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The word catholic (with lowercase c; derived via Late Latin catholicus, from the Greek adjective καθολικός (katholikos), meaning "universal"[1][2]) comes from the Greek phrase καθόλου (katholou), meaning "on the whole", "according to the whole" or "in general", and is a combination of the Greek words κατά meaning "about" and ὅλος meaning "whole".[3][4] The term Catholic (usually written with uppercase C in English) was first used to describe the Christian Church
Christian Church
in the early 2nd century to emphasize its universal scope. In the context of Christian ecclesiology, it has a rich history and several usages. The word in English can mean either "of the Roman Catholic faith" or "relating to the historic doctrine and practice of the Western Church".[5][note 1] Many Christians use it to refer more broadly to the whole Christian Church
Christian Church
or to all believers in Jesus
Jesus
Christ regardless of denominational affiliation;[6][7] it can also more narrowly refer to Catholicity, which encompasses several historic churches sharing major beliefs. "Catholicos", the title used for the head of some churches in Eastern Christian traditions, is derived from the same linguistic origin. In non-ecclesiastical use, it derives its English meaning directly from its root, and is currently used to mean the following:

including a wide variety of things; all-embracing universal or of general interest; liberal, having broad interests, or wide sympathies;[8] or inclusive, inviting and containing strong evangelism.

The term has been incorporated into the name of the largest Christian communion, the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(also called the Catholic Church). All of the three main branches of Christianity
Christianity
in the East (Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church
Oriental Orthodox Church
and Church of the East) had always identified themselves as Catholic in accordance with Apostolic traditions and the Nicene Creed. Anglicans, Lutherans, and some Methodists also believe that their churches are "Catholic" in the sense that they too are in continuity with the original universal church founded by the Apostles. However, each church defines the scope of the "Catholic Church" differently. For instance, the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox churches, and Church of the East, each maintain that their own denomination is identical with the original universal church, from which all other denominations broke away. Distinguishing beliefs of Catholicity, the beliefs of most Christians who call themselves "Catholic", include the episcopal polity, that bishops are considered the highest order of ministers within the Christian religion,[9] as well as the Nicene Creed
Creed
of AD 381. In particular, along with unity, sanctity, and apostolicity, catholicity is considered one of Four Marks of the Church,[10] found the line of the Nicene Creed: "I believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church." During the medieval and modern times, additional distinctions arose regarding the use of the terms Western Catholic and Eastern Catholic. Before the East–West Schism, those terms had just the basic geographical meanings, since only one undivided Catholicity
Catholicity
existed, uniting the Latin speaking Christians of West and the Greek speaking Christians of the East. After the split of 1054 terminology became much more complicated, resulting in the creation of parallel and confronting terminological systems.[11]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Historical use

2.1 Ignatius of Antioch 2.2 Other second-century uses 2.3 Cyril of Jerusalem 2.4 Theodosius I 2.5 Augustine of Hippo 2.6 St Vincent of Lerins 2.7 Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Eastern Orthodox Church 2.8 Lutheran
Lutheran
Churches

3 Contemporary use

3.1 Catholic Church 3.2 Orthodoxy 3.3 Protestantism 3.4 Independent Catholicism

4 Avoidance of use 5 Notes and references

5.1 See also 5.2 Notes 5.3 References

6 External links

Etymology The Greek adjective katholikos, the origin of the term "catholic" means "universal". Directly from the Greek, or via Late Latin catholicus, the term catholic entered many other languages, becoming the base for the creation of various theological terms such as catholicism and catholicity ( Late Latin
Late Latin
catholicismus, catholicitas). The term "catholicism" is the English form of Late Latin catholicismus, an abstract noun based on the adjective "catholic". The Modern Greek equivalent καθολικισμός (katholikismos) is back-formed and usually refers to the Catholic Church. The terms "catholic", "catholicism" and "catholicity" is closely related to the use of the term Catholic Church. The earliest evidence of the use of that term is the Letter to the Smyrnaeans
Letter to the Smyrnaeans
that Ignatius of Antioch wrote in about 108 to Christians in Smyrna. Exhorting Christians to remain closely united with their bishop, he wrote: "Wherever the bishop shall appear, there let the multitude [of the people] also be; even as, wherever Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
is, there is the Catholic Church."[12][13] From the second half of the second century, the word "catholic" began to be used to mean "orthodox" (non-heretical), "because Catholics claimed to teach the whole truth, and to represent the whole Church, while heresy arose out of the exaggeration of some one truth and was essentially partial and local".[14] In 380, Emperor Theodosius I limited use of the term "Catholic Christian" exclusively to those who followed the same faith as Pope Damasus I
Pope Damasus I
of Rome and Pope
Pope
Peter of Alexandria.[15] Numerous other early writers including Cyril of Jerusalem (c. 315–386), Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
(354–430) further developed the use of the term "catholic" in relation to Christianity. Historical use Ignatius of Antioch

Ignatius of Antioch

The earliest recorded evidence of the use of the term "Catholic Church" is the Letter to the Smyrnaeans
Letter to the Smyrnaeans
that Ignatius of Antioch
Ignatius of Antioch
wrote in about 107 to Christians in Smyrna. Exhorting Christians to remain closely united with their bishop, he wrote: "Wherever the bishop shall appear, there let the multitude [of the people] also be; even as, wherever Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
is, there is the Catholic Church."[12][16][17] Of the meaning for Ignatius of this phrase J.H. Srawley wrote:

This is the earliest occurrence in Christian literature of the phrase 'the Catholic Church' (ἡ καθολικὴ ἐκκλησία). The original sense of the word is 'universal'. Thus Justin Martyr (Dial. 82) speaks of the 'universal or general resurrection', using the words ἡ καθολικὴ ἀνάστασις. Similarly here the Church universal is contrasted with the particular Church of Smyrna. Ignatius means by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
'the aggregate of all the Christian congregations' (Swete, Apostles
Apostles
Creed, p. 76). So too the letter of the Church of Smyrna
Smyrna
is addressed to all the congregations of the Holy Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in every place. And this primitive sense of 'universal' the word has never lost, although in the latter part of the second century it began to receive the secondary sense of 'orthodox' as opposed to 'heretical'. Thus it is used in an early Canon of Scripture, the Muratorian fragment
Muratorian fragment
(circa 170 A.D.), which refers to certain heretical writings as 'not received in the Catholic Church'. So too Cyril of Jerusalem, in the fourth century, says that the Church is called Catholic not only 'because it is spread throughout the world', but also 'because it teaches completely and without defect all the doctrines which ought to come to the knowledge of men'. This secondary sense arose out of the original meaning because Catholics claimed to teach the whole truth, and to represent the whole Church, while heresy arose out of the exaggeration of some one truth and was essentially partial and local.[18][19]

By Catholic Church
Catholic Church
Ignatius designated the universal church. Ignatius considered that certain heretics of his time, who disavowed that Jesus was a material being who actually suffered and died, saying instead that "he only seemed to suffer" (Smyrnaeans, 2), were not really Christians.[20] Other second-century uses The term is also used in the Martyrdom of Polycarp
Martyrdom of Polycarp
(155) and in the Muratorian fragment
Muratorian fragment
(about 177). Cyril of Jerusalem

As mentioned in the above quotation from J.H. Srawley, Cyril of Jerusalem (c. 315–386), who is venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Anglican Communion, distinguished what he called the "Catholic Church" from other groups who could also refer to themselves as an ἐκκλησία (assembly or church):

Since the word Ecclesia is applied to different things (as also it is written of the multitude in the theatre of the Ephesians, And when he had thus spoken, he dismissed the Assembly (Acts 19:14), and since one might properly and truly say that there is a Church of evil doers, I mean the meetings of the heretics, the Marcionists and Manichees, and the rest, for this cause the Faith has securely delivered to you now the Article, "And in one Holy Catholic Church"; that you may avoid their wretched meetings, and ever abide with the Holy Church Catholic in which you were regenerated. And if ever you are sojourning in cities, inquire not simply where the Lord's House is (for the other sects of the profane also attempt to call their own dens houses of the Lord), nor merely where the Church is, but where is the Catholic Church. For this is the peculiar name of this Holy Church, the mother of us all, which is the spouse of our Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ, the Only-begotten Son of God(Catechetical Lectures, XVIII, 26).[21]

Theodosius I

Theodosius I

Theodosius I, Emperor from 379 to 395, declared "Catholic" Christianity
Christianity
the official religion of the Roman Empire, declaring in the Edict of Thessalonica of 27 February 380:

It is our desire that all the various nations which are subject to our clemency and moderation, should continue the profession of that religion which was delivered to the Romans by the divine Apostle Peter, as it has been preserved by faithful tradition and which is now professed by the Pontiff Damasus and by Peter, Bishop
Bishop
of Alexandria, a man of apostolic holiness. According to the apostolic teaching and the doctrine of the Gospel, let us believe in the one Deity of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, in equal majesty and in a holy Trinity. We authorize the followers of this law to assume the title Catholic Christians; but as for the others, since in our judgment they are foolish madmen, we decree that they shall be branded with the ignominious name of heretics, and shall not presume to give their conventicles the name of churches. They will suffer in the first place the chastisement of the divine condemnation, and in the second the punishment which our authority, in accordance with the will of heaven, will decide to inflict.[22] Theodosian Code XVI.i.2

Augustine of Hippo

Augustine of Hippo

Only slightly later, Saint
Saint
Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
(354–430) also used the term "Catholic" to distinguish the "true" church from heretical groups:

In the Catholic Church, there are many other things which most justly keep me in her bosom. The consent of peoples and nations keeps me in the Church; so does her authority, inaugurated by miracles, nourished by hope, enlarged by love, established by age. The succession of priests keeps me, beginning from the very seat of the Apostle Peter, to whom the Lord, after His resurrection, gave it in charge to feed His sheep (Jn 21:15–19), down to the present episcopate.

And so, lastly, does the very name of Catholic, which, not without reason, amid so many heresies, the Church has thus retained; so that, though all heretics wish to be called Catholics, yet when a stranger asks where the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
meets, no heretic will venture to point to his own chapel or house.

Such then in number and importance are the precious ties belonging to the Christian name which keep a believer in the Catholic Church, as it is right they should ... With you, where there is none of these things to attract or keep me... No one shall move me from the faith which binds my mind with ties so many and so strong to the Christian religion... For my part, I should not believe the gospel except as moved by the authority of the Catholic Church. —St. Augustine (354–430): Against the Epistle of Manichaeus called Fundamental, chapter 4: Proofs of the Catholic Faith.

— St. Augustine (354–430): Against the Epistle of Manichaeus called Fundamental, chapter 4: Proofs of the Catholic Faith.[23]

St Vincent of Lerins A contemporary of Augustine, St. Vincent of Lerins, wrote in 434 (under the pseudonym Peregrinus) a work known as the Commonitoria ("Memoranda"). While insisting that, like the human body, church doctrine develops while truly keeping its identity (sections 54-59, chapter XXIII),[24] he stated:

In the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
itself, all possible care must be taken, that we hold that faith which has been believed everywhere, always, by all. For that is truly and in the strictest sense 'catholic,' which, as the name itself and the reason of the thing declare, comprehends all universally. This rule we shall observe if we follow universality, antiquity, consent. We shall follow universality if we confess that one faith to be true, which the whole church throughout the world confesses; antiquity, if we in no wise depart from those interpretations which it is manifest were notoriously held by our holy ancestors and fathers; consent, in like manner, if in antiquity itself we adhere to the consentient definitions and determinations of all, or at the least of almost all priests and doctors. — A Commonitory for the Antiquity and Universality of the Catholic Faith Against the Profane Novelties of All Heresies, section 6, end of chapter II[25]

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Eastern Orthodox Church See also: Western Catholic (other) and Eastern Catholic (other) During early centuries of Christian history, majority of Christians who followed doctrines represented in Nicene Creed
Creed
were bound by one common and undivided Catholicity
Catholicity
that was uniting the Latin speaking Christians of West and the Greek speaking Christians of the East. In those days, terms "eastern Catholic" and "western Catholic" had their basic geographical meanings, generally corresponding to existing linguistic distinctions between Greek East and Latin West. In spite of various and quite frequent theological and ecclesiastical disagreements between major Christian sees, common Catholicity
Catholicity
was preserved until the great disputes that arose between 9th and 11th century. After the East–West Schism, the notion of common Catholicity
Catholicity
was broken and each side started to develop its own terminological practice.[11] All major theological and ecclesiastical disputes in the Christian East or West have been commonly accompanied by attempts of arguing sides to deny each other the right to use the word "Catholic" as term of self-designation. After the acceptance of Filioque
Filioque
clause into the Nicene Creed
Creed
by the Rome, Orthodox Christians in the East started to refer to adherents of Filioquism in the West just as "Latins" considering them no longer to be "Catholics".[11] The dominant view in the Eastern Orthodox Church, that all Western Christians who accepted Filioque
Filioque
interpolation and unorthodox Pneumatology ceased to be Catholics, was held and promoted by famous Eastern Orthodox canonist Theodore Balsamon who was patriarch of Antioch. He wrote in 1190:

For many years the once illustrious congregation of the Western Church, that is to say, the Church of Rome, has been divided in spiritual communion from the other four Patriarchates, and has separated itself by adopting customs and dogmas alien to the Catholic Church and to the Orthodox ... So no Latin should be sanctified by the hands of the priests through divine and spotless Mysteries unless he first declares that he will abstain from Latin dogmas and customs, and that he will conform to the practice of the Orthodox.[26]

On the other side of the widening rift, Eastern Orthodox were considered by western theologians to be Schismatics. Relations between East and West were further estranged by the tragic events of the Massacre of the Latins
Massacre of the Latins
in 1182 and Sack of Constantinople in 1204. Those bloody events were followed by several failed attempts to reach reconciliation (see: Second Council of Lyon, Council of Florence, Union of Brest, Union of Uzhhorod). During the late medieval and early modern period, terminology became much more complicated, resulting in the creation of parallel and confronting terminological systems that exist today in all of their complexity. During the Early Modern period, a special term "Acatholic" was widely used in the West to mark all those who were considered to hold heretical theological views and irregular ecclesiastical practices. In the time of Counter- Reformation
Reformation
the term Acatholic was used by zealous members of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
to designate Protestants
Protestants
as well as Eastern Orthodox Christians. The term was considered to be so insulting that the Council of the Serbian Orthodox Church, held in Temeswar in 1790, decided to send an official plea to emperor Leopold II, begging him to ban the use of the term "Acatholic".[27] Lutheran
Lutheran
Churches The Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
found within the Book
Book
of Concord, a compendium of belief of the Lutheran
Lutheran
Churches, teaches that "the faith as confessed by Luther and his followers is nothing new, but the true catholic faith, and that their churches represent the true catholic or universal church".[28] When the Lutherans presented the Augsburg Confession to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
in 1530, they believe to have "showed that each article of faith and practice was true first of all to Holy Scripture, and then also to the teaching of the church fathers and the councils".[28] Contemporary use The term "Catholic" is commonly associated with the whole of the church led by the Roman Pontiff, the Catholic Church. Other Christian churches that use the description "Catholic" include the Eastern Orthodox Church and other churches that believe in the historic episcopate (bishops), such as the Anglican
Anglican
Communion.[29][30] Many of those who apply the term "Catholic Church" to all Christians object to the use of the term to designate what they view as only one church within what they understand as the "whole" Catholic Church. In the English language, the first known use of the term is in Andrew of Wyntoun's Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland, "He was a constant Catholic/All Lollard he hated and heretic."[31] Catholic Church See also: Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Roman Catholic (term) The Catholic Church, led by the Pope
Pope
in Rome, usually distinguishes itself from other churches by calling itself the "Catholic", however has also used the description "Roman Catholic". Even apart from documents drawn up jointly with other churches, it has sometimes, in view of the central position it attributes to the See of Rome, adopted the adjective "Roman" for the whole church, Eastern as well as Western, as in the papal encyclicals Divini illius Magistri and Humani generis. Another example is its self-description as "the holy Catholic Apostolic Roman Church"[32] (or, by separating each adjective, as the "Holy, Catholic, Apostolic and Roman Church"[33]) in the 24 April 1870 Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith of the First Vatican Council. In all of these documents it also refers to itself both simply as the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and by other names. The Eastern Catholic Churches, while united with Rome in the faith, have their own traditions and laws, differing from those of the Latin Rite
Latin Rite
and those of other Eastern Catholic Churches. The contemporary Catholic Church
Catholic Church
has always considered itself to be the historic Catholic Church, and consider all others as "non-Catholics". This practice is an application of the belief that not all who claim to be Christians are part of the Catholic Church, as Ignatius of Antioch, the earliest known writer to use the term "Catholic Church", considered that certain heretics who called themselves Christians only seemed to be such.[34] Regarding the relations with Eastern Christians, Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI stated his wish to restore full unity with the Orthodox. The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
considers that almost all of the ancient theological differences have been satisfactorily addressed (the Filioque
Filioque
clause, the nature of purgatory, etc.), and has declared that differences in traditional customs, observances and discipline are no obstacle to unity.[35] Recent historic ecumenical efforts on the part of the Catholic Church have focused on healing the rupture between the Western ("Catholic") and the Eastern ("Orthodox") churches. Pope
Pope
John Paul II often spoke of his great desire that the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
"once again breathe with both lungs",[36][37] thus emphasizing that the Roman Catholic Church seeks to restore full communion with the separated Eastern churches.[38] Orthodoxy See also: Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church, and Church of the East All of the three main branches of Christianity
Christianity
in the East (Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church
Oriental Orthodox Church
and Church of the East) are continuing to identify themselves as Catholic in accordance with Apostolic traditions and the Nicene Creed.[39] The Eastern Orthodox Church firmly upholds the ancient doctrines of Eastern Orthodox Catholicity
Catholicity
and commonly uses the term Catholic, as in the title of The Longer Catechism of the Orthodox, Catholic, Eastern Church. So does the Coptic Orthodox Church that belongs to Oriental Orthodoxy
Oriental Orthodoxy
and considers its communion to be "the True Church of the Lord Jesus Christ".[40] Non of the Eastern Churches, Orthodox or Oriental, have any intention to abandon ancient traditions of their own Catholicity. Protestantism Most Reformation
Reformation
and post- Reformation
Reformation
churches use the term Catholic (often with a lower-case c) to refer to the belief that all Christians are part of one Church regardless of denominational divisions; e.g., Chapter XXV of the Westminster Confession of Faith
Westminster Confession of Faith
refers to the "catholic or universal Church". It is in line with this interpretation, which applies the word "catholic" (universal) to no one denomination, that they understand the phrase "one holy catholic and apostolic Church" in the Nicene Creed, the phrase the Catholic faith in the Athanasian Creed
Creed
and the phrase "holy catholic church" in the Apostles' Creed.[citation needed] The term is used also to mean those Christian churches that maintain that their episcopate can be traced unbrokenly back to the apostles and consider themselves part of a catholic (universal) body of believers. Among those who regard themselves as Catholic but not Roman Catholic are Anglicans and Lutherans,[28] who stress that they are both Reformed and Catholic. The Old Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and the various groups classified as Independent Catholic Churches
Independent Catholic Churches
also lay claim to the description Catholic. Traditionalist Catholics, even if they may not be in communion with Rome, consider themselves to be not only Catholics but the "true" Roman Catholics.[citation needed] Some use the term "Catholic" to distinguish their own position from a Calvinist
Calvinist
or Puritan
Puritan
form of Reformed-Protestantism. These include a faction of Anglicans often also called Anglo-Catholics, 19th century Neo-Lutherans, 20th century High Church Lutherans or evangelical-Catholics and others. Methodists and Presbyterians believe their denominations owe their origins to the Apostles
Apostles
and the early church, but do not claim descent from ancient church structures such as the episcopate. However, both of these churches hold that they are a part of the catholic (universal) church. According to Harper's New Monthly Magazine:

The various Protestant sects can not constitute one church because they have no intercommunion...each Protestant Church, whether Methodist
Methodist
or Baptist or whatever, is in perfect communion with itself everywhere as the Roman Catholic; and in this respect, consequently, the Roman Catholic has no advantage or superiority, except in the point of numbers. As a further necessary consequence, it is plain that the Roman Church is no more Catholic in any sense than a Methodist
Methodist
or a Baptist.[41] — Henry Mills Alden, Harper's New Monthly Magazine
Harper's New Monthly Magazine
Volume 37, Issues 217-222

As such, according to one viewpoint, for those who "belong to the Church," the term Methodist
Methodist
Catholic, or Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Catholic, or Baptist Catholic, is as proper as the term Roman Catholic.[42] It simply means that body of Christian believers over the world who agree in their religious views, and accept the same ecclesiastical forms.[42] Independent Catholicism Some Independent Catholics accept that, among bishops, that of Rome is primus inter pares, and hold that conciliarism is a necessary check against ultramontanism. They are however, by definition, not recognised by the Catholic Church. Avoidance of use Some Protestant churches avoid using the term completely, to the extent among many Lutherans of reciting the Creed
Creed
with the word "Christian" in place of "catholic".[43][44][45] The Orthodox churches share some of the concerns about Roman Catholic papal claims, but disagree with some Protestants
Protestants
about the nature of the church as one body. Notes and references See also

Religion portal

Anglo-Catholicism Anglican
Anglican
Catholic Church Anglican
Anglican
Use Catechism of the Catholic Church Catholicism Christianity Independent Catholic Churches Liberal Catholic Church List of popes Old Catholic Church Universal Catholic Church

Notes

^ Western Christianity
Christianity
includes both the (Roman) Catholic Church, Protestant Churches that share historic ties with the Catholic Church, as well as independent Catholic Churches that split later

References

^ "Catholic". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ (cf. Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon) ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2011-09-16.  ^ "On Being Catholic," by Claire Anderson M.Div. ^ "catholic". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 24 December 2014.  ^ "Beliefs and Social Issues, FAQ". United Methodist
Methodist
Church. Retrieved December 2009.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ "ELCA Terminology". Evengelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Church in America. Retrieved December 2009.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ American Heritage Dictionary (4th ed.).  ^ F.L. Cross, Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 1977:175. ^ Christliche Religion, Oskar Simmel Rudolf Stählin, 1960, 150 ^ a b c Inventing Latin Heretics: Byzantines and the Filioque
Filioque
in the Ninth Century at Google Books
Google Books
pp. ^ a b "Chapter VIII.—Let nothing be done without the bishop". Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Retrieved 21 November 2008.  ^ Angle, Paul T. (2007). The Mysterious Origins of Christianity. Wheatmark, Inc. ISBN 978-1-58736-821-9.  ^ "Ignatius Epistle to the Smyrnaeans".  ^ "Medieval Sourcebook: Theodosian Code XVI".  ^ Angle, Paul T. (2007). The Mysterious Origins of Christianity. Wheatmark, Inc. ISBN 9781587368219.  ^ J. H. Srawley (1900). "Ignatius Epistle to the Smyrnaeans". Retrieved 2007-06-24.  ^ [J.H. Srawley, The Epistles of St. Ignatius, Bishop
Bishop
of Antioch, vol. II,] pp. 41-42 ^ another edition, p.97 ^ "As certain unbelievers maintain, that He only seemed to suffer, as they themselves only seem to be Christians". Ignatius said these heretics did not believe in the reality of Christ's flesh, which did suffer and was raised up again: "They confess not the Eucharist to be the flesh of our Saviour Jesus
Jesus
Christ, which suffered for our sins, and which the Father, of His goodness, raised up again" (Smyrnaeans, 7) and called them "beasts in the shape of men, whom you must not only not receive, but, if it be possible, not even meet with" (Smyrnaeans, 4). ^ "Catechetical Lecture 18 (Ezekiel xxxvii)". newadvent.org. Retrieved 2012-03-31.  ^ Bettenson, Henry (1967). Documents of the Christian Church. Oxford University Press US. p. 22. ISBN 9780195012934.  ^ "Chapter 5.—Against the Title of the Epistle of Manichæus". Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Retrieved 21 November 2008.  ^ Vincent of Lerins. "A Commonitory for the Antiquity and Universality of the Catholic Faith Against the Profane Novelties of All Heresies". Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Retrieved 2012-03-05.  ^ Vincent of Lerins. "A Commonitory for the Antiquity and Universality of the Catholic Faith Against the Profane Novelties of All Heresies". Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Retrieved 2012-03-05.  ^ Heresy
Heresy
and the Making of European Culture: Medieval and Modern Perspectives at Google Books
Google Books
p. 42 ^ Радња Благовештенског сабора народа србског у Сремским Карловцима at Google Books p. 210 ^ a b c Ludwig, Alan (12 September 2016). "Luther's Catholic Reformation". The Lutheran
Lutheran
Witness. When the Lutherans presented the Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
before Emperor Charles V in 1530, they carefully showed that each article of faith and practice was true first of all to Holy Scripture, and then also to the teaching of the church fathers and the councils and even the canon law of the Church of Rome. They boldly claim, “This is about the Sum of our Doctrine, in which, as can be seen, there is nothing that varies from the Scriptures, or from the Church Catholic, or from the Church of Rome as known from its writers” (AC XXI Conclusion 1). The underlying thesis of the Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
is that the faith as confessed by Luther and his followers is nothing new, but the true catholic faith, and that their churches represent the true catholic or universal church. In fact, it is actually the Church of Rome that has departed from the ancient faith and practice of the catholic church (see AC XXIII 13, XXVIII 72 and other places).  Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Steven Kovacevich, Apostolic Christianity
Christianity
and the 23,000 Western Churches, especially p. 15[dead link] ^ Basic Principles Of The Attitude of The Russian Orthodox Church toward the Other Christian Confessions, adopted by the Jubilee Bishops’ Council of the Russian Orthodox Church, 14 August 2000 ^ "Catholic", in Oxford English Dictionary(1989), New York: Oxford University Press, [spelling modernized]. ^ English translation by Henry Edward Manning
Henry Edward Manning
in Philip Schaff, Creeds of Christendom: Volume II. The History of Creeds ^ Pope
Pope
Pius IX; Vatican (1870-04-24). " First Vatican Council
First Vatican Council
– Session 3: Dogmatic constitution on the Catholic faith". Retrieved 2007-06-24.  ^ Smyrnaeans, 2 ^ Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council
Decree on Ecumenism
Ecumenism
Archived 6 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine., 16 ^ Encyciclical Ut unum sint, 54 ^ Apostolic Constitution Sacri Canones ^ Obituary of Pope
Pope
John Paul II ^ Catholicity
Catholicity
and the Church at Google Books
Google Books
pp. ^ Characteristics of Our Coptic Church ^ Alden, Henry Mills (1868). Harper's new monthly magazine, Volume 37, Issues 217-222. Harper's Magazine Co. Retrieved 2007-03-25. The various Protestant sects can not constitute one church because they have no intercommunion...each Protestant Church, whether Methodist
Methodist
or Baptist or whatever, is in perfect communion with itself everywhere as the Roman Catholic; and in this respect, consequently, the Roman Catholic has no advantage or superiority, except in the point of numbers. As a further necessary consequence, it is plain that the Roman Church is no more Catholic in any sense than a Methodist
Methodist
or a Baptist.  ^ a b Harper's magazine, Volume 37. Harper's Magazine Co. 1907. Retrieved 2007-03-25. For those who "belong to the Church," the term Methodist
Methodist
Catholic, or Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Catholic, or Baptist Catholic, is as proper as the term Roman Catholic. It simply means that body of Christian believers over the world who agree in their religious views, and accept the same ecclesiastical forms.  ^ "Nicene Creed". The Lutheran
Lutheran
Church, Missouri Synod. Archived from the original on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 2007-06-24.  ^ "Nicene Creed". Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Synod. Archived from the original on 2008-01-02. Retrieved 2007-06-24.  ^ "Nicene Creed". International Lutheran
Lutheran
Fellowship. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-06-24. 

External links

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 "Catholic". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

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Anglicanism

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Cardinal List

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emeritus Abbot Abbess Superior general Provincial superior Grand Master Prior
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(-ess) Priest Brother

Friar

Sister Monk Nun Hermit Master of novices Novice Oblate Postulant Laity

Theology

Body and soul Bible Catechism Divine grace Dogma Ecclesiology

Four Marks of the Church

Original sin

List

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Sermon
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Mariology

Assumption History Immaculate Conception Mariology of the popes Mariology of the saints Mother of God Perpetual virginity Veneration

Philosophy

Natural law Moral theology Personalism Social teaching Philosophers

Sacraments

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Last rites

Holy orders Matrimony

Saints

Mary Apostles Archangels Confessors Disciples Doctors of the Church Evangelists Church Fathers Martyrs Patriarchs Prophets Virgins

Doctors of the Church

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Institutes, orders, and societies

Assumptionists Annonciades Augustinians Basilians Benedictines Bethlehemites Blue nuns Camaldoleses Camillians Carmelites Carthusians Cistercians Clarisses Conceptionists Crosiers Dominicans Franciscans Good Shepherd Sisters Hieronymites Jesuits Mercedarians Minims Olivetans Oratorians Piarists Premonstratensians Redemptorists Servites Theatines Trappists Trinitarians Visitandines

Associations of the faithful

International Federation of Catholic Parochial Youth Movements International Federation of Catholic Universities International Kolping Society Schoenstatt Apostolic Movement International Union of Catholic Esperantists Community of Sant'Egidio

Charities

Aid to the Church in Need Caritas Internationalis Catholic Home Missions Catholic Relief Services CIDSE

Particular churches (By country)

Latin Church Eastern Catholic Churches: Albanian Armenian Belarusian Bulgarian Chaldean Coptic Croatian and Serbian Eritrean Ethiopian Georgian Greek Hungarian Italo-Albanian Macedonian Maronite Melkite Romanian Russian Ruthenian Slovak Syriac Syro-Malabar Syro-Malankara Ukrainian

Liturgical rites

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Use Ambrosian Mozarabic Roman

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History and tradition

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Denomi- nations and traditions (list)

Western

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Eastern

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Nontrinitarian

Jehovah's Witnesses Latter Day Saint
Saint
movement Oneness Pentecostalism

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Category C

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