caymanian ever knighted, was a pioneer of Cayman’s financial services industry. Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
Past Governor Stuart Jack said ‘As one of the architects of modern Cayman, especially the financial industry, Sir Vassel guided the steady growth of these Islands as the first financial secretary. His remarkable vision set the foundation for the prosperity and economic stability of these islands. Without his input, Cayman might well have remained the islands that time forgot.’ [39] With an average income of around KYD$47,000, Caymanians have the highest standard of living in the Caribbean. According to the CIA World Factbook, the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
GDP per capita is the 14th highest in the world.[40] The territory prints its own currency, the Cayman Islands dollar (KYD), which is pegged to the US dollar
US dollar
1.227 USD to 1 KYD. However, in many retail stores throughout the islands, the KYD is typically traded at 1.25 USD.[41] The government has established a Needs Assessment Unit to relieve poverty in the islands.[42] The government's primary source of income is indirect taxation: there is no income tax, capital gains tax, or corporation tax.[16] An import duty of 5% to 22% (automobiles 29.5% to 100%) is levied against goods imported into the islands. Few goods are exempt; notable exemptions include books, cameras, and infant formula.[citation needed] On 15 July 2012 one of the Cayman Islands' former Premiers McKeeva Bush announced the intended introduction of a "community enhancement fee" in the form of a payroll tax to be paid solely by expatriate workers. Caymanians themselves were to remain exempt from this tax. This would have been the first direct tax on income in the Cayman Islands' history.[43] Bush also announced a five percent fee on "certain categories of employment" to be payable by businesses. However, the payroll tax was scrapped before it had been implemented.[44] Tourism[edit] See also: Scuba diving
Scuba diving
in the Cayman Islands

Panorama of Seven Mile Beach on Grand Cayman.

One of Grand Cayman's main attractions is Seven Mile Beach, site of a number of the island's hotels and resorts. Named one of the Ultimate Beaches by Caribbean Travel and Life, Seven Mile Beach is on the western shore of Grand Cayman
Grand Cayman
Island. It is a public property and possible to walk the full length of the beach, past all the hotels, resorts, and public beach bars.[45] Historical sites in Grand Cayman, such as Pedro St James Castle in Savannah, also attract visitors.[46] Tourists also visit the "sister islands", Little Cayman[47] and Cayman Brac.[48]

Stingray
Stingray
passing through – Stingray
Stingray
City, Grand Cayman

Stingrays pass each other at Stingray
Stingray
City sandbar off Grand Cayman Island

All three islands offer scuba diving, and the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
is home to several snorkelling locations where tourists can swim with stingrays. The most popular area to do this is Stingray
Stingray
City, Grand Cayman. Stingray
Stingray
City is a top attraction in Grand Cayman
Grand Cayman
and originally started in the 1980s, when divers started feeding squid to stingrays. The stingrays started to associate the sound of the boat motors with food, and thus visit this area year round.[49] There are two shipwrecks off the shores of Cayman Brac, including the MV Captain Keith Tibbetts;[50] Grand Cayman
Grand Cayman
also has several shipwrecks off its shores, including one deliberate one. On 30 September 1994 the USS Kittiwake was decommissioned and struck from the Naval Vessel Register. In November 2008 her ownership was transferred for an undisclosed amount to the government of the Cayman Islands, which had decided to sink the Kittiwake in June 2009 to form a new artificial reef off Seven Mile Beach, Grand Cayman. Following several delays, the ship was finally scuttled according to plan on 5 January 2011. The Kittiwake has become a dynamic environment for marine life. While visitors are not allowed to take anything, there are endless sights. Each of the five decks of the ship offers squirrelfish, rare sponges, Goliath groupers, urchins, and more. Experienced and beginner divers are invited to swim around the Kittiwake.[51] Pirates Week, an annual 11-day November festival, was started in 1977 by Jim Bodden, then Minister of Tourism, to boost tourism during the country's tourism slow season.[52] Other Grand Cayman
Grand Cayman
tourist attractions include the Ironshore landscape of Hell, the 23-acre (93,000 m2) marine theme park Boatswain's Beach, also home of the Cayman Turtle Farm, the production of gourmet sea salt, and the Mastic Trail, a hiking trail through the forests in the centre of the island. The National Trust for the Cayman Islands provides guided tours weekly on the Mastic Trail and other locations.[53] Another attraction to visit on Grand Cayman
Grand Cayman
is the Observation Tower, located in Camana Bay. The Observation Tower is 75 feet tall and provides 360-degree views across Seven Mile Beach, George Town, the North Sound, and beyond. It is free to the public and climbing the tower has become a popular thing to do in the Cayman Islands.[54] Points of interest include the East End Light
East End Light
(sometimes called Gorling Bluff Light), a lighthouse at the east end of Grand Cayman island. The lighthouse is the centrepiece of East End Lighthouse Park, managed by the National Trust for the Cayman Islands; the first navigational aid on the site was the first lighthouse in the Cayman Islands. Shipping[edit] The merchant marine total is 123 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totalling 2,402,058 GRT/3,792,094 metric tons deadweight (DWT). The fleet includes 22 bulk carriers, 5 cargo ships, 31 chemical tankers, 2 container ships, 1 liquefied gas transport, 21 petroleum tankers, 35 refrigerated cargo ships, 5 roll-on/roll-off vessels and 1 specialised tanker. (Note: some foreign ships register in the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
as a flag of convenience. In 2002 ships from eleven countries took advantage of this option, including 15 from Greece, 5 from the United States, 5 from the United Kingdom, 2 from Cyprus, 2 from Denmark and 3 from Norway.) Financial services
Financial services
industry[edit]

Butterfield Bank
Butterfield Bank
in George Town

The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
is a major international financial centre. The largest sectors are "banking, hedge fund formation and investment, structured finance and securitisation, captive insurance, and general corporate activities".[55] Regulation and supervision of the financial services industry is the responsibility of the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
Monetary Authority (CIMA). Sir Vassel Johnson was a pioneer of Cayman’s financial services industry. Sir Vassel, who became the only Caymanian ever knighted in 1994, served as the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
financial secretary from 1965 through 1982 and then as an Executive Council member from 1984 through 1988. In his government roles, Sir Vassel was a driving force in shaping the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
financial services industry. [56] The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
is the fifth-largest banking centre in the world,[57] with $1.5 trillion in banking liabilities as of June 2007[update].[55] In March 2017 there were 158 banks, 11 of which were licensed to conduct banking activities with domestic (Cayman-based) and international clients, and the remaining 147 were licensed to operate on an international basis with only limited domestic activity.[58] Financial services
Financial services
generated KYD$1.2 billion of GDP in 2007 (55% of the total economy), 36% of all employment and 40% of all government revenue. In 2010, the country ranked fifth internationally in terms of value of liabilities booked and sixth in terms of assets booked. It has branches of 40 of the world's 50 largest banks. The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
is the second largest captive domicile ( Bermuda
Bermuda
is largest) in the world with more than 700 captives, writing more than US$7.7 billion of premiums and with US$36.8 billion of assets under management.[59] There are a number of service providers. These include global financial institutions including HSBC, Deutsche Bank, UBS, and Goldman Sachs; over 80 administrators, leading accountancy practices (incl. the Big Four auditors), and offshore law practices including Maples & Calder.[60] They also include wealth management such as Rothschilds
Rothschilds
private banking and financial advice.[61] Since the introduction of the Mutual Funds Law in 1993, which has been copied by jurisdictions around the world, the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
has grown to be the world's leading offshore hedge fund jurisdiction.[60] In June 2008, it passed 10,000 hedge fund registrations, and over the year ending June 2008 CIMA reported a net growth rate of 12% for hedge funds.[62] Starting in the mid-late 1990s, offshore financial centres, such as the Cayman Islands, came under increasing pressure from the OECD
OECD
for their allegedly harmful tax regimes, where the OECD
OECD
wished to prevent low-tax regimes from having an advantage in the global marketplace. The OECD
OECD
threatened to place the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
and other financial centres on a "black list" and impose sanctions against them.[63] However, the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
successfully avoided being placed on the OECD
OECD
black list in 2000 by committing to regulatory reform to improve transparency and begin information exchange with OECD
OECD
member countries about their citizens.[63] In 2004, under pressure from the UK, the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
agreed in principle to implement the European Union Savings Directive (EUSD), but only after securing some important benefits for the financial services industry in the Cayman Islands. As the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
is not subject to EU laws, the implementation of the EUSD is by way of bilateral agreements between each EU member state and the Cayman Islands. The government of the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
agreed on a model agreement, which set out how the EUSD would be implemented with the Cayman Islands.[64] A report published by the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(IMF), in March 2005, assessing supervision and regulation in the Cayman Islands' banking, insurance and securities industries, as well as its money laundering regime, recognised the jurisdiction's comprehensive regulatory and compliance frameworks. "An extensive program of legislative, rule and guideline development has introduced an increasingly effective system of regulation, both formalizing earlier practices and introducing enhanced procedures", noted IMF assessors. The report further stated that "the supervisory system benefits from a well-developed banking infrastructure with an internationally experienced and qualified workforce as well as experienced lawyers, accountants and auditors", adding that, "the overall compliance culture within Cayman is very strong, including the compliance culture related to AML (anti-money laundering) obligations".[65][66] On 4 May 2009, the United States
United States
President, Barack Obama, declared his intentions to curb the use of financial centres by multinational corporations. In his speech, he singled out the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
as a tax shelter.[67] The next day, the Cayman Island Financial Services Association submitted an open letter to the president detailing the Cayman Islands' role in international finance and its value to the US financial system.[68] The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
was ranked as the world's second most significant tax haven on the Tax Justice Network's "Financial Secrecy Index" from 2011, scoring slightly higher than Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and falling behind only Switzerland.[69] In 2013, the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
was ranked by the Financial Secrecy Index as the fourth safest tax haven in the world, behind Hong Kong
Hong Kong
but ahead of Singapore. In the first conviction of a non-Swiss financial institution for US tax evasion conspiracy, two Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
financial institutions pleaded guilty in Manhattan Federal Court in 2016 to conspiring to hide more than $130 million in Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
bank accounts. The companies admitted to helping US clients hide assets in offshore accounts, and agreed to produce account files of non-compliant US taxpayers.[70] Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act[edit] On 30 June 2014, the tax jurisdiction of the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
was deemed to have an inter-governmental agreement (IGA) with the United States of America with respect to the "Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act" of the United States
United States
of America.[71] The Model 1 Agreement recognizes:[71]

The Tax Information Exchange Agreement (TIEA) between the United States of America and The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
which was signed in London, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on 29 November 2013. Page 1 – Clause 2 of the FATCA Agreement.[71] The Government of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
provided a copy of the Letter of Entrustment which was sent to the Government of the Cayman Islands, to the Government of the United States
United States
of America "via diplomatic note of October 16, 2013". The Letter of Entrustment dated 20 October 2013, The Govt of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, authorized the Govt of the Cayman Islands to sign an agreement on information exchange to facilitate the Implementation of the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act
– Page 1 – Clause 10.[71]

On 26 March 2017, the US Treasury site disclosed that the Model 1 agreement and related agreement were "In Force" on 1 July 2014. Labour[edit]

Jamaican-born roadside woodcarver working outside Bodden Town

The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
has a small population and therefore a limited workforce. Work permits may, therefore, be granted to foreigners. On average, there have been more than 21,000 foreigners holding valid work permits.[72] Work permits for non-citizens[edit] To work in the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
as a non-citizen, a work permit is required. This involves passing a police background check and a health check. A prospective immigrant worker will not be granted a permit unless certain medical conditions are present which include testing negative for syphilis and HIV. A permit may be granted to individuals on special work. A foreigner must first have a job to move to the Cayman Islands. The employer applies and pays for the work permit.[73] Work permits are not granted to foreigners who are in the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
(unless it is a renewal). The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
Immigration Department requires foreigners to remain out of the country until their work permit has been approved.[74] The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
presently imposes a controversial "rollover" in relation to expatriate workers who require a work permit. Non-Caymanians are only permitted to reside and work within the territory for a maximum of nine years unless they satisfy the criteria of key employees. Non-Caymanians who are "rolled over" may return to work additional nine-year periods, subject to a one-year gap between their periods of work. The policy has been the subject of some controversy within the press. Law firms have been particularly upset by the recruitment difficulties that it has caused.[75] Other less well-remunerated employment sectors have been affected as well. Concerns about safety have been expressed by diving instructors, and realtors have also expressed concerns. Others support the rollover as necessary to protect Caymanian identity in the face of immigration of large numbers of expatriate workers.[76] Concerns have been expressed that in the long term, the policy may damage the preeminence of the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
as an offshore financial centre by making it difficult to recruit and retain experienced staff from onshore financial centres. Government employees are no longer exempt from this "rollover" policy, according to this report in a local newspaper.[77] The governor has used his constitutional powers, which give him absolute control over the disposition of civil service employees, to determine which expatriate civil servants are dismissed after seven years service and which are not.[citation needed] This policy is incorporated in the Immigration Law (2003 revision), written by the United Democratic Party government, and subsequently enforced by the People's Progressive Movement Party government. Both governments agree to the term limits on foreign workers, and the majority of Caymanians also agree it is necessary to protect local culture and heritage from being eroded by a large number of foreigners gaining residency and citizenship.[78] CARICOM Single Market Economy[edit] In recognition of the CARICOM (Free Movement) Skilled Persons Act which came into effect in July 1997 in some of the CARICOM countries such as Jamaica
Jamaica
and which has been adopted in other CARICOM countries, such as Trinidad and Tobago[79] it is possible that CARICOM nationals who hold the "A Certificate of Recognition of Caribbean Community Skilled Person" may be allowed to work in the Cayman Islands[80] under normal working conditions. Government[edit] Main article: Politics of the Cayman Islands

The Legislative Assembly building in George Town

Map of the European Union
European Union
in the world with overseas countries and territories and outermost regions

The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
is a British overseas territory, listed by the UN Special
Special
Committee of 24 as one of the 16 non-self-governing territories. The current Constitution, incorporating a Bill of Rights, was ordained by a statutory instrument of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 2009.[81] A 19-seat (not including two non-voting members appointed by the Governor which brings the total to 21 members) Legislative Assembly is elected by the people every four years to handle domestic affairs.[82] Of the elected Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs), seven are chosen to serve as government Ministers in a Cabinet headed by the Governor. The Premier is appointed by the Governor.[83] A Governor is appointed by the Queen of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on the advice of the British Government to represent the monarch.[84] Governors can exercise complete legislative and executive authority if they wish through blanket powers reserved to them in the constitution.[85] Bills which have passed the Legislative Assembly require royal assent before becoming effective. The Constitution empowers the Governor to withhold royal assent in cases where the legislation appears to him or her to be repugnant to or inconsistent with the Constitution or affects the rights and privileges of the Legislative Assembly or the Royal Prerogative, or matters reserved to the Governor by article 55.[86] The executive authority of the Cayman Islands is vested in the Queen and is exercised by the Government, consisting of the Governor and the Cabinet.[87] There is an office of the Deputy Governor, who must be a Caymanian and have served in a senior public office. The Deputy Governor is the acting Governor when the office of Governor is vacant, or the Governor is not able to discharge his or her duties or is absent from the Cayman Islands.[88] The current Governor of the Cayman Islands
Governor of the Cayman Islands
is Anwar Choudhury[89][90]. The Cabinet is composed of two official members and seven elected members, called Ministers; one of whom is designated Premier. The Premier can serve for two consecutive terms after which he is barred from attaining the office again. Although an MLA can only be Premier twice any person who meets the qualifications and requirements for a seat in the Legislative Assembly can be elected to the Legislative Assembly indefinitely.[91] There are two official members of the Legislative Assembly, the Deputy Governor and the Attorney General. They are appointed by the Governor in accordance with Her Majesty's instructions, and although they have seats in the Legislative Assembly, under the 2009 Constitution, they do not vote. They serve in a professional and advisory role to the MLAs, the Deputy Governor represents the Governor who is a representative of the Queen and the British Government. While the Attorney General serves to advise on legal matters and has special responsibilities in the LA, he is generally responsible for changes to the Penal code among other things. The seven Ministers are voted into office by the 19 elected members of the Legislative Assembly of the Cayman Islands. One of the Ministers, the leader of the majority political party, is appointed Premier by the Governor. After consulting the Premier, the Governor allocates a portfolio of responsibilities to each Cabinet Minister. Under the principle of collective responsibility, all Ministers are obliged to support in the Assembly any measures approved by Cabinet. Almost 80 departments, sections and units carry out the business of government, joined by a number of statutory boards and authorities set up for specific purposes, such as the Port Authority, the Civil Aviation Authority, the Immigration Board, the Water Authority, the University College Board of Governors, the National Pensions Board and the Health Insurance Commission. Since 2000, there have been two official major political parties: The Cayman Democratic Party (CDP) and the People's Progressive Movement (PPM). While there has been a shift to political parties, many contending for office still run as independents. The two parties are notably similar, though they consider each other rivals in most cases, their differences are generally in personality and implementation rather than actual policy. The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
currently lacks any real liberal or progressive representation in the Legislative Assembly or in the form of organized political parties. Defence and law enforcement[edit] The defence of the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
is the responsibility of the United Kingdom. Law enforcement in the country is provided chiefly by the Royal Cayman Islands Police Service
Royal Cayman Islands Police Service
and the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
Customs Department. These two agencies co-operate in aspects of law enforcement, including their joint marine unit. The Cayman Islands Cadet Corps was formed in March 2001 and carries out military-type training with teenage citizens of the country. As of 2017 the PPM led Coalition government have pledged to form a Coast Guard to protect the interests of the Islands, especially in terms of illegal immigration and illegal drug importation. Taxation[edit] No direct taxation is imposed on residents and Cayman Islands companies. The government receives the majority of its income from indirect taxation. Duty is levied against most imported goods, which is typically in the range of 22% to 25%. Some items are exempted, such as baby formula, books, cameras and certain items are taxed at 5%. Duty on automobiles depends on their value. The duty can amount to 29.5% up to $20,000.00 KYD CIF (cost, insurance and freight) and up to 42% over $30,000.00 KYD CIF for expensive models. The government charges flat licensing fees on financial institutions that operate in the islands and there are work permit fees on foreign labour. A 13% government tax is placed on all tourist accommodations in addition to US$37.50 airport departure tax which is built into the cost of an airline ticket. There are no taxes on corporate profits, capital gains, or personal income. There are no estate or death inheritance taxes payable on Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
real estate or other assets held in the Cayman Islands.[92] Foreign relations[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of the Cayman Islands

Postage stamp with portrait of Queen Elizabeth II, 1953

Foreign policy is controlled by the United Kingdom, as the islands remain an overseas territory of the United Kingdom. Although in its early days, the Cayman Islands' most important relationships were with Britain and Jamaica, in recent years, as a result of economic dependence, a relationship with the United States
United States
has developed. Though the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
is involved in no major international disputes, they have come under some criticism due to the use of their territory for narcotics trafficking and money laundering. In an attempt to address this, the government entered into the Narcotics Agreement of 1984 and the Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty of 1986 with the United States, to reduce the use of their facilities associated with these activities. In more recent years, they have stepped up the fight against money laundering, by limiting banking secrecy, introducing requirements for customer identification and record keeping, and requiring banks to co-operate with foreign investigators. Due to their status as an overseas territory of the UK, the Cayman Islands has no representation either in the United Nations
United Nations
or in most other international organisations. However, the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
still participates in some international organisations, being an associate member of Caricom
Caricom
and UNESCO, and a member of a sub-bureau of Interpol.[93] Infrastructure[edit] Main article: Transport in the Cayman Islands Ports[edit] George Town is the port capital of Grand Cayman. There are no berthing facilities for cruise ships, but up to 4 cruise ships can anchor in designated anchorages. There are three cruise terminals in George Town, the North, South, and Royal Watler Terminals. The ride from the ship to the terminal is about 5 minutes.[94] Air transport[edit] See also: List of airports in the Cayman Islands Education[edit] Main article: Education in the Cayman Islands Primary and secondary schools[edit] Main article: List of schools in the Cayman Islands The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
Education Department operates state schools. Caymanian children are entitled to free primary and secondary education. There are two public high schools on Grand Cayman, John Gray High School and Clifton Hunter High School, and one on Cayman Brac, Layman E. Scott High School. Various churches and private foundations operate several private schools. Colleges and universities[edit]

St. Matthew's University
St. Matthew's University
campus

The University College of the Cayman Islands has campuses on Grand Cayman and Cayman Brac
Cayman Brac
and is the only government-run university on the Cayman Islands.[95] A hall at the University College of the Cayman Islands is named after Sir Vassel Johnson, who The Cayman Islands Financial Services Association credited as one of the founding fathers of the financial services sector in the Cayman Islands. Sir Vassel is also the only person to ever be knighted in any British Dependent Territory. http://www.gov.ky/portal/page/portal/cighome/pressroom/archive/200811/governorstributetosirvassel The International College of the Cayman Islands is a private college in Grand Cayman. The college was established in 1970 and offers associate's, bachelor's and master's degree programmes.[96] Grand Cayman is also home to St. Matthew's University, which includes a medical school and a school of veterinary medicine.[97] The Cayman Islands Law School, a branch of the University of Liverpool, is based on Grand Cayman.[98] The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
Civil Service College, a unit of Cayman Islands government organised under the Portfolio of the Civil Service, is in Grand Cayman. Co-situated with University College of the Cayman Islands, it offers both degree programs and continuing education units of various sorts. The college opened in 2007 and is also used as a government research centre. Health and public safety[edit] Healthcare[edit] There are four hospitals in the Cayman Islands. Grand Cayman
Grand Cayman
is home to the private Health City Cayman Islands
Health City Cayman Islands
as well as the Chrissie Tomlinson Memorial Hospital. The public hospitals include the Cayman Islands Hospital (commonly known as the George Town Hospital); and Faith Hospital on Cayman Brac.[99] In 2007, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) unit was installed at the Chrissie Tomlinson Memorial Hospital, replacing the one destroyed by Hurricane Ivan
Hurricane Ivan
in 2004. In 2009, a stand-alone open MRI facility was opened. This centre provides MRI, CT, X-ray and DEXA
DEXA
(bone density) scanning. Also housed in this building is the Heart Health Centre, which provides ultrasound, nuclear medicine, echocardiography and cardiac stress testing.[100] For divers and others in need of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, there is a two-person recompression chamber at the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
Hospital on Grand Cayman, run by Cayman Hyperbaric Services. Hyperbaric Services has also built a hyperbaric unit at Faith Hospital in Cayman Brac.[101][102] In 2003, the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
became the first country in the world to mandate health insurance for all residents.[103] Emergency services[edit] The Royal Cayman Islands Police Service
Royal Cayman Islands Police Service
(RCIPS) provides law enforcement for the three islands. Regular off-shore marine and air patrols are conducted by the RCIP using a small fleet of vessels and a helicopter. Grand Cayman
Grand Cayman
is a port of call for Britain's Royal Navy and the United States Coast Guard
United States Coast Guard
who often assist with sea rescues when their resources are in the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
area. The Cayman Islands Fire Service provides fire prevention, fire fighting and rescue.[104] Its headquarters are in George Town and has substations in Frank Sound, West Bay, Cayman Brac
Cayman Brac
and Little Cayman.[105] Emergency Medical Services are provided by paramedics and Emergency Medical Technicians using ambulances based in George Town, West Bay and North Side in Grand Cayman
Grand Cayman
and in Cayman Brac. EMS is managed by the Government's Health Services Authority.

Grand Cayman
Grand Cayman
Island, from space

Access to Emergency Services is available using 9-1-1, the Emergency telephone number, the same number as is used in Canada
Canada
and the United States. The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
Department of Public Safety's Communications Centre processes 9-1-1 and non-emergency law enforcement, EMS, fire, and Search and Rescue
Search and Rescue
calls for all three islands. The Communications Centre dispatches RCIP and EMS units directly, however, the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
Fire Service maintains their own dispatch room at the airport fire station.[citation needed] Health City Cayman Islands[edit] Main article: Health City Cayman Islands Sports[edit] Truman Bodden Sports Complex is a multi-use complex in George Town. The complex is separated into an outdoor, six-lane 25-metre (82 ft) swimming pool, full purpose track and field and basketball/netball courts. The field surrounded by the track is used for association football matches as well as other field sports. The track stadium holds 3,000 people. Association football
Association football
is the national and most popular sport, with the Cayman Islands national football team
Cayman Islands national football team
representing the Cayman Islands in FIFA.[citation needed] The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
Basketball Federation joined the international basketball governing body FIBA
FIBA
in 1976.[106] The country's national team showed up at the official 2011 Caribbean Basketball Championship for the first time. Rugby union is a developing sport, and has its own national men's team, women's team, and Sevens team. The Cayman Men's Rugby 7s team is second in the region after the 2011 NACRA 7s Championship. The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
is a member of FIFA, the International Olympic Committee and the Pan American Sports Organisation, and also competes in the biennial Island Games.[107] The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
is a member of the International Cricket Council which they joined in 1997 as an Affiliate, before coming an Associate member in 2002. The Cayman Islands national cricket team
Cayman Islands national cricket team
represents the islands in international cricket. The team has previously played the sport at first-class, List A and Twenty20 level. It competes in Division Five of the World Cricket League.[108] Squash is popular in the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
with a vibrant community of mostly ex-pats playing out of the 7 court South Sound Squash Club. In addition, the women's professional squash association hosts one of their major events each year in an all glass court being set up in Camana Bay. In December 2012, the former Cayman Open will be replaced by the Women's World Championships, the largest tournament in the world. The top Cayman men's player, Cameron Stafford is No. 2 in the Caribbean and ranked top 200 on the men's professional circuit. Flag football
Flag football
(CIFFA) has men's, women's and co-ed leagues. Other organised sports leagues include softball, beach volleyball, Gaelic football
Gaelic football
and ultimate frisbee. The Cayman Islands Olympic Committee was founded in 1973 and was recognised by the IOC (International Olympic Committee) in 1976. In the 21st century, skateboarding has become popular among the youth.[citation needed] In February 2010, the first purpose built track for kart racing in the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
was opened.[109] Corporate karting Leagues at the track have involved widespread participation with 20 local companies and 227 drivers taking part in the 2010 Summer Corporate Karting League.[110] Music[edit] Main article: Music of the Cayman Islands The Cayman National Cultural Foundation manages the F.J. Harquail Cultural Centre and the US$4 million Harquail Theatre. The Cayman National Cultural Foundation, established in 1984, helps to preserve and promote Cayman folk music, including the organisation of festivals such as Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
International Storytelling Festival, the Cayman JazzFest, Seafarers Festival and Cayfest.[111] Media[edit] There is one print newspaper currently in circulation throughout the islands: the Cayman Compass. There are numerous online news services including Cayman News Service and the Cayman Compass online edition. A local television station, CITN – Cayman 27, shows Cayman Islands news.[112] Local radio stations are broadcast throughout the islands. Feature films that have been filmed in the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
include: The Firm, Haven, Cayman Went[113] and Zombie Driftwood.[114] Notable Caymanians[edit]

Gladwyn K. Bush, folk artist McKeeva Bush, politician Kenneth Dart, businessman Selita Ebanks, fashion model Frank E. Flowers, filmmaker, director and screenwriter Ronald Forbes, Olympic athlete Brett Fraser, Olympic athlete Shaune Fraser, Olympic athlete Grace Gealey, actress Jason Gilbert, record producer and songwriter Tigerlily Hill, fashion designer and stylist Kemar Hyman, Olympic athlete Edison Mclean, first Caymanian gold medalist in Olympic skeet, Island Games[115] Cydonie Mothersille, track and field athlete and Olympian Bernard K. Passman, jeweller, founded his business on Grand Cayman
Grand Cayman
in 1975 Lee Ramoon, footballer Frank Schilling, Internet Investor Kareem Streete-Thompson, Olympic athlete Tanya Streeter, free-diver Kurt Tibbetts, politician Dow Travers, Olympic athlete Jeffrey Webb, former CONCACAF
CONCACAF
president and FIFA
FIFA
vice president Sybil I. McLaughlin, National Hero Sybil Joyce Hylton, National Hero Mary Evelyn Wood, National Hero William Warren Conolly, Politician and National Hero Edna Moyle, former Speaker of the House Leila Yates, Nurse Truman Bodden, Politician Thomas Jefferson, Politician

See also[edit]

Caribbean portal United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal

Outline of Cayman Islands Index of Cayman Islands-related articles

References[edit]

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Hurricane Ivan
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Blue Iguana takes step back from extinction Archived 11 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. IUCN (20 October 2012). Retrieved on 12 April 2014. ^ "When to Go in Cayman Islands
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Cayman Islands
scrap expat tax. The Daily Telegraph. ^ Seven Mile Beach Grand Cayman, Caribbean Vacation Cayman Islands. Caymanislands.ky. Retrieved on 12 April 2014. ^ Pedro St. James Grand Cayman, Grand Cayman
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Island Cayman Islands. Caymanislands.ky. Retrieved on 12 April 2014. ^ "This week's dream: diving and lazing on Little Cayman", (29 November 2008) The Week
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Cayman Islands
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Vacation Cayman Islands. Caymanislands .ky (5 January 2011). Retrieved on 12 April 2014. ^ "piratesweek". piratesweek.  ^ "National Trust For the Cayman islands". Nationaltrust.org.ky. Retrieved 31 July 2011.  ^ Observation Tower Camana Bay. CamanaBay.com. Retrieved on 1 August 2014. ^ a b United States
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Government Accountability Office (2008). GAO Report to the Chairman and Ranking Member, Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate, p. 7. ^ http://www.gov.ky/portal/page/portal/cighome/pressroom/archive/200811/governorstributetosirvassel ^ Places in the sun. (24 February 2007). The Economist, no. 382 (8517 suppl.), 3–5. ^ " Banking
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Cayman Islands
Financial Services". caymanfinance.gov.ky. Archived from the original on 5 February 2009.  ^ Money Laundering in the Cayman Islands: A Global Perspective, Cayman Financial Review, Third Quarter, 2010 ^ The Crave (22 October 2010). "Transcript: Obama Preaches Against Tax Havens And Tax LoopHoles". Political Crave. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2011.  ^ "An Open Letter to President Obama From the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
Financial Services Association". News.prnewswire.com. 5 May 2009. Archived from the original on 26 June 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2011.  ^ Financial Secrecy Index 2011. financialsecrecyindex.com ^ "Cayman financial firms plead guilty to $130 million tax conspiracy", Caribbean News Now, 10 March 2016 ^ a b c d Agreement between the Government of the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
and the Government of the United States
United States
of America to Improve International Tax Compliance and to Implement FATCA. US Treasury Tax Policy Treaties ^ "Work Permit Stats". Eso.ky. 30 March 2007. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2011.  ^ "C.I. Government Website – Entry Requirements for Work Permits". Gov.ky. Retrieved 31 July 2011.  ^ "Online Employment Resources". Island-search.com. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2011.  ^ Row brews over rollover, 22 January 2007, Cayman net News Archived 5 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Government takes up permit issue Archived 14 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Editorial, 5 March 2006, Camanian Compass ^ " Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
– Cay Compass News Online – Rollover for civil servants". Archived from the original on 6 March 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2008.  ^ "Cayman Observer". Retrieved 23 June 2008.  ^ Immigration Trinidad and Tobago http://immigration.gov.tt/Services/CSME.aspx ^ CARICOM http://caricom.org/about-caricom/who-we-are/our-governance/heads-of-government/cayman-islands ^ "The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
Constitution Order 2009" (PDF). legislation.gov.uk. 2009.  ^ "Commonwealth elections observers give Cayman Islands
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high marks". www.caribbeannewsnow.com. Caribbean News Now. 27 May 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013. The amendment of elections law in 2012 increased the number of elected members of the Legislative Assembly from fifteen to eighteen.  ^ Cayman Islands
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Constitution, 2009, part III article 49 ^ Cayman Islands
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Constitution, 2009, part II ^ Constitution, articles 55 and 81 ^ Constitution article 78 ^ Constitution article 43 ^ Constitution article 35 ^ "Governor Choudhury sworn in". Retrieved 2018-03-27.  ^ "Change of Governor of the Cayman Islands". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-11-02.  ^ The Constitution of the Cayman Islands, Part VI The Legislature ^ " Cayman Islands
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– Taxation". KPMG. Archived from the original on 19 May 2015.  ^ " United Kingdom
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/ Europe
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/ Member countries / Internet / Home – INTERPOL". Interpol.int. 30 December 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2012.  ^ " Cayman Islands
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Cruise – Grand Cayman
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Island, Grand Cayman
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– Cayman Islands". caymanislands.ky.  ^ "University College Cayman Islands: About us". Ucci.edu.ky. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2011.  ^ International College of the Cayman islands: Programs of Study Archived 1 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "St. Matthew's University". Stmatthews.edu. Retrieved 31 July 2011.  ^ " Cayman Islands
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law School". Liv.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2011.  ^ " Cayman Islands
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Hospitals". Hospitalsworldwide.com. 29 February 2008. Retrieved 31 July 2011.  ^ caymannetnews.com Archived 17 May 2016 at the Portuguese Web Archive ^ "Hyperbaric chamber looks to add volunteers". caymannewsservice.com. 31 July 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2014.  ^ Bonham, Samantha (6 February 2014). "Hyperbaric chamber tackles more than just the bends". compasscayman.com. Retrieved 28 October 2014.  ^ "No Health Cover for 25%". Cayman Islands
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Health Insurance Commission. 13 June 2006. ^ " Cayman Islands
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National Federations – Cayman Islands, fiba.com, accessed 28 October 2015. ^ "NatWest Island Games
Island Games
XVI Jersey
Jersey
2015 Results – Sports – Swimming – Men's 200m Individual Medley". jersey2015results.com.  ^ "International Cricket Council: Cayman Islands". Icc-cricket.yahoo.net. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2011.  ^ "Go-karting track up to speed", Caymanian Compass, 23 February 2010 ^ "Parker's eased into top gear", Caymanian Compass, 24 September 2010. ^ CNCF. "Cayman Festival and Events Cultural Schedule". www.artscayman.org. Retrieved 2018-02-04.  ^ "Cayman27".  ^ Quinnie110 (5 June 2009). "Cayman Went (2009)". IMDb.  ^ i-obi. "Zombie Driftwood (2010)". IMDb.  ^ Island Games
Island Games
Results Isle of Wight 2011 Sports Shooting Olympic Skeet Individual – Men. Natwestiowresults2011.com. Retrieved on 12 April 2014.

Further reading[edit]

Boultbee, Paul G. (1996). Cayman Islands. Oxford: ABC-Clio Press. ISBN 9781851092406. OCLC 35170772.  "History of the Cayman Islands". Caribbean Magazine.  "Cayman Islands". 2005 CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 4 July 2005.  Originally from the CIA World Factbook
CIA World Factbook
2000. Michael Craton and the New History Committee (2003). Founded upon the Seas: A History of the Cayman Islands
History of the Cayman Islands
and Their People. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers. ISBN 0-9729358-3-5.  "Non-Self-Governing Territories listed by General Assembly in 2002". United Nations
United Nations
Special
Special
Committee of 24 on Decolonization. Archived from the original on 3 December 2008. Retrieved 4 July 2005. 

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Outlying territories of European countries

Territories under European sovereignty but closer to or on continents other than Europe
Europe
(see inclusion criteria for further information).

Denmark

Greenland

France

Clipperton Island French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Adélie Land Crozet Islands Île Amsterdam Île Saint-Paul Kerguelen Islands Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean

Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte New Caledonia Réunion Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna

Italy

Pantelleria Pelagie Islands

Lampedusa Lampione Linosa

Netherlands

Aruba Caribbean Netherlands

Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius

Curaçao Sint Maarten

Norway

Bouvet Island Peter I Island Queen Maud Land

Portugal

Azores Madeira

Spain

Canary Islands Ceuta Melilla Plazas de soberanía

Chafarinas Islands Alhucemas Islands Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera

United Kingdom

Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Montserrat Pitcairn Islands Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

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British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire

Europe

1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1800–1813 Malta
Malta
(Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta
Malta
(Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State

North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1763–1783 East Florida 1763–1783 West Florida 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1841–1867 Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada
Canada
and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada
Canada
in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

Asia

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

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Dialects and accents of Modern English by continent

Europe

United Kingdom

Received Pronunciation

England

Varieties by common name

Barrovian Black Country Brummie Bristolian Cheshire Cockney

"Mockney"

Cornish Cumbrian East Anglian East Midlands Essex Estuary Geordie Kentish Lancastrian Mackem Mancunian Multicultural London Norfolk Northern Pitmatic Potteries Scouse Southern Suffolk Sussex West Country

"Mummerset"

West Midlands Yorkshire

Varieties by geographic location

East of England

Essex Norfolk Suffolk

East Midlands North

Cheshire Cumbria

Barrow

Lancashire Manchester Merseyside Northumbria

Sunderland Tyneside Pitmatic

Yorkshire

South

Kent Thames Estuary; London

Multicultural London

Sussex

West Country

Bristol Cornwall Dorset

West Midlands

Black Country Birmingham Stoke-on-Trent

Northern Ireland

Mid Ulster Ulster Scots

Scotland

Glasgow Highlands

Wales

Cardiff Gower Port Talbot

Ireland

Dublin

D4

South-West

Cork

Supraregional Ulster

Channel Islands

Alderney Guernsey Jersey

Elsewhere

Gibraltar Isle of Man Malta

North and South America

United States

Varieties by common name

African American Appalachian Boston Cajun California Chicago; Detroit; Great Lakes Chicano Mid-Atlantic

Philadelphia; South Jersey Baltimorese

General American High Tider Maine Miami Midland Midwestern New England New Mexican New York Old Southern Pacific Northwest Pennsylvania Dutch Pittsburghese Rhode Island Southern Texan Upper Midwestern Western Vermont Yat Yeshivish Yooper

Varieties by geographic location

Delaware Valley; Mid-Atlantic

Pennsylvania Dutch Philadelphia; South Jersey Baltimore

Midland Midwest

Great Lakes; Inland North Upper Midwest Upper Peninsula of Michigan

New England

Boston Maine Rhode Island Vermont

New York City; Northeastern New Jersey

New York Latino

North South

Acadiana Appalachia Chesapeake; Pamlico Miami New Orleans Texas

West

California New Mexico Pacific Northwest

Western Pennsylvania

Canada

Aboriginal Atlantic

Cape Breton Newfoundland Lunenburg

Standard

Ottawa Valley Pacific Northwest Quebec

Caribbean

Bahamas Barbados Dominican Republic Jamaica Puerto Rico Trinidad

Elsewhere

Bermuda Falkland Islands Guyana

Oceania

Australia

Aboriginal Broad; Strine General South Australian Torres Strait West Australian

Elsewhere

Fiji New Zealand Palau Solomon Islands

Other continents

Africa

Cameroon Ghana Kenya Liberia Malawi Namibia Nigeria Sierra Leone South Africa

White

Cultivated General Broad Cape Flats

Black Indian

Uganda

Asia

Bangladesh Brunei Burma or Myanmar Hong Kong India Malaysia Nepal Pakistan Philippines Singapore Sri Lanka

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English-speaking world

Click on a coloured area to see an article about English in that country or region

Further links

Articles

English-speaking world History of the English language British Empire English in the Commonwealth of Nations Anglosphere

Lists

List of countries by English-speaking population List of countries where English is an official language

 

Countries and territories where English is the national language or the native language of the majority

Africa

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

Americas

Anguilla Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda The Bahamas Barbados Belize Bermuda British Virgin Islands Canada Cayman Islands Dominica Falkland Islands Grenada Guyana Jamaica Montserrat Saba Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Sint Eustatius Sint Maarten South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos Islands United States United States
United States
Virgin Islands

Europe

Guernsey Ireland Isle of Man Jersey United Kingdom

Oceania

Australia New Zealand Norfolk Island Pitcairn Islands

 

Countries and territories where English is an official language, but not the majority first language

Africa

Botswana Cameroon The Gambia Ghana Kenya Lesotho Liberia Malawi Mauritius Namibia Nigeria Rwanda Sierra Leone Somaliland South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

Americas

Puerto Rico

Asia

Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Special
Special
Administrative Region India Pakistan Philippines Singapore

Europe

Gibraltar Malta

Oceania

American Samoa Cook Islands Fiji Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia Nauru Niue Northern Mariana Islands Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tokelau Tuvalu Vanuatu

Dependencies shown in italics.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141893470 LCCN: n80098315 GND: 43104

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