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Catholic schools are parochial schools or education ministries of the Catholic Church. As of 2011[update], the Church operates the world's largest non-governmental school system.[1] In 2016, the church supported 43,800 secondary schools, and 95,200 primary schools.[2] Catholic schools participate in the evangelizing mission of the Church, integrating religious education as the core subject within their curriculum.

Contents

1 Background 2 Purpose 3 Religious education 4 Asia

4.1 Malaysia 4.2 Pakistan 4.3 Philippines

5 Europe

5.1 Slovakia 5.2 Ireland 5.3 United Kingdom

5.3.1 England and Wales 5.3.2 Northern Ireland 5.3.3 Scotland

6 North America

6.1 Canada 6.2 United States

7 Oceania

7.1 Australia 7.2 New Zealand

8 South America 9 Funding

9.1 State funding 9.2 Private schools 9.3 Voluntary aided schools

10 International benefits

10.1 Preference for the poor 10.2 High attendance and performance 10.3 Development of girls in society

11 International challenges

11.1 Economic inequality 11.2 Political context

12 See also 13 References 14 External links

Background[edit]

The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with Irish diaspora and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. (July 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Irish immigration provides the main contribution to the increases in Catholic communities across the globe. The Irish immigration established the revival of Catholicism
Catholicism
through movement to countries across North America, Europe, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Australia. Historically, the establishment of Catholic schools in Europe encountered various struggles following the creation of the Church of England in the Elizabethan Religious settlements of 1558-63. Anti- Catholicism
Catholicism
in this period encouraged Catholics to create modern Catholic education systems to preserve their traditions. The Relief Acts of 1782 and the Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829 later increased the possibility to openly practice Catholicism
Catholicism
in England and to create charitable institutions by the Church.[3] This led to the development of numerous native religious congregations which established schools, hospitals, orphanages, reformatories, and workhouses.[3] Traditionally, Catholic schools originated as single sex schools. Catholic schools were previously required to depend on school fees and endowments. Endowments dropped off sharply causing fees to rise.[when?] This prevented some students from enrolling due to their inability to pay.[citation needed] Purpose[edit] Catholic schools are distinct from their public school counterparts in focusing on the development of individuals as practitioners of the Catholic faith. The leaders, teachers and students are required to focus on four fundamental rules initiated by the Church and school. This includes the Catholic identity of the school, education in regards to life and faith, celebration of life and faith, and action and social justice.[4] Like other Christian-affiliated institutions, Catholic schools are generally nondenominational, in that they accept anyone regardless of religion or denominational affiliation, race or ethnicity, or nationality, provided the admission or enrollment requirements and legal documents are submitted, and rules & regulations are obeyed for a fruitful school life. However, non-Catholics, whether Christian or not, may need to participate in or be exempted from required activities, particularly those of a religious nature. These are in keeping with the spirit of social inclusiveness.[5][6] Religious education[edit] The religious education as a core subject is a vital element of the curriculum where individuals are to develop themselves: “intellectually, physically, socially, emotionally and of course, spiritually.”[7] The education also involves: “the distinct but complementary aspect of the school's religious dimension of liturgical and prayer life of the school community.”[7] In Catholic schools, teachers teach a Religious Education Program provided by the Bishop. Both teacher and Bishop therefore, contribute to the planning and teaching Religious Education Lessons.[citation needed] Catholic education has been identified as a positive fertility factor; Catholic education at college level and, to lesser degree, at secondary school level is associated with a higher number of children, even when accounting for the confounding effect that higher religiosity leads to a higher probability of attending religious education.[8] Asia[edit] Malaysia[edit] Catholic schools in Malaysia have been the backbone of formal education in the country. Catholic schools have undergone many changes since independence in the late 50s and early 60s. The education policy in Malaysia is very centralized. In 1988, all Catholic religious brothers older than 55 were asked to retire with immediate effect, creating vacancies for lay teachers to take over. Any new brother wanting to join the teaching profession in Malaysia have to be in the civil service and share the same status as lay teachers. Many of the Lasallian traditions such as inter-La Salle games or sports are now integrated into other larger government funded programmes. With Islam being the state religion, compulsory or elective Bible lessons today are limited only to those of the Catholic faith. The missionaries who opened schools in Malaysia gave a solid education framework. Today, there are 68 Sisters of the Infant Jesus,11 Parish Convents and 46 La Salle Brothers schools in the country.[citation needed] Pakistan[edit] The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in Pakistan
Pakistan
is active in education, managing leading schools in addition to its spiritual work. The Catholic Church runs 534 schools, 53 hostels, 8 colleges, and 7 technical institutes, according to 2008 statistics.[9] The Catholic Board of Education is the arm of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in Pakistan, responsible for education.[10] Each diocese has its own board.[11] The Government of Pakistan
Pakistan
nationalised most church schools and colleges in Punjab and Sindh
Sindh
in 1972. Leading schools such as St Patrick's High School, Karachi, St Joseph's Convent School (Karachi) and St Michael's Convent School
St Michael's Convent School
were never nationalised.[citation needed] The Government of Sindh
Sindh
oversaw a denationalization program from 1985 to 1995, and the Government of Punjab began a similar program in 1996. In 2001, the Federal Government and the courts ordered the provincial governments to complete the denationalization process.[12] Philippines[edit] In the Philippines, private schools have been operated by the Catholic Church since the time of Spanish colonization. The Philippines
Philippines
is currently one of two predominant Roman Catholic nations in Southeast Asia, the other being East Timor, with a 2004 study by UNESCO indicating that 83% of the population as identifying themselves as Catholics.[13] The oldest existing university in Asia, University
University
of Santo Tomas, is located in the Philippines. It is the largest single Catholic university
Catholic university
in the world. The university was established by the Order of Preachers, also known as the Dominican Order, on April 28, 1611.[13] Europe[edit] Slovakia[edit] Education gained in these schools is equal to education gained in public schools. The purpose of catholic schools is beside quality education and upbringing to give alternative content of education and upbringing, new methods and forms.[14] Ireland[edit] Catholic schools in Ireland
Ireland
are state-aided, rather than state owned. Not all costs of operating, building and maintenance is provided by the central government.[clarification needed] Local communities raise funds, as well.[citation needed] Church groups in Ireland
Ireland
privately own most primary and secondary schools. Evidence indicates that approximately 60% of secondary schools pupils attend schools owned by religious congregations.[3] United Kingdom[edit] England and Wales[edit]

A sign for a Catholic school
Catholic school
in Oxford, with the coat-of-arms of the Archdiocese of Birmingham and the logo of the Oxfordshire County Council.

In England and Wales, Catholic schools are either independent, and therefore funded privately through students' fees, or maintained by the state. Maintained Catholic schools are either Voluntary Aided, where 10% of the capital funding is provided by the Church, or Academies, which are fully state funded. The Catholic Education Service (CES) oversees education for approximately 840,000 pupils each year through its 2,300 maintained schools. In addition, some 130 independent schools have a Catholic character.[15][16] The CES interact on behalf of all bishops with the government, and other national bodies on legal, administrative, and religious education matters to: “promote Catholic interests in education; safeguard Catholic interests in education; and, contribute to Christian perspectives within educational debate at national level.”[17] They have refused to open any schools under the Free School programme due to the 50% Rule, which limits the number of places that can be reserved for Catholics. In 2009, Catholic schools in England comprised two-thirds of all religious secondary schools.[18] Northern Ireland[edit] The Council for Catholic Maintained Schools (CCMS) is the advocate for the Catholic Maintained Schools sector in Northern Ireland. CCMS represents trustees, schools and governors on issues such as raising and maintaining standards, the schools estate and teacher employment. As the largest employer of teachers in Northern Ireland
Ireland
(8500 teachers), CCMS plays a central role in supporting teachers whether it is through its welfare service or, for example, in working parties such as the Independent Inquiry into Teacher Pay and Conditions of Service. According to the latest figures from Department of Education, N.I. Statistics Branch 2006/2007, the number of pupils registered at school in Northern Ireland
Ireland
is 329,583. The number of pupils attending Catholic managed schools is 148,225.[19][19] Scotland[edit] Like in England and Wales, Catholic schools in Scotland are either independent or state-run and overseen by the Scottish Catholic Education Service,[20] established in 1972 as part of the Catholic Education Commission to assist the Bishops' Conference of Scotland
Bishops' Conference of Scotland
in matters pertaining to education. The Education Act 1918
Education Act 1918
guaranteed the rights of Scottish Catholics to educate their children in local Catholic schools and protected the rights of Catholic schools to preserve their religious character.[21] During the 1920s, ownership of most Catholic schools transferred from the Dioceses or the resident order to the state sector. Today they are known as "denominational schools" and are open to pupils who meet the specified prerequisites regardless of financial situation. A select few, most notably St Aloysius' College
College
and Kilgraston School, remain independent.[citation needed] North America[edit] See also: Education in Latin America
Education in Latin America
and Religion in Latin America Canada[edit] Main article: Catholic schools in Canada

École des Ursulines is a private Catholic school. Founded in 1639, its is one of North America's oldest schools still operating

The existence of Catholic schools in Canada
Catholic schools in Canada
can be traced to the year 1620, when the first school was founded by the Catholic Recollet Order in Quebec. Most schools in Canada
Canada
were operated under the auspices of one Christian body or another until the 19th century. Currently publicly-supported Catholic schools operate in three provinces (Alberta, Ontario, and Saskatchewan), as well as all three federal territories (Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon
Yukon
(to grade 9 only). Publicly-funded Catholic schools operate as separate schools in Canada, meaning they are constitutionally protected. The constitutional protection enjoyed by separate schools in Canadian provinces is enshrined in Section 93 of the Constitution. It gives the provinces power over education, but with significant restrictions designed to protect minority religious rights. These restrictions was a result of significant debate between Protestants and Catholics in Canada
Canada
over whether schools should be parochial or non-denominational. As opposed to the provinces, the right to separate schools is protected in the three federal territories by the federal Acts of Parliament which establish those territories.

Delegates of the Quebec
Quebec
Conference of 1864. Retention of separate school boards with public funding was a major issue towards Canadian Confederation.

Section 93 was the result of constitutional negotiations in the 1860s. Pre-existing rights for tax-funded minority Catholic, and Protestant schools had become a major point for negotiations surrounding Canadian Confederation. Retention of separate school boards with public funding was a major issue, chiefly as a result of ethnic and religious tension between the (largely French-speaking) Roman Catholic population in Canada
Canada
and the (largely English-speaking) Protestant majority. The issue was a subject of debate at the 1864 Quebec
Quebec
Conference and was finally resolved at the London Conference of 1866 with a proposal to preserve the separate school systems in Quebec
Quebec
and Ontario. The way in which this agreement was written into the Constitution, was to the effect that the condition of education in each colony (or territory) at the time it entered Confederation would be constitutionally protected thereafter. Despite the compromise, the debate over separate Catholic schools continued to be an issue in the new country. Manitoba's adoption of a single, secular school system in 1890 resulted in a national political crisis. The Manitoba Schools Question
Manitoba Schools Question
was a political crisis in the 1880s and 1890s, revolving around publicly funded separate schools for Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
and Protestants in Manitoba. The crisis eventually spread to the national level, becoming one of the key issues in the federal election of 1896. Due to the close link between religion and language during this period in Canada, the Schools Question represented a deeper issue of French survival as a language and a culture in Western Canada. The secular system was upheld, with the guarantee of French instruction later being revoked in 1916, leaving English as the only official language in use in the province until it was reinstated in 1985. In the province of Quebec, publicly funded Catholic and Protestant schools were maintained until 1997, when the system was replaced by linguistic-based secular school system, after passing a constitutional amendment that exempted Quebec
Quebec
from certain conditions of Section 93. Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
also operated separate schools for several Christian denominations, including Catholics, prior to 1997. This school system emerged prior to Newfoundland's entry into Confederation in 1949, and continued until 1997, when the province established a secular public system. The absence of Catholic-Protestant tensions in the provinces of British Columbia, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island
resulted in no separate school systems emerging in these provinces.

École secondaire catholique Saint-Frère-André
École secondaire catholique Saint-Frère-André
in Toronto, is one of many publicly-funded French Catholic schools in the province of Ontario.

Presently, the Ontario
Ontario
Ministry of Education funds 29 English-language Catholic school
Catholic school
boards and 8 French-language Catholic school
Catholic school
boards (in addition to 31 English-language secular school boards, 4 French-language secular school boards, and 1 English-language Protestant school board). Originally, most of the province's secular school boards were Protestant-based, although it was gradually transformed into a secular public system. Public funding of Catholic schools was initially provided only to Grade 10 in Ontario. However, in 1985, it was extended to cover the final three years of secondary education ( Grade 11 to Grade 13/OAC). Publicly funded Catholic separate schools are also present in the provinces of Alberta
Alberta
and Saskatchewan, although they are not as prevalent as in the province of Ontario. The near-exclusive public funding for a single religious denomination in the province of Ontario
Ontario
has garnered controversy in the last few decades. The controversy led to a Supreme Court decision in 1996 that held that the provincial education power under section 93 of the Constitution Act, 1867 is plenary, and is not subject to Charter attack. They also noted it was the product of a historical compromise crucial to Confederation and forms a comprehensive code with respect to denominational school rights which cannot be enlarged through the operation of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The issue has garnered criticism internationally. On November 5, 1999, the United Nations Human Rights Committee
Human Rights Committee
condemned Canada
Canada
and Ontario
Ontario
for having violated the equality provisions (Article 26) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The Committee restated its concerns on November 2, 2005, when it published its Concluding Observations regarding Canada's fifth periodic report under the Covenant. The Committee observed that Canada
Canada
had failed to "adopt steps in order to eliminate discrimination on the basis of religion in the funding of schools in Ontario." United States[edit] Main article: Catholic schools in the United States See also: Elementary school
Elementary school
and High school

St. Thomas High School in Houston, Texas

Catholic schools are the largest non-public school system in the USA. In 2010, 2 million students attended 6,980 schools. 331 of these are private.[22] Catholicism
Catholicism
of schools in the United States was first established during the 19th century with the arrival of English immigrants. Catholic schools in the USA are significant in that Catholicism
Catholicism
is seen to have been critical in developing the American culture. The development and enrollment of Americans into Catholic schools increased after World War II, Post-war
Post-war
development and Cold War in the battle against anti-religious Communism.[23] By the time of 1964-1965, Catholic schools accounted for nearly 89% of all private school attendance and 12% of all school-age children in school (K-12) in the USA. The number of religious (priests, brothers, and sisters) was at its highest, allowing schools to offer qualified teachers at minimal costs, meaning that most children in the 1940s and 1950s attended their parish school free of charge. [23] Since then, there has been a large decline in enrollment predominantly believed to be due to “suburbanization, liberalization of education and the rise of the Catholic middle-class.”[23] In the United States, Catholic schools are accredited by independent and/or state agencies, and teachers are generally certified. Schools are supported through tuition payments, donations, and fund raising charities. In contrast to its public school counterpart, Catholic urbanization has made more significant achievements in poor areas than wealthier areas. Holy Angels, for example has become one of the strongest academic institutions in the country; it serves the Kenwood, Oakland neighborhoods of South Side Chicago, Illinois, where 3 out of 4 people live in poverty and violent crime is frequent.[23] The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops
United States Conference of Catholic Bishops
listed six key responsibilities of Catholic Schools.[24] They are

Encouraging and supporting efforts in Catholic education by fostering the distribution and implementation of both universal Church documents on education as well as related documents developed by the bishops of the United States Supporting educational efforts in the Church in the United States by developing policies, guidelines, and resources for use by bishops in their dioceses Providing consultation on educational issues when requested, including advising and representing the bishops Collaborating with the Committee on Evangelization and Catechesis regarding evangelization and catechesis in Catholic schools and universities Providing support and advocacy in federal public policy on behalf of Catholic educational institutions from pre-school through high school levels Bringing to Catholic education the perspectives and concerns of other cultures and people with special pastoral needs through collaboration with other committees/offices

In 2015, the Inner-city Scholarship Fund run by the Archdiocese of New York announced the largest-ever gift of private money to Catholic schooling. Christine and Stephen Schwarzmann gave $40 million to an endowment that will provide 2,900 children per year with scholarships.[25] Oceania[edit] See also: Education in Australia
Australia
and Education in New Zealand Australia[edit] Main article: Catholic Education in Australia In Australia, Catholic schools have been operating for over 175 years.The arrival of the first European fleet brought the first Irish Catholics to Australia, predominantly by the transport of convicts. Catholics consisted one-tenth of the convicts settling in Australia, mostly Irish whilst the rest were English and Scottish. By 1803, 2086 convicts of Irish descent and majority being Catholics had been transported to Botany Bay.[26] Catholic schools are the largest group of non-government schools in Australia
Australia
accounting for some 18% of institutions (1,705 of 9,529 as of 2009), compared to 11% for independent schools (1022).[27] Catholic schools are those run by the diocesan Catholic Department of Education; some independent schools are owned and run by Catholic religious orders. In addition, there is at least one school operating within the Society of St Pius X, Catholic traditionalists in irregular canonical status with Rome (Their current canonical status is being resolved in Rome presently): St Thomas Aquinas College
College
in Tynong, Victoria.[citation needed] As with other classes of non-government schools in Australia, Catholic schools receive funding from the Commonwealth Government. As this does not constitute the establishment of a church, nor the restriction of the free exercise of religion, nor does it create a religious test for public office, it is not considered to breach the separation of Church and State in Australia. This was the decision of the High Court in the Defence of Government Schools (DOGS) case of 1981, in which the judges selectively interpreted s.116 of the Australian Constitution, and is controversial.[28] New Zealand[edit] See also: State-integrated school Catholic education in New Zealand
New Zealand
was first introduced following the arrival of the first Catholic Bishop, Jean Baptiste Pompallier
Jean Baptiste Pompallier
in 1838. A year after signing the Treaty of Waitangi, the first Catholic school in New Zealand
New Zealand
was developed in Auckland
Auckland
on 1841.[29] The schools were originally managed by seven sisters from Ireland
Ireland
and aimed to assist the Maori population and the new settlers. From 1853 to 1875, the provincial governments financed grants for the Catholic schools. The Education Act 1877
Education Act 1877
however, allowed all schools to be free, compulsory and secular, and therefore disallowing funding of Catholic schools. In the early 1970s, increasing rolls and funding constraints saw Catholic schools accumulating large amounts of debt or being run down. The Government, fearing the state system was unable to cope with an influx of students if the Catholic schools folded, enacted the Private Schools Conditional Integration Act 1975. The Act allowed Catholic schools and other private schools to 'integrate' with the state system, receiving public funding and keeping their Catholic character, in exchange for being subject to the conditions of being a state school, such as having to teach the nationally set curriculum. The first Catholic schools integrated in August 1979, and by 1984, all Catholic schools in New Zealand
New Zealand
had integrated.[29] As of July 2013, 65,700 students attended Catholic schools in New Zealand, making up 8.6 percent of the total student population.[30] The majority are New Zealand
New Zealand
Europeans.[citation needed] The Catholic schools are owned by a proprietor, typically by the Bishop of the diocese. Currently, Catholic schools in New Zealand
New Zealand
are termed 'state-integrated schools' for funding purposes, meaning that teachers' salaries, learning materials, and operations of the school (e.g. power and gas) are publicly funded, but the school property is not. New Zealand
New Zealand
Catholic schools are built on land owned by the diocese; if the government were to fund Catholic school
Catholic school
property maintenance and capital works above the entitlement of any other private property owner, it would be transferring wealth to the bishop, breaking the separation of church and state. Instead, parents of students at Catholic schools pay "attendance dues" to the proprietors to fund property costs: these are typically NZ$390 to $430 per year for primary school students (ages 5–12), and NZ$730 to $860 per year for secondary school students (ages 13–18).[31] South America[edit] See also: Education in Latin America
Education in Latin America
and Religion in Latin America

The Colegio de la Preciosa Sangre in Pichilemu, Chile

The vast majority of South Americans
South Americans
are Christians, mostly Roman Catholics. Over 80% in Hispanic countries and some 65%-70% in Brazil consider themselves Catholic. Catholic educational practices were brought to the indigenous population of the Inca by Spaniards, Portuguese and European cultures. Anticlericalism
Anticlericalism
was established in the 19th century resulting to a temporary alienation between church and state.[citation needed] Funding[edit] State funding[edit] Main article: state school In some countries, Catholic schools are funded by the state. These are institutions that requires assistance from the government. This is the same in public schools where government who mandate schools pay for the needs of schools whether in whole or in part, by taxes of the population. Australian catholic schools fall under this category, where the Australian government fund Catholic schools as well as state schools.[32] Non-independent catholic schools in Scotland is another example where the institutions are fully funded by the Scottish Government. Private schools[edit] Main article: private school Private schools, also known as independent schools are not managed by local, state or national governments. They instead may select their students and are funded in whole or in part by the tuition fees charged to students, rather than relying on the government as public schools do. Students may also get scholarships to enter into a private school depending on the student’s talent.[citation needed] Voluntary aided schools[edit] Main article: voluntary aided school Voluntary aided schools are a kind of "maintained school", meaning that they receive the majority of their running costs from central government via the local authority, and do not charge fees to students. In contrast to other types of maintained school, only 90% of the capital costs of a voluntary aided school are met by government. The foundation contributes the rest of the capital costs, owns the school's land and buildings and appoints a majority of the school governors. The governing body runs the school, employs the staff and decides the school's admission arrangements, subject to rules imposed by central government. Pupils follow the National Curriculum, except that faith schools may teach Religious Education according to their own faith. Within the maintained sector in England, approximately 22% of primary schools and 17% of secondary schools are voluntary aided, including all of the Roman Catholic schools and the schools of non-Christian faiths.[citation needed] International benefits[edit] Preference for the poor[edit] Catholic schools have experienced changes heralded by the Second Vatican Council in regards to Catholic social teaching cantered on the poor: “First and foremost, the Church offers its educational services to the poor, or those who are deprived of family help and affection or those who are far from faith....”[33] These changes have led to instances in Brazil, Peru
Peru
and Chile
Chile
where the contributions has led to “a new way of being in school” by including the disadvantaged and people in poor areas to education.[citation needed] High attendance and performance[edit] Empirical evidence in the United States[not in citation given] and Australia
Australia
indicates that education performance and attendance are greater in Catholic schools in contrasts to its public counterparts. Evans and Schwab (1998) in their experiment found that attendance at Catholic schools in the United States
Catholic schools in the United States
increases the probability of completing high school or commencing college by 13%.[34] Similarly, an experiment conducted by Williams and Carpenter (1990) of Australia through comparing previous examination by private and public schools concluded that students in private education outperform those from government schools on all educational, social and economic indicators.[34] Development of girls in society[edit] Catholic schooling has indicated a large impact in the changing role of women for countries such as Malta
Malta
and Japan. Catholic schooling of girls in Malta, for example indicates: “...evidence of remarkable commitment to the full development of girls in a global society.”[33] Similarly, all girl schools in Japan
Japan
have also contributed powerfully to the “personal and educational patriarchal society”.[33] International challenges[edit] Economic inequality[edit] The expensive cost and necessity to obtain high salary levels is contributing to the difficulty of maintain Catholic schools. Many Catholic schools in the United States
Catholic schools in the United States
in inner America which has traditionally served the most in are continuously being forced to close at an increasing rate. This may be seen as contradicting the Catholic schools principles as it does not live up to its reality. The preferential services to the poor serves a problem when there is a clear distinction that wealthier Catholic schools receive better resources and are more privileged than those in areas of low-income.[33] This today is being experienced in Latin America and other national settings where financial constraints in serving the poor is not being undertaken as state aid or subsidy are not being available to the Catholic schools.[citation needed] Political context[edit] There have been instances where some political ideologies that are engaged with secularism or countries that have high nationalism are suspicious of what Catholic schools are teaching. The moral and social teachings by Catholic schools may be seen as “continuation of Colonial cultural dominance of the society,” still being felt in Zambia, Malawi, and the colonies of Spain.[33] See also[edit]

Catholicism
Catholicism
portal

Category:Catholic schools by country Category:Roman Catholic schools by continent Christian school National Catholic Educational Association Parochial school Catholic university Catholic school
Catholic school
uniform

References[edit]

^ Gardner, Roy; Lawton, Denis; Cairns, Jo (2005), Faith Schools, Routledge, p. 148, ISBN 978-0-415-33526-3  ^ ""Laudato Si"". Vermont Catholic. 8 (4): 73. 2016-2017, Winter. Retrieved December 19, 2016.  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ a b c , ISBN 978-1-4020-5776-2  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ "Area 1 – The Faith Community" (PDF). Retrieved 28 September 2010.  ^ Alessi, Scott (April 2014). "Should Catholic schools make exceptions for non-Catholic students?". uscatholic.org. Archived from the original on 2015-12-08.  ^ Scott, Katie (January 21, 2015). "Why non-Catholics select Catholic schools". Catholic Herald (Arlington, Virginia).  ^ a b Diocese of cairns. "Religious Dimension". Archived from the original on 10 October 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.  ^ Charles F. Westoff, R. G. Potter (2015). Third Child: A Study in the Prediction of Fertility. Princeton University
University
Press. ISBN 9781400876426.  Page 239 ^ "UCANews.com October 5, 2009". [permanent dead link] ^ "Catholic Board of Education". Archived from the original on 2009-11-19.  ^ "UCANews.com October 5, 2009". [permanent dead link] ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2005".  ^ a b Gutiérrez, Angelina L. V. (2007), " Catholic school
Catholic school
in the Philippines: Beacons of hope in Asia", in Grace, Gerald; O’Keefe, Joseph, International Handbook of Catholic Education Challenges for School Systems in the 21st Century, International Handbooks of Religion and Education, 2, Netherlands: Springer, pp. 709–723, doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-5776-2, ISBN 978-1-4020-5776-2  ^ "Výchova a vzdelávanie v súkromných a cirkevných školách". minedu. Retrieved 26 September 2016.  ^ "Catholic Schools and Colleges". The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in England and Wales website. The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in England and Wales. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-08-09. Retrieved 2007-08-02.  ^ "Catholic Statistics 2003". The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in England and Wales website. The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in England and Wales. 2003. Archived from the original on 2007-08-05. Retrieved 2007-08-02.  ^ Catholic Education Service. "Promoting and Supporting Catholic Education in England and Wales". Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2010.  ^ The Tablet. "New research targets Catholic schools", page 42, 25 April 2009 ^ a b Commission for Catholic Education: Northern Ireland. "Statistics". Retrieved 29 September 2010.  ^ Scottish Catholic Education Service ^ Schools past and present. Scottish Catholic Education Service. ^ http://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/schools/lsoe/pdf/Roche_Center/Sustaining_Urban_Catholic_Elementary_%20Schools.pdf ^ a b c d Cattaro, Gerald M.; Cooper, Bruce S. (2007), "Developments in Catholic schools in the USA: Politics, policy & prophecy", in Grace, Gerald; O’Keefe, Joseph, International Handbook of Catholic Education Challenges for School Systems in the 21st Century, International Handbooks of Religion and Education, 2, Netherlands: Springer, pp. 61–83, doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-5776-2, ISBN 978-1-4020-5776-2  ^ Catholic Education ^ "Briefly Noted Excellence in Philanthropy The Philanthropy Roundtable". www.philanthropyroundtable.org. Retrieved 2016-03-03.  ^ Catholic Australia. "Catholic community in Australia". Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2010.  ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2009). Schools, Australia: Schools by school affiliation—states and territories ^ The Purple Economy Archived 2013-01-17 at the Wayback Machine. by Max Wallace ^ a b Wanden, Kevin; Birch, Lyn (2007), "Catholic schools in New Zealand", in Grace, Gerald; O’Keefe, Joseph, International Handbook of Catholic Education Challenges for School Systems in the 21st Century, International Handbooks of Religion and Education, 2, Netherlands: Springer, pp. 847–870, doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-5776-2, ISBN 978-1-4020-5776-2  ^ "Roll by Authority & Affiliation – 1 July 2013". Ministry of Education (New Zealand). Archived from the original on 18 August 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ "Summary of Gross Attendance Dues Rates 2013". New Zealand
New Zealand
Catholic Education Office. Retrieved 8 February 2014.  ^ Pell, George (2007), "Religion and culture: Catholic schools in Australia", in Grace, Gerald; O’Keefe, Joseph, International Handbook of Catholic Education Challenges for School Systems in the 21st Century, International Handbooks of Religion and Education, 2, Netherlands: Springer, pp. 835–845, doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-5776-2, ISBN 978-1-4020-5776-2  ^ a b c d e Grace, Gerald; O’Keefe, Joseph (2007), "Catholic schools facing the Challenges of the 21st century: An overview", in Grace, Gerald; O’Keefe, Joseph, International Handbook of Catholic Education Challenges for School Systems in the 21st Century, International Handbooks of Religion and Education, 2, Netherlands: Springer, pp. 1–11, doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-5776-2, ISBN 978-1-4020-5776-2  ^ a b Francis, Vella (1999), "Do Catholic Schools Make a Difference? Evidence from Australia", The Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, Vol. 34, No. 1: 208–224 

External links[edit]

Alliance for Catholic Education – more information on support for Catholic schools in the United States Catholic Colleges and Universities in the United States Catholic Schools List of Catholic schools in Australia List of Catholic schools in Denmark dead link

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Continuing education Further education Professional school Vocational school

Higher

Academy College Community college Graduate school Institute of technology Junior college University Upper division college Vocational university Seminary

By funding / eligibility

Academy
Academy
(England) Charter school Comprehensive school For-profit education Free education Free school (England) Independent school UK Independent school

preparatory public

Private school Selective school Separate school State or public school State-integrated school
State-integrated school
(New Zealand)

By style of education

Adult education Alternative school Boarding school Day school Folk high school Free skool Homeschool International school K-12 Madrasa Magnet school Montessori school One-room schools Parochial school Ranch school Sink school Virtual school Vocal school Yeshiva

By scope

College
College
preparatory Compulsory education Democratic education Gifted education Remedial education Vocational education

Historical

Ancient higher-learning institutions

Platonic Academy Lyceum

Monastic schools Cathedral schools Medieval universities

Schools imposed on indigenous peoples

in Canada in New Zealand in the United States in South Africa

Informal or illegal

in Ireland in Greece in South Tyrol

Category Commons

v t e

Catholic youth work

Youth work
Youth work
of the Catholic Church

Concepts

Catholic residential youth work Catholic higher education Catholic campus ministry Catholic schools Catholic catechesis Star singers

Organisations

Ateitis Bund der Deutschen Katholischen Jugend Cartellverband Catholic Christian Outreach Catholic Organizations for Youth in Asia (COYA) Catholic Youth Organization Catholic Youth Organization
Catholic Youth Organization
Nigeria (CYON) Catholic Youth Organisation Sierra Leone (CYO Sierra Leone) Catholic Youth Organization
Catholic Youth Organization
Ghana (CYO Ghana) Chiro Chiro
Chiro
Youth Movement Philippines Confraternity of Christian Doctrine Columbian Squires Coordinació Catalana (CCCCCE) Crosscare youth ECyD eRko Fellowship of Catholic University
University
Students International Federation of Catholic Parochial Youth Movements (Fimcap) Forum Oratori Italiani (FOI) Franciscan youth Guild of St. Stephen Hatsal Indian Catholic Youth Movement International Catholic Conference of Scouting International Federation of Catholic Universities Jesus Youth Jong Nederland Jungwacht Blauring
Jungwacht Blauring
(JuBla) Juventud Parroquial Chilena (JUPACH) Kartellverband Katholische Junge Gemeinde
Katholische Junge Gemeinde
(KjG) Katholische Jungschar Kiro Congo Kiwo Ayiti Le Patro Life Teen Malankara Catholic Youth Movement NET Ministries Newman Centers Niños Perseverantes Paraguayos Católico (NIPPAC) Oblate Youth Australia Phi Kappa Theta Squire Roses Xaveri Burundi Xaveri Congo Xaveri Rwanda Xaveri South Africa Youth 2000 Zghazagh Azzjoni Kattolika
Zghazagh Azzjoni Kattolika
(ZAK Malta)

Events

Asian Youth Day Fimcap World Camp Fimcap Eurocamp Lednica 2000 Rise Up (conference) World Youth Day

.