Castration
   HOME

TheInfoList



Castration (also known as orchiectomy or orchidectomy) is any action,
surgical Surgery ''cheirourgikē'' (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via la, chirurgiae, meaning "hand work". is a medical or dental specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a person to investigate or tr ...
,
chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some references add that chemical substance cannot be separated into its constituent elements by physical separation methods, i.e., wit ...
, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the
testicles Testicle or testis (plural testes) is the male reproductive gland or gonad A gonad, sex gland, or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism. In the female of the species the r ...

testicles
: the male
gonad A gonad, sex gland, or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism. In the female of the species the reproductive cells are the egg cells, and in the male the reproductive cells are t ...
. Surgical castration is bilateral
orchiectomy Orchiectomy (also named orchidectomy, and sometimes shortened as orchi) is a surgical procedure in which one or both testicle Testicle or testis (plural testes) is the male reproductive gland or gonad A gonad, sex gland, or reproductive ...
(excision of both testicles), and
chemical castration Chemical castration is castration via anaphrodisiac drugs, whether to reduce libido and sexual activity, to treat cancer, or otherwise. Unlike surgical castration, where the gonads are removed through an incision in the body,
uses
pharmaceutical drug A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, medicinal drug or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease. Drug therapy ( pharmacotherapy) is an important part of the medical field and r ...
s to deactivate the testes. Castration causes sterilization (preventing the castrated person or animal from
reproducing
reproducing
); it also greatly reduces the production of certain
hormone A hormone (from the Greek participle , "setting in motion") is any member of a class of signaling molecules in multicellular organisms, that are transported to distant organs to regulate physiology and / or behavior. Hormones are required for t ...

hormone
s, such as
testosterone Testosterone is the primary sex hormone and anabolic steroid Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone (medication), testoste ...
. Surgical castration in animals is often called
neutering Neutering, from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...
. The term ''castration'' is sometimes also used to refer to the removal of the
ovaries The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum. When released, this travels down the fallopian tube The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes, salpinges (singular salpinx), or oviducts, are tubes tha ...

ovaries
in the female, otherwise known as an
oophorectomy Oophorectomy (; from Greek , , 'egg-bearing' and , , 'a cutting out of') is the surgical Surgery ''cheirourgikē'' (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via la, chirurgiae, meaning "hand work". is a medical or dental specia ...
, or the removal of internal testes, otherwise known as gonadectomy. The equivalent of castration for female animals is
spaying Neutering, from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...
.
Estrogen Estrogens or oestrogens, are a class of natural or synthetic sex hormone Sex hormones, also known as sex steroids, gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormone A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone. Steroid hor ...

Estrogen
levels drop following oophorectomy, and long-term effects of the reduction of sex hormones are significant throughout the body. Castration of animals is intended to favor a desired development of the animal or of its habits, as an
anaphrodisiac An anaphrodisiac (also antaphrodisiac or antiaphrodisiac) is a substance that quells or blunts the libido. It is the opposite of an aphrodisiac, something that enhances sexual appetite. The word ''anaphrodisiac'' comes from the Greek privative ...
or to prevent
overpopulation Overpopulation or overabundance occurs when a species' population In biology, a population is a number of all the organisms of the same group or species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classifica ...

overpopulation
. As above, see
neutering Neutering, from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...
for more information on castration of animals. The term ''castration'' may also be sometimes used to refer to
emasculation Emasculation is the removal of both the penis A penis (plural ''penises'' or ''penes'' ) is the primary sexual organ that male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a l ...
where both the testicles ''and'' the penis are removed together. In some cultures, and in some translations, no distinction is made between the two. This can cause confusion.


History

It is unknown when castration was first practiced, nor where it was invented. It may be that it arose independently in more than one place, but there is evidence that it was practiced as far back as 4,000 BC based on descriptions in the cult of Ishtar and Uruk. It may have arisen in the Neolithic period in response to animal husbandry, rising populations and population specialisation. Castration was frequently used for religious or social reasons in certain cultures in Europe, South Asia, Africa, and East Asia. After battles, winners sometimes castrated their captives or the corpses of the defeated to symbolize their victory and seize their "power". Castrated men —
eunuch A eunuch ( ) is a man who has been castration, castrated. Throughout history, castration often served a specific social function. The earliest records for intentional castration to produce eunuchs are from the Sumerian city of Lagash in the 21 ...

eunuch
s – were often admitted to special social classes and were used particularly to staff bureaucracies and palace households: in particular, the
harem Harem ( ar, حريم ''ḥarīm'', "a sacred inviolable place; harem; female members of the family") properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim family. A harem may house a man's wife or wives, the ...
. Castration also figured in a number of religious castration cults. Other religions, such as
Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of de ...
, were strongly opposed to the practice. The Leviticus Holiness code, for example, specifically excludes eunuchs or any males with defective genitals from the priesthood, just as castrated animals are excluded from
sacrifice Sacrifice is the offering of food, objects or the lives of animals or humans to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship. Evidence of ritual animal sacrifice has been seen at least ancient Hebrew and ...

sacrifice
. Eunuchs in China had been known to usurp power in many eras of
Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was mentioned as the twenty-first Shang king by the same. Ancient histo ...

Chinese history
, most notably in the
Later Han
Later Han
, late Tang and late
Ming#REDIRECT Ming dynasty#REDIRECT Ming dynasty {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...

Ming
dynasties. In ancient times, castration often involved
emasculation Emasculation is the removal of both the penis A penis (plural ''penises'' or ''penes'' ) is the primary sexual organ that male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a l ...
or the total removal of all the male genitalia. This involved great danger of death due to bleeding or infection and, in some states, such as the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...
, was seen as the same as a death sentence. Removal of only the testicles had much less risk. Either surgical removal of both testicles or
chemical castration Chemical castration is castration via anaphrodisiac drugs, whether to reduce libido and sexual activity, to treat cancer, or otherwise. Unlike surgical castration, where the gonads are removed through an incision in the body,
may be carried out in the case of
prostate cancer Prostate cancer is cancer of the prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system that surrounds the urethra just below the bladder. Most prostate cancers are slow growing. Cancerous cells may Metastasis, spread to other areas of ...

prostate cancer
.
Testosterone Testosterone is the primary sex hormone and anabolic steroid Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone (medication), testoste ...
-depletion treatment (either surgical removal of both testicles or
chemical castration Chemical castration is castration via anaphrodisiac drugs, whether to reduce libido and sexual activity, to treat cancer, or otherwise. Unlike surgical castration, where the gonads are removed through an incision in the body,
) is used to slow down the cancer, greatly reduce sex drive or interest in those with sexual drives, obsessions, or behaviors, or any combination of those that may be considered deviant. Surgical removal of one or both testicles known as Orchidectomy is the most common treatment for testicular cancer. Castration has also been used in the United States for
sex offender A sex offender (sexual offender, sex abuser, or sexual abuser) is a person who has committed a Sex and the law, sex crime. What constitutes a sex crime differs by culture and legal jurisdiction. The majority of convicted sex offenders have convi ...
s.
Trans women A trans woman is a woman who was assigned male at birth. Trans women may experience gender dysphoria and may transition; this process commonly includes hormone replacement therapy and sometimes sex reassignment surgery, which can bring relie ...
often undergo orchiectomy, as do some other transgender people. Orchiectomy may be performed as part of a more general
sex reassignment surgery Sex reassignment surgery (SRS), also known as gender reassignment surgery (GRS) and several other names, is a surgical procedure (or procedures) by which a transgender person's physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characterist ...
, either before or during other procedures. It may also be performed on someone who does not desire, or cannot afford, further surgery. Involuntary castration appears in the history of warfare, sometimes used by one side to torture or demoralize their enemies. It was practiced to extinguish opposing male lineages and thus allow the victor to sexually possess the defeated group's women.


Africa and the Middle East

Over the 13 centuries of the
Arab slave trade Arab slave trade refers to various periods in which a slave trade has been carried out under the auspices of Arab peoples or Arab countries. Examples include: * Trans-Saharan slave trade * Indian Ocean slave trade * Barbary slave trade The ...
in Africa, unknown numbers of Africans were enslaved and shipped to the Middle East. "The Caliphate in Baghdad at the beginning of the 10th Century had 7,000 black eunuchs and 4,000 white eunuchs in his palace." The Arab slave trade typically dealt in the sale of castrated male slaves. Black boys at the age of eight to twelve had their scrotum and penis completely amputated. Reportedly, about two of three boys died, but those who survived drew high prices.


Europe


Myth

In
ancient Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are usually gods, demigods, or supe ...
,
Cronus In Greek mythology, Cronus, Cronos, or Kronos ( or , , from el, Κρόνος, ''Krónos'') was the leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of the Greek primordial deities, primordial Gaia mythology, Gai ...
castrated his father,
Uranus Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun. Its name is a reference to the Greek god of the sky, Uranus, who, according to Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and ...
, after the latter imprisoned the
Cyclopes In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature ...
and
Hecatonchires In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of th ...
.


Slavery

The employment or enslavement of eunuchs (castrated men) as a separate gender role was practiced in classical and Roman antiquity and continued into the Middle Ages. In the 10th century, slave traders in Verdun in France and in Becâne ( Pechina), Spain castrated captives who were then enslaved as harem attendants in Al-Andalus.


Punishment

Edward Gibbon Edward Gibbon (; 8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament. His most important work, '' The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire'', was published in six volumes between 1776 and 1788 an ...
's ''
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ''The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire'' is a six-volume work by the English historian Edward Gibbon. It traces Western civilization (as well as the Islamic and Mongolian conquests) from the height of the Roman Empire to t ...
'' reports castration of defeated
Byzantine Greeks The Byzantine Greeks were the Greek-speaking Eastern Romans of Orthodox Christianity Orthodoxy (from Greek: ) is adherence to correct or accepted creed A creed, also known as a confession, symbol, or statement of faith, is a statement o ...
at the hands of the
Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman author ...

Frankish
marquis
TheobaldTheobald is a Germanic dithematic name, composed from the elements '' theod-'' "people" and ''bald'' "bold". The name arrived in England with the Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Norma ...
of Camerino and Spoleto in the course of 10th-century wars in Italy. Gibbon also alludes to a 12th-century incident set out in
William Fitzstephen William Fitzstephen (also William fitz Stephen), (died c. 1191) was a cleric and administrator in the service of Thomas Becket. In the 1170s he wrote a long biography of Thomas Becket—the ''Vita Sancti Thomae'' (Life of St. Thomas). Fitzstephen ...
's ''Vita Sancti Thomae'' (''Life of
St. ThomasSaint Thomas or St Thomas may refer to: People * Thomas the Apostle (died AD 72), Jewish-Christian Apostle and Saint of the 1st century * Thomas the Hermit, Coptic Desert Father and Saint of the 4th century * Thomas of Maurienne or Thomas of Farf ...

St. Thomas
'') in which
Geoffrey of Anjou Geoffrey V (24 August 1113 – 7 September 1151), called the Handsome, the Fair (french: link=no, le Bel) or Plantagenet, was the count of Anjou, Count of Tours, Touraine and Count of Maine, Maine by inheritance from 1129, and also the duke of N ...

Geoffrey of Anjou
castrated the members of the cathedral chapter of
Sens Image:Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot 023.jpg, 270px, Inside the Cathédrale Saint-Étienne de Sens, cathedral of Sens, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, c. 1874. Sens () is a Communes of France, commune in the Yonne Departments of France, department in Bo ...
as a punishment for disobedience. In the medieval
kingdom of Georgia Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg">Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the t ...
, the 12th-century
pretender A pretender is someone who claims to be the rightful ruler of a country although not recognized as such by the current government. The term is often used to suggest that a claim is not legitimate.Curley Jr., Walter J.P. Monarchs-in-Waiting. New ...
Demna was castrated by his uncle
George III of Georgia George III ( ka, გიორგი III) (died 27 March 1184), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was the King of Kingdom of Georgia, Georgia from 1156 to 1184. His reign was part of what would be called the Georgian Golden Age – a historical period in ...

George III of Georgia
to ensure the supremacy of George's branch of the family. Another victim of castration was the 12th-century medieval French philosopher, scholar, teacher, and (later) monk
Pierre Abélard Peter Abelard (; french: Pierre Abélard; la, Petrus Abaelardus or ''Abailardus''; 21 April 1142) was a Middle Ages, medieval French Scholasticism, scholastic philosopher, leading logician, theologian, teacher, musician, composer, and poet. This ...
. He was castrated by relatives of his lover, Héloïse. Bishop Wimund, a 12th-century English adventurer and invader of the Scottish coast, was blinded and castrated after losing a power struggle. In medieval England, men found guilty of
high treason Treason is the crime of attacking a state authority to which one owes allegiance. This typically includes acts such as participating in a war against one's native country, attempting to overthrow its government, Espionage, spying on its mili ...
were
hanged, drawn and quartered To be hanged, drawn and quartered became a statutoryA statute reffers to the body of law that are made by legislature of the nation with instrument which govern the state, country or any nation. it includes laws, rules and the reulation whichha ...

hanged, drawn and quartered
, which often included
emasculation Emasculation is the removal of both the penis A penis (plural ''penises'' or ''penes'' ) is the primary sexual organ that male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a l ...
(removal of the genitalia). Women were burned at the stake for the sake of public decency.
William Wallace Sir William Wallace ( gd, Uilleam Uallas, ; Norman French Norman or Norman French (', french: Normand, Guernésiais: ''Normand'', Jèrriais: ''Nouormand'') is, depending on classification, either a French dialect or a Romance language which c ...

William Wallace
, the Scottish resistance leader, was castrated as part of his execution in 1305 for resistance to English rule.


Modern era

In 1878, Pope Leo XIII prohibited the Church from hiring any more castrated singers, leading to the end of castrated singers in Italy.
Wim Deetman Willem Joost "Wim" Deetman (born 3 April 1945) is a retired Netherlands, Dutch politician of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) party and teacher. Education and early career Deetman attended a Gymnasium (school), Gymnasium in Gouda, South Ho ...

Wim Deetman
was criticized by the Dutch parliament for excluding evidence of castration in his report on sexual abuse by the Roman Catholic Church, where ten children were allegedly "punished" by castration in the 1950s for reporting sexual abuse by Roman Catholic priests. However, the Deetman Commission had rejected it as the person who reported the incident admitted it was speculative. Voluntary castration for homosexuality was also state policy in Netherlands at that point, as well against Catholic canon law, and there has been no evidence suggesting the Church had a part in organizing the procedures. In 1952,
Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing (; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such to ...

Alan Turing
—the father of computer science and the inventor of the
Turing machine A Turing machine is a mathematical model of computation that defines an abstract machine that manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules. Despite the model's simplicity, given any computer algorithm, a Turing machine ...

Turing machine
—was criminally prosecuted for homosexual acts and chose chemical castration as an alternative to a period of imprisonment. In Spain, a law against castration was used to deny sex-reassignment surgery to transgender people until the Penal Code was reformed in 1983. Chemical castration has been and is used as part of sentencing in criminal cases.


China

According to legend, during the reign of the legendary Emperor Shun and Yu in China, in 2281 BC, castration was passed into law as a punishment, remaining so until the reign of Gaozu of Tang (589–600 AD). However, it was still practiced after his reign. According to historians, it was incorporated into Chinese law during the Zhou Dynasty. It was one of the five physical punishments that could be legally inflicted on criminals in China. Records of castrations in China date to the
Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From ...

Shang dynasty
(ca.1700–1050 BC), when the Shang kings castrated prisoners of war. During the reign of Mu of the
Zhou Dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese. The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscript ...
(10th c. BC) the Minister of Crime, Marquis Lu, reformed the law in 950 BC to make it easier for people to be sentenced to castration instead of death. As long as the practice existed in China, not only were the testicles merely removed but castration included the severing of one's entire genitalia. Both organs were cut off with a knife at the same time. Men were castrated and made into state slaves during the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) to perform forced labor for projects such as the
Terracotta Army The Terracotta Army is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. It is a form of funerary art buried with the emperor in 210–209 BCE with the purpose of protecting the emperor in h ...

Terracotta Army
. The Qin government confiscated the property and enslaved the families of rapists who received castration as a punishment. Men punished with castration during the
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
were also used as slave labor. In the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD), castration continued to be used as a punishment for various offences. Chinese historian
Sima Qian Sima Qian (; ; ) was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the H ...

Sima Qian
was castrated by order of the Han Emperor of China for dissent. In another incident multiple people, including a chief scribe and his underlings, were subjected to castration. During the early part of the
Ming Dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; ) are an East Asian ethnic group nativ ...

Ming Dynasty
(1368–1644 AD), China demanded eunuchs to be sent as tribute from
Korea Korea (officially the "Korean Peninsula") is a region in East Asia. Since 1945 it has been Division of Korea, divided into the two parts which soon became the two sovereign states: North Korea (officially the "Democratic People's Republic of ...

Korea
. Some of them oversaw the Korean concubines in the harem of the Chinese Emperor. When the Chinese overthrew Mongol rule, many Mongol captives were castrated and turned into eunuchs. When the Ming army finally captured
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Kun ...

Yunnan
from Mongols in 1382, thousands of prisoners were killed and, according to the custom in times of war, their young sons—including
Zheng He Zheng He (; 1371 – 1433 or 1435) was a Chinese history of the Chinese navy, mariner, Chinese exploration, explorer, Foreign relations of imperial China, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's History of the Ming dynasty, ...

Zheng He
—were castrated. During the
Miao Rebellions (Ming Dynasty) The Miao rebellions were a series of rebellions of the indigenous tribes of southern China against the Ming Dynasty#REDIRECT Ming dynasty {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation .... The Ming defeated the rebels ...
, Chinese commanders castrated thousands of
MiaoMiao may refer to: * Miao people, linguistically and culturally related group of people, recognized as such by the government of the People's Republic of China * Miao script or Pollard script, writing system used for Miao languages * Miao (Unicode b ...
boys when their tribes revolted, and then distributed them as eunuch slaves as gifts to various officials. At the end of the
Ming Dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; ) are an East Asian ethnic group nativ ...

Ming Dynasty
, there were about 70,000 eunuchs (宦官 ''huànguān'', or 太監 ''tàijiàn'') employed by the emperor, with some serving inside the
Forbidden City The Forbidden City () is a palace , the official residence of Emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#F ...

Forbidden City
. The last eunuch in China was
Sun Yaoting Sun Yaoting (Traditional Chinese A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosophers use the term "belief" ...
who died in 1996.


Non-Han peoples

Many of the non-Han Chinese peoples who founded states in China after invading originally did not have eunuchs as part of their culture, but adopted it from the Han Chinese. The
Khitan people The Khitan people (Khitan small script The Khitan small script () was one of two writing systems used for the now-extinct Khitan language Khitan or Kitan ( in large script or in small, ''Khitai''; , ''Qìdānyǔ''), also known as Liao, is a n ...
adopted the practice of using eunuchs from the Chinese and the eunuchs used were non-Khitan prisoners of war. The Khitan were a
nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation who regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, Nomadic pastoralism, pastoral nomads (owning lives ...

nomad
ic
Mongolic people
Mongolic people
and originally did not have eunuchs as part of their culture. When the Khitan founded the
Liao Dynasty The Liao dynasty (; Khitan: ''Mos Jælud''; ), also known as the Khitan Empire (Khitan: ''Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur''), officially the Great Liao (), was an imperial dynasty of China that existed between 916 and 1125, ruled by the Yelü ...
they developed a
harem Harem ( ar, حريم ''ḥarīm'', "a sacred inviolable place; harem; female members of the family") properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim family. A harem may house a man's wife or wives, the ...
system with concubines and wives and adopted eunuchs as part of it. All of the eunuchs captured were ethnic Chinese from the Central Plains that came from two sources. The Khitan captured Chinese people who were already eunuchs at the Jin court when they invaded the Later Jin. Another source was during their war with the Chinese
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of the Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties a ...
: the Khitan would raid China, capture Han Chinese boys as prisoners of war and emasculate them to become eunuchs. The emasculation of captured Chinese boys guaranteed a continuous supply of eunuchs to serve in the Liao Dynasty harem. The Empress Dowager Xiao Chuo (Chengtian) played a large role in the raids to capture and emasculate the boys. Chengtian took power at age 30 in 982 as a regent for her son. Some reports suggest that she personally led her own army against the Song Chinese in 986. Her army defeated them in battle, fighting the retreating Chinese army. She then ordered the castration of around 100 ethnic
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
boys she had captured in China, supplementing the Khitan's supply of eunuchs to serve at her court, among them was Wang Ji'en. The boys were all under ten years old and were selected for their good looks. The
History of Liao The ''History of Liao'', or ''Liao Shi'' (''Liáo Shǐ''), is a Chinese historical book compiled officially by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), under the direction of the historian Toqto'a (Tuotuo), and finalized in 1344.Xu Elina-Qian, ...
遼史 described and praised Empress Chengtian's capture and mass castration of the Chinese boys in a biography on Wang Ji'en. Some legends say that the Mongol
Genghis Khan ''Chinggis Khaan'' ͡ʃʰiŋɡɪs xaːŋongol script: ''Chinggis Qa(gh)an/ Chinggis Khagan'' , birth_name = Temüjin ; xng, Temüjin, script=Latn; ., name=Temujin , successor = Ögedei Khan , spouse = , issue = , house = Borjigin , ...

Genghis Khan
was castrated by a Tangut princess using a knife, who wanted revenge against his treatment of the Tanguts and to stop him from raping her. During the
Qing Dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of China#Imperial China, imperial history of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, wi ...
(1644–1911 AD), the sons and grandsons of the rebel
Yaqub Beg Muhammad Yaqub Bek (محمد یعقوب بیگ; uz, Яъқуб-бек, ''Ya’qub-bek''; ; 182030 May 1877) was a Khoqandi adventurer of Uzbek or Tajik descent who was the ruler of Yettishar (Kashgaria) from 1865 to 1877. He held the title o ...
in China were all sentenced to castration. Surviving members of Yaqub Beg's family included his four sons, four grandchildren (two grandsons and two granddaughters), and four wives. They either died in prison in
Lanzhou Lanzhou () is the capital and largest city of Gansu Gansu (; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked provinces of China, province in Northwest China. Its capital and largest city is Lanzhou, in the southe ...

Lanzhou
, Gansu, or were killed by the Chinese. His sons Yima Kuli, K'ati Kuli, Maiti Kuli, and grandson Aisan Ahung were the only survivors in 1879. They were all underage children, and put on trial, sentenced to an agonizing death if they were complicit in their father's rebellious "sedition", or if they were innocent of their fathers crimes, were to be sentenced to castration and serving as
eunuch A eunuch ( ) is a man who has been castration, castrated. Throughout history, castration often served a specific social function. The earliest records for intentional castration to produce eunuchs are from the Sumerian city of Lagash in the 21 ...

eunuch
slaves to Chinese troops, when they reached 11 years old, and handed over to the Imperial Household to be executed or castrated. Although some sources assert that the sentence of castration was carried out, official sources from the US State Department and activists involved in the incident state that Yaqub Beg's son and grandsons had their sentence commuted to life imprisonment with a fund provided for their support. The last remaining Imperial eunuch, Sun Yaoting, died in 1996.


Korea

The eunuchs of Korea, called ''Naesi'' (내시, 內侍), were officials to the king and other royalty in traditional Korean society. The first recorded appearance of a Korean eunuch was in
Goryeosa The ''Goryeosa'', or ''History of Goryeo'', is the main surviving history of Korea's Goryeo dynasty. It was composed nearly a century after the fall of Goryeo, during the reign of King Sejong of Joseon, Sejong, undergoing repeated revisions between ...
("History of Goryeo"), a compilation about the
Goryeo Goryeo (; ) was a Korean dynastic kingdom founded in 918, during a time of national division called the Later Three Kingdoms period, that unified and ruled the Korean Peninsula until 1392. Goryeo achieved what has been called a "true national u ...
period. In 1392, with the founding of the
Joseon Dynasty The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, ko, 대조선국; 大朝鮮國, ) was a Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, an ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean cultur ...
, the ''Naesi'' system was revised, and the department was renamed the "Department of ''Naesi''" (내시부, 內侍府). The Naesi system included two ranks, those of ''Sangseon'' (상선, 尙膳, "Chief of Naesi"), who held the official title of senior second rank, and ''Naegwan'' (내관, 內官, "Common official naesi"), both of which held rank as officers. 140 naesi in total served the palace in Joseon Dynasty period. They also took the exam on
Confucianism , Shanxi Shanxi (; ; Chinese postal romanization, formerly romanised as Shansi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China and is part of the North China region. The capital and largest city of th ...
every month. The naesi system was repealed in 1894 following Gabo reform. According to legend, castration consisted of daubing a boy's
genital A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal or plant that is involved in sexual reproduction Sexual reproduction is a type of reproduction Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new in ...
s with human
feces Feces ( or faeces) is the solid or semi-solid remains of food that was not digested in the small intestine The small intestine or small bowel is an organ (anatomy), organ in the human gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal tract where most ...

feces
and having a dog bite them off. During the Yuan Dynasty, eunuchs became a desirable commodity for , and dog bites were replaced by more sophisticated surgical techniques.


Vietnam

The Vietnamese adopted the eunuch system and castration techniques from China. Records show that the Vietnamese performed castration in a painful procedure by removing the entire genitalia with both penis and testicles being cut off with a sharp knife or metal blade. The procedure was agonizing since the entire penis was cut off. The young man's thighs and abdomen would be tied, and others would pin him down on a table. The genitals would be washed with pepper water and then cut off. A tube would be then inserted into the urethra to allow urination during healing. Many Vietnamese eunuchs were products of self-castration in order to gain access to the palaces and power. In other cases, they might be paid to become eunuchs. They served in many capacities, from supervising public works, to investigating crimes, to reading public proclamations.
Lý Thường Kiệt Lý Thường Kiệt (; 1019–1105), real name Ngô Tuấn (), was a Vietnamese general and admiral during the Lý Dynasty in Vietnam. He served as an official through the reign of Lý Thái Tông, Lý Thánh Tông and Lý Nhân Tông and was a g ...
was a prominent eunuch general during the
Lý Dynasty The Lý dynasty ( vi, Nhà Lý, , chữ Nôm: 茹李, chữ Hán: 李朝, Hán Việt: ''Lý triều''), also known as the House of Lý, was a Vietnamese people, Vietnamese royal family that ruled the kingdom of Đại Việt from 1009 when Lý ...
(1009–1225). The
Trần Dynasty The Trần dynasty, also known as the House of Trần, was a List of Vietnamese dynasties, Vietnamese dynasty that ruled over the Kingdom of Đại Việt from 1225 to 1400. The dynasty was founded when emperor Trần Thái Tông ascended to th ...
sent Vietnamese boy eunuchs as tribute to
Ming Dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; ) are an East Asian ethnic group nativ ...

Ming Dynasty
China several times, in 1383, 1384 and 1385Tsai (1996), p. 15 Nguyen Dao, Nguyen Toan, Tru Ca, and Ngo Tin were among several Vietnamese eunuchs sent to China. During the
Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam The Fourth Era of Northern Domination was a period of Vietnamese history, from 1407 to 1427, during which Đại Việt (the northern kingdom) was ruled by the Chinese Ming dynasty#REDIRECT Ming dynasty {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from mo ...
, the Ming Chinese under the
Yongle Emperor The Yongle Emperor (pronounced , ; 2 May 1360 – 12 August 1424) — personal name Zhu Di (WG: Chu Ti) — was the third List of emperors of the Ming dynasty, Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigning from 1402 to 1424. Zhu Di was the fourth son ...

Yongle Emperor
castrated many young Vietnamese boys, choosing them for their handsomeness and ability, and brought them to Nanjing to serve as eunuchs. Among them were the architect-engineer Nguyễn An and Nguyen Lang (阮浪). Vietnamese were among the many eunuchs of different origins found at Yongle's court. Among the eunuchs in charge of the Capital Battalions of
Beijing Beijing ( ; ; ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the Capital city, capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's List of national capitals by population, most populous national capital ci ...
was Xing An, a Vietnamese. In the
Lê DynastyLe is a romanization of several rare East Asian surnames and a common Vietnamese surname. It is a fairly common surname in the United States, ranked 975th during the 1990 US Census, 1990 census and 368th during the year 2000 US Census, 2000 one. In ...
the Vietnamese Emperor
Lê Thánh Tông Lê Thánh Tông (25 August 1442 – 3 March 1497), personal name Lê Hạo, temple name Thánh Tông, courtesy name Tư Thành, was the emperor of Đại Việt from 1460 to 1497, the fifth monarch of the Later Lê dynasty, House of Lê and ...

Lê Thánh Tông
was aggressive in his relations with foreign countries including China. A large amount of trade between Guangdong and Vietnam happened during his reign. Early accounts recorded that the Vietnamese captured Chinese whose ships had blown off course and detained them. Young Chinese men were selected by the Vietnamese for castration to become eunuch slaves to the Vietnamese. It has been speculated by modern historians that the Chinese who were captured and castrated by the Vietnamese were involved in trade between China and Vietnam instead of actually being blown off course by the wind and they were punished as part of a crackdown on foreign trade by Vietnam. Several Malay envoys from the
Malacca sultanate The Malacca Sultanate ( ms, Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script: کسلطانن ملايو ملاک) was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia. Conventional historical thesis marks c. 1400 as the founding year ...
were attacked and captured in 1469 by the
Lê DynastyLe is a romanization of several rare East Asian surnames and a common Vietnamese surname. It is a fairly common surname in the United States, ranked 975th during the 1990 US Census, 1990 census and 368th during the year 2000 US Census, 2000 one. In ...
of Annam (Vietnam) as they were returning to Malacca from China. The Vietnamese enslaved and castrated the young from among the captured.Tsai (1996), p. 15 A 1472 entry in the
Ming Shilu The ''Ming Shilu'' () contains the imperial annals of the Ming#REDIRECT Ming dynasty#REDIRECT Ming dynasty {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ... {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other ...
reported that when some Chinese from
Nanhai county Nanhai County was a former county (China), county in Guangdong provinces of China, Province, China, named after the South China Sea. Its former area now makes up Nanhai District in Foshan and Liwan District in Guangzhou. See also * References

escaped back to China after their ship had been blown off course into Vietnam, where they had been forced to serve as soldiers in Vietnam's military. The escapees also reported that they found out up to 100 Chinese men remained captives in Vietnam after they were caught and castrated by the Vietnamese after their ships were blown off course into Vietnam. The Chinese Ministry of Revenue responded by ordering Chinese civilians and soldiers to stop going abroad to foreign countries. China's relations with Vietnam during this period were marked by the punishment of prisoners by castration. A 1499 entry in the Ming Shilu recorded that 13 Chinese men from
Wenchang Wenchang ( postal: Mencheong; ) is a county-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city (1949–1970: ; 1970–1983: ), is a Administrative divisions of C ...

Wenchang
including a young man named Wu Rui were captured by the Vietnamese after their ship was blown off course while traveling from
Hainan Hainan () is the smallest and southernmost provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea. , the largest and most populous List of islands of China, island un ...

Hainan
to
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal Provinces of China, province in South China on the north shore of the South China Sea. The capital of the province is Guangzhou. W ...

Guangdong
's Qin subprefecture (
Qinzhou Qinzhou ( postal: Yamchow, , Jyutping: ''Jam1 zau1'' ( Canton) /''Ham1 zau1'' ( Local) ) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangs ...

Qinzhou
), after which they ended up near the coast of Vietnam, during the
Chenghua Emperor The Chenghua Emperor (; 9 December 1447 – 9 September 1487), born Zhu Jianshen, was the ninth Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigned from 1464 to 1487. His era name "Chenghua" means "accomplished change". Childhood Zhu Jianshen was a son of the ...
's rule (1447–1487). Twelve of them were enslaved to work as agricultural laborers, while the youngest,
Wu Rui Wu Rui (died ), King Wen of Changsha, was an ancient Chinese general who helped Liu Bang establish the Han dynasty. A Baiyue magistrate of Po County under the Qin dynasty, he rose to become King of Hengshan during the collapse of Qin and was enfe ...
(吳瑞) was selected for castration since he was the only young man and he became a eunuch attendant at the Vietnamese imperial palace in Thang Long. After years of service, he was promoted at the death of the Vietnamese ruler in 1497 to a military position in northern Vietnam. A soldier told him of an escape route back to China and Wu Rui escaped to Longzhou. The local chief planned to sell him back to the Vietnamese, but Wu was rescued by the
Pingxiang Pingxiang () is a medium-sized prefecture-level city located in western Jiangxi province, People's Republic of China. Geography and climate Pingxiang is a limitrophe city between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces. Approximately 110 kilometers from C ...
magistrate and then was sent to
Beijing Beijing ( ; ; ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the Capital city, capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's List of national capitals by population, most populous national capital ci ...
to work as a eunuch in the palace. The '' Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư'' records that in 1467 in An Bang province of Dai Viet (now
Quảng Ninh Province Quảng Ninh () is a Provinces of Vietnam, province along the Đông Bắc, northeastern coast of Vietnam. It is about 153 km (95 mi) east of Hanoi, comprising four cities, two district-level towns and seven rural districts. The provinc ...
) a Chinese ship blew off course onto the shore. The Chinese were detained and not allowed to return to China as ordered by Le Thanh Tong. This incident may be the same one where Wu Rui was captured.Cooke (2011), p. 109 In the
Nguyễn Dynasty Nguyễn is the most common Vietnamese name, Vietnamese family name. Outside of Vietnam, the surname is commonly rendered without diacritics as Nguyen. Nguyên is a different surname. By some estimates forty percent of Vietnamese people bear this ...
the poet
Hồ Xuân Hương Image:Ho Xuan Huong.png, Hồ Xuân Hương Hồ Xuân Hương (wikt:胡, 胡wikt:春, 春wikt:香, 香; 1772–1822) was a Vietnamese people, Vietnamese poet born at the end of the Lê dynasty. She grew up in an era of political and social turmoil& ...

Hồ Xuân Hương
mocked eunuchs in her poem as a stand-in for criticizing the government. Commoners were banned from undergoing castration in Vietnam, only adult men of high social rank could be castrated, most eunuchs were born as such with a congenital abnormality. The Vietnamese government mandated that boys born with defective genitalia were to be reported to officials, in exchange for the town being freed from mandatory labor requirements. The boy would have the option of serving as a eunuch official or serving the palace women when he became ten years old. This law was put in place in 1838 during the
Nguyễn Dynasty Nguyễn is the most common Vietnamese name, Vietnamese family name. Outside of Vietnam, the surname is commonly rendered without diacritics as Nguyen. Nguyên is a different surname. By some estimates forty percent of Vietnamese people bear this ...
. The only males allowed inside the Forbidden City at
Huế Huế () is the capital of Thừa Thiên Huế Province in central Vietnam that was the capital of Đàng Trong from 1738 to 1775 and of the Nguyen Dynasty from 1802 to 1945. The city served as the administrative capital for the Nguyen dynasty, ...
were the Emperor and his eunuchs. The presence of eunuchs in Vietnam was used by the French colonizers to degrade the Vietnamese.


Americas

In 1778,
Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, philosopher, and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809. He had previously served ...

Thomas Jefferson
wrote a bill in Virginia reducing the punishment for rape, polygamy or sodomy from death to castration. Over the years several U.S. states have passed laws regarding chemical castration for sex offenders but not one state has mandatory castration. In 2016, Alabama lawmaker Steve Hurst proposed a bill requiring certain sex offenses to require the perpetrator be castrated prior to their release from state custody. A 1969 study found that men institutionalized at the same facility in Kansas lived an extra 14 years, on average, if they were castrated. In 1983, Judge C. Victor Pyle sentenced three black men convicted of rape to choose between 30 years in prison or castration. The South Carolina Supreme Court ruled that the castration option would be cruel, however, and the men were sentenced to prison.


Iran

Aqa
Mohammad Khan Qajar Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar ( fa, آغا محمد خان قاجار, translit=Āghā Mohammad Khān-e Qājār; 14 March 1742 – 17 June 1797), also known by his regnal name of Agha Mohammad Shah (, ), was the founder of the Qajar dynasty The Qajar ...

Mohammad Khan Qajar
, who established the
Qajar Dynasty The Qajar dynasty (; fa, سلسله قاجار ', az, قاجارلر, Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, ''The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896'', I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Tur ...
in Iran (in the 18th century), was a victim of castration by officers of the previous kingdom. When he conquered , the last king of the
Zand Dynasty The Zand dynasty ( fa, سلسله زندیه, '; ) was an Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is ...
, Qajar had Lotf Ali Khan castrated in revenge.


Modern trafficking

An article in the ''Gulf Times'' revealed in 2005 a major sex trade in mostly Nepalese boys who were lured to India and sold to brothels in
Mumbai Mumbai (, ; also known as Bombay , List of renamed Indian cities and states#Maharashtra, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian States and union territories of India, state of Maharashtra. According to the United Nat ...

Mumbai
,
Hyderabad Hyderabad ( , , ) is the capital and largest city of the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous co ...
, New Delhi,
Lucknow Lucknow (, ) is the capital city of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous district and division. It is the List of cities in India by population, fourteenth-most populous city and ...

Lucknow
and
Gorakhpur Gorakhpur is a city in the List of state and union territory capitals in India, Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, along the banks of the West Rapti River, Rapti river in the Purvanchal region. It is situated 270 kilometres east of the state capita ...
. One victim was lured from Nepal at the age of 14, sold into slavery, locked up, beaten, starved, and forcibly castrated. He reported that he was held in a brothel with 40 to 50 other boys, many of whom were also castrated. He escaped and made his way back to Nepal. Two
non-governmental organization File:Europe in a suitcase - UK.jpg, upright=1.3, alt=A roomful of people, Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili addresses the audience at the launch of the "Europe in a suitcase" project by two NGOs (the EGI and the Friedrich Naumann Fo ...
s, one that works with homosexuals in Nepal, and one that works to rescue and rehabilitate trafficked women and children, were co-operating to help and rescue these boys. In another case, a 12-year-old boy was lured by a group of eunuchs in Delhi, India, and in time was drugged, kidnapped and forcibly castrated. He joined the eunuch group, earning money at weddings and birth celebrations. He was eventually allowed to return home by the group. A statement from
Bachpan Bachao Andolan Bachpan Bachao Andolan (BBA; ''Save Childhood Movement'') is an India-based movement campaigning for the rights of children. It was started in 1980 by Nobel Laureate Mr. Kailash Satyarthi. Its focus has centred on ending bonded labour, child labo ...
, a child rights group, said cases like this "were not unusual in Delhi, but their number was not very high."


Prevention of crime

Voluntary or mandated preventative chemical or surgical castration has been in practice in many countries—reports are available from American and European countries in particular for over eighty years (chemical for circa thirty)—as an option for treatment for people who have broken laws of a sexual nature, allowing them to return to the community from otherwise lengthy detentions. The effectiveness and ethics of this treatment are heavily debated. A ''temporary'' "
chemical castration Chemical castration is castration via anaphrodisiac drugs, whether to reduce libido and sexual activity, to treat cancer, or otherwise. Unlike surgical castration, where the gonads are removed through an incision in the body,
" has been studied and developed as a preventive measure and
punishment The old village stocks in Chapeltown, Lancashire, England Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or suffering, unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority—in contexts ranging from child disciplin ...

punishment
for several repeated
sex crime Sex and the law deals with the regulation by law of human sexual activity. Sex laws vary from one place or jurisdiction to another, and have varied over time, and unlawful sexual acts are also called sex crimes. Some laws regarding sexual act ...
s, such as rape or other sexually related violence. This has also been used to attempt to "treat" homosexuality, such as the chemical castration ordered against
Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing (; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such to ...

Alan Turing
. In modern times, the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It i ...
practices surgical castration of convicted sex offenders. According to the reports compiled by Council of Europe, a human-rights forum, the central European country physically castrated at least 94 prisoners in the 10 years up to April 2008. The Czech Republic defends this procedure as voluntary and effective. According to Dr. Martin Hollý, director of the Psychiatric Hospital Bohnice in Prague, none of the nearly 100 sex offenders who had been physically castrated had committed further offences. One serial offender stated that being castrated was the "best decision" he ever made: "On the one hand you have to protect the potential victims and on the other hand I wanted to be protected from myself, I wanted to live like a normal person." Don Grubin, a professor at
Newcastle University Newcastle University (legally the University of Newcastle upon Tyne) is a UK public research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher ...
's Institute of Neuroscience who also runs a chemical castration program backed by the UK's
Ministry of JusticeA Ministry of Justice is a common type of government department that serves as a justice ministry. Lists of current ministries of justice Named "Ministry" * Ministry of Justice (Abkhazia) * Ministry of Justice (Afghanistan) * Ministry of Justice ...
, was initially opposed to physical castration. After visiting the Czech Republic, however, he agreed that some form of castration might be of benefit to some sex offenders. In 2020, the
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...

Pakistan
i-controlled section of
Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal Range. T ...

Kashmir
passed a bill allowing for convicted child sex abusers to be chemically or surgically castrated. In 2020, a motion calling for surgical castration of convicted rapists was defeated in the
Nigerian House of Representatives The House of Representatives is the lower chamber of Nigeria's bicameral National Assembly of Nigeria, National Assembly. The Senate of Nigeria, Senate is the upper chamber. The House of Representatives has 360 members who are elected in singl ...

Nigerian House of Representatives
. However there remains support for the policy.


Criticism

In animals, the behavioral effects of gonad removal differ along lines of species and not sex, i.e. there are species where mating behavior ceases if the gonads are removed and other species where it does not cease, but removal of ovaries in females halts mating behavior in all of the same nonhuman animals in which male castration halts mating behavior. Therefore, some scientists argue that the notion that castration/spaying would drastically reduce sex drive in human males but not in human females is zoologically nonsensical, citing that humans belong to the animal kingdom. Some criminologists argue that the apparently lower recidivism rates in castrated male sex offenders compared to non-castrated ones does not prove that it is a biological effect of castration (correlation does not equal causation) but can be explained by other factors. One suggested factor from
game theory Game theory is the study of mathematical models of strategic interactions among Rational agent, rational agents.Roger B. Myerson, Myerson, Roger B. (1991). ''Game Theory: Analysis of Conflict,'' Harvard University Press, p.&nbs1 Chapter-preview ...
is that men who are willing to accept castration to get a shorter prison sentence are those who value freedom from prison higher than men who are not willing to pay the price for freedom in the form of their testicles. This hypothesis can explain their apparent lower recidivism as a result of working harder to conceal the evidence for their crimes, and argue that their parole is a danger of releasing offenders who only hide their crimes more efficiently and are not any less likely to commit new crimes. These criminologists also argue that police investigators treating castrated men as less likely to reoffend than non-castrated men may cause an investigation bias and
self-fulfilling prophecy A self-fulfilling prophecy is the sociopsychological phenomenon of someone "predicting" or expecting something, and this "prediction" or expectation coming true simply because the person ''believes'' it will and the person's resulting behaviors al ...
. Certain neurologists argue that while testosterone most likely increases internal sexual stimulation, a reduction of sex drive is unlikely to result in a reduction of inappropriate sexual behavior, as reduced internal stimulation from hormones merely increases the required external stimulation to reach orgasm. These neurologists cite that spreading of brain activity that stimulate more brain activity can increase their activity and tire the circuits out, the brain's path to orgasm, enough to tire out with less external stimulation if the internal signal is stronger, and require more specific external stimulation to reach "satisfaction" if the internal signal is weaker. Therefore, they argue, a reduced testosterone level would make it more difficult, not easier, to manage remaining vestiges of sex drive by masturbating without the use of pornography or to otherwise get by with more socially and legally acceptable substitutes for desires that it would be unacceptable to act on. These neurologists also cite that many people, both men and women, find that higher levels of initial sexual arousal make it easier to masturbate to orgasm without the preferred type of external stimuli, as predicted by the hypothesis.


Music

In Europe, when women were not permitted to sing in church or cathedral choirs in the Roman Catholic Church, boys were castrated to develop a special high
voice The human voice consists of sound Voice production, made by a human being using the vocal tract, including Speech, talking, singing, Laughter, laughing, crying, screaming, shouting, humming or yelling. The human voice frequency is specifically a ...
and to prevent their voices breaking at
puberty Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child Biologically, a child (plural children) is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opp ...

puberty
. The first documents mentioning ''
castrati A castrato (Italian, plural: ''castrati'') is a type of classical male singing Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice. A person who sings is called a singer or vocalist (in jazz and popular music). Singers perfo ...
'' are Italian church records from the 1550s.John Rosselli, "Castrato" article in ''The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians'', 2001. In the baroque and classical music eras these singers were highly appreciated by opera composers as well.
Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 17565 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical period. Born in Salzburg, in the Holy Roman Empire Th ...

Mozart
's ''Exultate Jubilate'', 's '' Miserere'' and other pieces from this period now sung by
soprano A soprano () is a type of classical music, classical female singing human voice, voice and has the highest vocal range of all voice types. The soprano's vocal range (using scientific pitch notation) is from approximately middle C (C4) = 261  ...

soprano
s and countertenors were written for ''castrati''. Some of the alto parts of
Handel WB1401 warning receiver in a local authority control centre HANDEL was the code-name for the UK's national attack warning system in the Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union The Soviet ...
's
Messiah In Abrahamic religions The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic people, Semitic-originated religions that claim descent from the Judaism of the ancient I ...
were first sung by a ''castrato''. ''Castrati'' include
Farinelli Farinelli (; 24 January 1705 – 16 September 1782) was the stage name of Carlo Maria Michelangelo Nicola Broschi (), a celebrated Italian people, Italian castrato singer of the 18th century and one of the greatest singers in the history of oper ...
,
Senesino 210px, Senesino in 1735, by Van Haecken after Hudson Senesino (; or traditionally ; born Francesco Bernardi on 31 October 1686 – 27 November 1758) was a celebrated Italian contralto A contralto () is a type of classical female singing ...

Senesino
,
CarestiniImage:Giovanni Carestini.jpg, 210px, Carestini Giovanni Carestini (13 December 1700 in Filottrano, near Ancona – 1760 in Filottrano) was an Italy, Italian castrato of the 18th century, who sang in the operas and oratorios of George Frideric Handel. ...

Carestini
, and
CaffarelliCaffarelli may be *Caffarelli (castrato), stage name of the castrato Gaetano Majorano (1710-1783)Carmela Cafarelli
(1889-1979) was proprietor of Cleveland Ohio's Cafarelli Opera Company *Luis Caffarelli (born 1948), American-Argentine mathematicia ...
. The last true ''castrato'' was
Alessandro Moreschi Alessandro Moreschi (11 November 1858 – 21 April 1922) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian la ...

Alessandro Moreschi
(1858–1922) who served in the
Sistine Chapel Choir The Sistine Chapel Choir, as it is generally called in English, or officially the Coro della Cappella Musicale Pontificia Sistina in Italian, is the Pope's personal choir. It performs at papal functions in the Sistine Chapel and in any other church ...
. It was not until the late 19th century that the Roman Catholic Church officially condemned the production of ''castrati''. In Modern times, the Mexican Javier Medina is the only professional opera singer that can perform as a castrato, since he suffered from an involuntary chemical castration, as a result from a cancer treatment that he had before he reached puberty.


Religion

A number of religions have included castration as a central theme of their practice. These include: * The cult of Cybele, in which devotees castrated themselves in ecstatic emulation of Attis: see Galli, Gallus. * Skoptsy * The Valesians.


Hinduism

In South Asia, many Hijra (South Asia), hijras live in well-defined, organized, all-hijra communities, led by a guru. The power of the hijras as a sexually ambiguous category can only be understood in the religious context of Hinduism. In some Hindu beliefs, ritual, and art, the power of the combined man/woman, or androgyne, is a frequent and significant theme. Bahuchara Mata, the main object of hijra veneration, is specifically associated with transvestism and transgenderism.


Christianity

In the Gospel of Matthew, Jesus of Nazareth mentions castration in a discussion about avoiding adultery and divorce that some are involuntarily castrated or born that way, while some others "make themselves eunuchs" willingly out of a desire to be chaste (). Given Jesus' frequent use of metaphor and hyperbole, e.g. , the Catholic Church has broadly discouraged any understanding of this passage as recommending literal "self-castration". That is consistent with Jesus' claims (as a rabbi) to uphold the Law given to Moses, e.g. , a Law which also discouraged literal castration . However, in his own comments Jesus had no condemnation for any of the above. In , a eunuch is baptized by Philip the Evangelist, demonstrating acceptance of castrated individuals in his church. The first canon of the First Council of Nicaea in 325 AD forbid clergy members to voluntarily castrate themselves "when in perfect health", but freely accepted those who had been either castrated by others against their will, castrated due to a medical sickness or necessity, or those born as eunuchs. Paul, arguing against self-righteousness regarding circumcision in , says "As for those agitators, I wish they would go the whole way and emasculate themselves!" (New International Version, NIV) Well-known Christian eunuchs (or alleged eunuchs) include: * Origen, who is reported by Church History (Eusebius), Eusebius to have castrated himself based on his reading of the Gospel of Matthew and other passages in Matthew and Mark that appear to endorse voluntary amputation to avoid sin, although there is some doubt concerning this story. Philip Schaff, Schaff considers the account genuine but cites Ferdinand Christian Baur, Baur ''et al.'' in opposition. Origen argues against such literal interpretations of the passages from Matthew and Mark in his First Principles. * Bishop Melito of Sardis (d. ''ca'' 180), who was a
eunuch A eunuch ( ) is a man who has been castration, castrated. Throughout history, castration often served a specific social function. The earliest records for intentional castration to produce eunuchs are from the Sumerian city of Lagash in the 21 ...

eunuch
, according to the church history of Eusebius of Caesarea, though, significantly the word "virgin" was substituted in Tyrannius Rufinus, Rufinus' Latin translation of Eusebius. * Boston Corbett, who was inspired by this same verse to castrate himself (Corbett was the 19th-century American soldier who is generally believed to have fired the shot that killed John Wilkes Booth). * Skoptsy, a branch of the Russian Spiritual Christianity movement founded in the 1760s.


Judaism

Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of de ...
strictly forbids the castration of either humans or animals. Deuteronomy 23:1 expels castrated men from the assembly of Israel; they are forbidden to marry or if married must divorce from their wives (though permitting the castrated to marry or remain married to female converts to Judaism). The laws of castration also apply to cases of irreversible or un-reversed vasectomy and all other cases where the flow of sperm is known to have been placed into a permanent state of dysfunction with either no hope or no desire to take the steps to repair. Isaiah 56:3–5 references in a positive welcoming manner eunuchs who follow after God's laws. "Neither let the son of the stranger, that hath joined himself to the LORD, speak, saying, The LORD hath utterly separated me from his people: neither let the eunuch say, Behold, I am a dry tree. For thus saith the LORD unto the eunuchs that keep my sabbaths, and choose the things that please me, and take hold of my covenant; Even unto them will I give in mine house and within my walls a place and a name better than of sons and of daughters: I will give them an everlasting name, that shall not be cut off." According to Rashi, Kham (Ham) castrated his father Noah and was cursed as a result. In Judaism, castrated animals are deemed unfit for
sacrifice Sacrifice is the offering of food, objects or the lives of animals or humans to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship. Evidence of ritual animal sacrifice has been seen at least ancient Hebrew and ...

sacrifice
in the Temple in Jerusalem (). Castrated members of the priestly caste are forbidden to enter certain parts of the temple, to approach the altar, or to make sacrifices, although they could eat their share of the offerings and receive the priestly and Levite gifts (Lev. 21:16–24).


Islam

In Islam, castration is considered a sin and strictly forbidden, whether one performs it on himself or on another. As Abdullah ibn Mas'ood said, "We were on a campaign with the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), and we had no women with us. We said: Why don't we get ourselves castrated? But he forbade us to do that."


Others

* Heaven's Gate (religious group), Heaven's Gate


Medical consequences

A subject of castration who is altered before the onset of
puberty Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child Biologically, a child (plural children) is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opp ...

puberty
will retain a high voice, non-muscular build, and small genitals. He may be shorter than average, as the production of sex hormones in puberty—more specifically, estrogen via aromatization of testosterone—stops long bone growth. The person may not develop pubic hair and will have a low sex drive or none at all. Castrations after the onset of puberty will typically reduce the sex drive somewhat or even eliminate it altogether. Castrated people are Infertility, sterile, because the testes (for males) and ovaries (for females) produce sex cells needed for sexual reproduction. Once removed, the subject is infertile. The voice does not change considerably. Some castrated people report mood changes, such as depression or a more serene outlook on life, although this might not be due to chemical changes but instead emotional changes due to the implications of the procedure. Body strength and muscle mass can decrease. Bone structure becomes softer and more slender. Body hair may sometimes decrease and is less coarse. Castration stops the progression of male pattern baldness. However, hair regrowth – if it occurs at all – may be limited to hair that was lost shortly before castration. Historically, many eunuchs who additionally underwent a penectomy reportedly suffered from urinary incontinence associated with the removal of the penis. Without Hormone replacement therapy (menopause), hormone replacement therapy (HRT), typical symptoms (similar to those experienced by menopausal women) include hot flushes, gradual bone-density loss resulting in osteopenia or osteoporosis, and potential weight gain or redistribution of body fat to the hips and chest. Replacement of testosterone in the form of gel, patches, or injections can largely reverse these effects, although breast enlargement has also been reported as a possible side effect of testosterone usage. A study of 81 historical eunuchs in Korea's royal court found a 14- to 19-year increase in lifespan compared to intact men of similar socioeconomic background; these eunuchs had a centenarian rate of over 3%.


Psychoanalysis and literary theory

The concept of castration plays an important role in psychoanalysis; ''see'', for example, castration anxiety. Castration (as a metaphor) also plays an important role in psychoanalytically-influenced literary theory, for example Harold Bloom's ''The Anxiety of Influence''. In the Mexican thriller ''La casa del pelícano'', castration is shown as being connected to the Oedipus complex.


Chemical castration

In the case of chemical castration, ongoing regular injections of anti-androgens are required. Chemical castration does not actually remove the testicles or ovaries of the subject,"Can Castration Be a Solution for Sex Offenders? Man Who Mutilated Himself in Jail Thinks So, but Debate on Its Effectiveness Continues in Va., Elsewhere"
by Candace Rondeaux for the Washington Post, 5 July 2006
nor is it a form of Human sterilization (surgical procedure), sterilization."Chemical castration – breaking the cycle of paraphiliac recidivism"
Social Justice, Spring, 1999 by Christopher Meisenkothen.
With the advent of chemical castration, physical castration has been widely superseded, though some have undergone the procedure voluntarily.


Animals

Humans commonly castrate domestic animals not intended for breeding. Domestic animals are usually castrated to avoid unwanted or uncontrolled sexual reproduction, reproduction; to reduce or prevent other manifestations of animal sexual behavior, sexual behaviour such as defending the herd from humans and other threats, or intra-herd aggression (e.g. fighting between groups of entire (uncastrated) males of a species); or to reduce other consequences of sexual behavior that may make animal husbandry more difficult, such as boundary/fence/enclosure destruction when attempting to get to nearby females of the species. Male horses are usually castrated (gelding, gelded) using emasculators, because Stallion (horse), stallions are rather aggressive and troublesome. The same applies to male mules, although they are sterile. Male cattle are castrated to improve fattening and docility in feedlots or for use as oxen. Selective breeding, Breeding individuals are kept entire (animal), entire and used for breeding: they may fetch higher prices when sold. Livestock may be castrated when used for food to prevent indiscriminate breeding, control aggression, and improve meat and carcass quality. In domestic pigs the undesirable odour or taint of uncastrated males, called boar taint, is caused by androstenone and skatole concentrations stored in the fat tissues of the animal after sexual maturity.Genetics of Boar Taint: Implications for the Future Use of Intact Males
Boar taint is only found in a small minority of pigs and can be controlled through breeding selection, diet and management. It is released when the fat is heated and has a distinct odor and flavor that is widely considered unpalatable to consumers.
Consequently, in commercial meat production, male pigs are either castrated shortly after birth or slaughtered before they reach sexual maturity. Recent research in Brazil has shown that castration of pigs is unnecessary because most pigs do not have the 'boar taint'. This is due to many breeds of pigs simply not having the heredity for the boar taint and the fact that pigs are normally slaughtered at a young market weight. In the case of pets, castration is usually called
neutering Neutering, from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...
, and is encouraged to prevent overpopulation of the community by unwanted animals, and to reduce certain diseases such as prostate disease and testicular cancer in male dogs (oophorectomy in female pets is often called
spaying Neutering, from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...
). Testicular cancer is rare in dogs, and also prostate problems are somewhat common in castrated male dogs when they get older. Neutered individuals have a much higher risk of developing prostate problems in comparison to intact males. Castrated male cats are more likely to develop an obstruction in their urethra, preventing them from urinating to some degree. A specialized vocabulary has arisen for neutered animals of given species: * Pig#Pig vocabulary, Barrow (pig) * Cattle#Terminology, Bullock (cattle) * Capon (chicken) * Gelding (horse) * Gib (cat, ferret) * Ox (cattle) (Castration performed on mature bull) * Stag (cattle, sheep) * Cattle#Terminology, Steer (cattle) (Castration performed on young calf) * Wikt:wether, Wether (sheep, goat) An incompletely castrated male in livestock species (horse and cattle) is known as a ''rig''. The term ''stag'' is used for a male animal castrated after the secondary sex characteristics have developed to such a point as to give him the appearance of sexual maturity. Methods of veterinary medicine, veterinary castration include instant surgical removal, the use of an elastrator tool to secure a band around the testicles that disrupts the blood supply, the use of a Burdizzo tool or emasculators to crush the spermatic cords and disrupt the blood supply, pharmacological Injection (medicine), injections and implant (medicine), implants and immunological techniques to inoculation, inoculate the animal against his own sex hormones, sexual hormones. Certain animals, like horses and swine, are usually surgically treated with a scrotal castration (which can be done with the animal standing while sedated and after local anesthetic has been applied), while others, like dogs and cats, are anesthetised and recumbent when surgically castrated with a pre-scrotal incision in the case of dogs, or a pre-scrotal or scrotal incision used for cats. Castration of cattle has historically been done without pain medications. All methods of castration cause pain and distress, which can be minimized by castrating as early as possible, preferably within the first week of life. The Canadian Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle requires that, as of 2018, calves older than six months be castrated using pain control.Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle. 2013. www.nfacc.ca/codes-of-practice/beef-cattle In veterinary practice an "open" castration refers to a castration in which the inguinal tunic is incised and not sutured. A "closed" castration refers to when the procedure is performed so that the inguinal tunic is sutured together after incision.


See also

* Ashley Treatment * Birth control * Castration anxiety * Castrato, a castrated male singer * Chemical castration * Cleveland Torso Murderer, a serial killer who castrated his male victims * Emasculation * Emasculator * Eunuch * Gelding * Inguinal orchiectomy, the approach typically used to treat testicular cancer * List of transgender-related topics * Neutering, Spaying and neutering (for animals) * Neuticles * Oophorectomy, the equivalent operation for ovaries * Parasitic castration * Penectomy * Penis removal


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * Tuotuo. Liaoshi [History of Liao]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1974 (or Tuotuo, ''Liaoshi'' (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1974)) * * * * * Patrick Barbier, ''The World of the Castrati: the History of an Extraordinary Operatic Phenomenon'' Souvenir, 1996, * Susan Elliott
''Cutting Too Close for Comfort: Paul's Letter to the Galatians in Its Anatolian Cultic Context''
Reviews in Review of Biblical Literature * Theresa McCuaig,
Understanding Castration
" 2009. * * English language Abstracts of the thesis **
Research on the System of Imperial Harem in Liao Dynasty
**

**


External links


Castration Through the Ages

The Journal of Clinical Endrocrinology and Metabolism

Neutering NOT Org
Website arguing against the castration of domestic animals

* [https://web.archive.org/web/20180429222839/http://en.castration.site/ Castration] — information site {{Authority control Castration, Andrology Corporal punishments Veterinary castration, Torture Male genital modification Cybele Violence against men Sexual abuse