Castle in the Sky
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, titled ''Laputa: Castle in the Sky'' for release in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand, is a 1986 Japanese
animated Animation is a method by which still figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film A fi ...
fantasy Fantasy is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it normally describes a category of l ...
adventure film written and directed by Hayao Miyazaki. The first film produced by Studio Ghibli, it was produced for Tokuma Shoten. Set in a fictional late 19th century, it follows the adventures of a boy and girl who are trying to keep a powerful crystal from the army, a group of secret agents, and a family of pirates, while searching for a legendary floating castle. The film was distributed by Toei Company.Tenkuu no Shiro Laputa
. ''www.bcdb.com'', May 13, 2012
The film won the '' Animage'' Anime Grand Prix in 1986. The film received positive reviews and grossed over at the box office. It went on to gross a total of approximately in box office, home video and
soundtrack A soundtrack is recorded music accompanying and synchronised to the images of a motion picture, drama, book, television program, radio program, or video game; a commercially released soundtrack album of music as featured in the soundtr ...
sales, . In Japanese polls asking about the greatest animations, it was voted the second-best animated film at the 2006 Japan Media Arts Festival and was voted first place in a 2008 Oricon audience poll. ''Castle in the Sky'' has had a strong influence on Japanese popular culture, and has inspired numerous films, media and games, in Japan and internationally. It has been cited as an influential classic in the steampunk and dieselpunk genres.


Plot

An airship carrying Sheeta—an orphan girl abducted by government agent Muska—is attacked by Captain Dola and her air pirate sons, seeking Sheeta's blue crystal pendant. Trying to escape, Sheeta falls from the airship but, thanks to the amulet, she floats to earth, unconscious. An orphan boy named Pazu catches her and takes her to his home in a mining town. Pazu shows her a picture of a legendary floating city, Laputa, taken by his late father. When Dola's pirates and Muska's men appear and pursue them, Pazu and Sheeta, aided by the amulet, fall into an abandoned mine, where she tells how she was kidnapped from her mountain home because of her necklace. Old miner Uncle Pom shows them the glowing deposits of Aetherium around them. Leaving the mine, Sheeta tells Pazu her full name - Lucita Toel Ul Laputa - revealing her as a descendant of the Laputan royal family. Muska captures them and takes them to his fortress where the children are imprisoned in different rooms. Muska shows Sheeta a broken Laputan
robot A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations ( computation) automatically. Modern digital electronic c ...
; knowing her name, he intends to make her reveal Laputa's location. Muska threatens Pazu; for his own safety, Sheeta orders him to leave. A despondent Pazu returns home, where Dola and her sons await. To rescue Sheeta, Pazu joins them. Sheeta recites a spell her grandmother taught her, unintentionally activating the amulet and the robot, which wreaks havoc until it is destroyed by the military's huge airship, ''Goliath''. Pazu rescues Sheeta, but Muska obtains the amulet. Pazu, Sheeta and the pirates return to their airship and pursue the ''Goliath'', which is navigating by Sheeta's amulet. Along the way, Dola tells Pazu and Sheeta how to turn the lookout into a kite, giving them a higher vantage point. Pazu spots a swirl of clouds in an approaching hurricane. Recognizing the clouds from his father's stories, he tells Dola they have found Laputa and insists that they head toward the eye of the storm. However, the ''Goliath'' appears, damages the pirate ship and severs the lookout kite from it, sending Pazu and Sheeta into the clouds. Sheeta and Pazu safely reach Laputa, where they find plants and animals thriving in the ruins of the castle, which surround a huge tree. However, the army plunders the city, with the pirates as their captives. Muska captures Sheeta while Pazu frees the pirates. Muska takes Sheeta into the center of Laputa, a vast repository of scientific knowledge where an immense crystal powers the city. Muska reveals his real name, “Romuska Palo Ul Laputa", another member of the royal line that left Laputa centuries ago. Using Sheeta's crystal to access Laputan technology, he unleashes Laputa's secret weapon of mass destruction and a dormant robot army, destroys the ''Goliath'' and its crew, and declares his plans to conquer the world. Horrified, Sheeta steals back the amulet and flees. She gives the amulet to Pazu through a gap in the wall but is cornered by a pursuing Muska in Laputa's dilapidated throne room. Sheeta rebukes Muska, also revealing the people of Laputa left because they realized that man was meant to live on earth. Undaunted, Muska threatens to kill her unless she gives him the amulet. Pazu arrives and asks to speak with her, and Muska grants them one minute. Sheeta and Pazu recite a Spell of Destruction connected to the crystal, causing the center of Laputa to collapse and blinding Muska, who falls to his death offscreen, while the children are protected by the tree roots. The remainder of Laputa's ruins ascend until they disappear from view, supported by its crystal. Pazu and Sheeta take the kite to rendezvous with the pirates before both groups part ways. Amidst the end credits, Laputa is shown floating in stationary orbit above Earth.


Cast


Development

Miyazaki's earlier
anime is hand-drawn and computer-generated animation originating from Japan. Outside of Japan and in English, ''anime'' refers specifically to animation produced in Japan. However, in Japan and in Japanese, (a term derived from a shortening ...
series '' Future Boy Conan'' (1978) featured a number of elements that he later adapted for ''Castle in the Sky''. Conan and Lana, for example, were forerunners of Pazu and Sheeta, and it had similarities to Sheeta's rescue by Pazu. Some of the characters and themes in ''Future Boy Conan'' set the blueprint for ''Castle in the Sky''. The name "Laputa" is derived from Jonathan Swift's novel '' Gulliver's Travels'', wherein Swift's Laputa is also a flying island propelled by a giant central crystal and controlled by its citizens. Anthony Lioi feels that Miyazaki's ''Laputa: Castle in the Sky'' is similar to Swift's Laputa, where the technological superiority of the castle in the sky is used for political ends. Miyazaki, through the dialog of Colonel Muska, credited Laputa as having informed Biblical and
Hindu Hindus (; ) are people who religiously adhere to Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion or '' dharma'', a religious and universal order or way of life by which followers abide. As a religion, it is the world's third-largest ...
legend A legend is a genre of folklore that consists of a narrative A narrative, story, or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfictional ( memoir, biography A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed ...
s—thus tying the world of Laputa to the real Earth (including Western and Eastern civilizations)—as do Miyazaki's choices of the medieval castle architecture on the ground; the Gothic and half-timbered buildings in the village near the fort; the Welsh mining-town architecture, clothing, and ground vehicles of Pazu's homeland; and the Victorian ambiance of the pirate ship. The film also features the use of ancient
Babylonia Babylonia (; Akkadian: , ''māt Akkadī'') was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in the city of Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Bāḇel'' * syc, ܒܒܠ ''Bāḇel'' * g ...
n cuneiform script on Laputa's interactive panels and tombstones; and makes references to the Hindu epic ''
Ramayana The ''Rāmāyana'' (; sa, रामायणम्, ) is a Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominally , , ) is a classical language belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia ...
'', including " Indra's arrow", while the name Sheeta may be related to
Sita Sita (; ) also called as Janaki and Vaidehi is a Hindu goddess and the female protagonist of the Hindu epic, ''Ramayana The ''Rāmāyana'' (; sa, रामायणम्, ) is a Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominal ...
, the protagonist of the ''Ramayana''. The flying city of Laputa has an architectural design resembling the ancient Mesopotamian city of
Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Bāḇel'' * syc, ܒܒܠ ''Bāḇel'' * grc-gre, Βαβυλών ''Babylṓn'' * he, בָּבֶל ''Bāvel'' * peo, 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 ''Bābiru'' * elx, 𒀸𒁀𒉿𒇷 ''Babi ...
, including ziggurat-like structures, and with murals resembling ancient Egyptian and Assyrian art. Some of the architecture seen in the film was inspired by a Welsh mining town. Miyazaki first visited Wales in 1984 and witnessed the miners' strike firsthand. He returned to the country in 1986 to prepare for ''Laputa'', which he said reflected his Welsh experience: "I was in Wales just after the miners' strike. I really admired the way the miners' unions fought to the very end for their jobs and communities, and I wanted to reflect the strength of those communities in my film." Miyazaki told ''
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ''The Observer'' and ''The Guardian Weekly'', ''The Guardian'' is part of the Gu ...
'', "I admired those men, I admired the way they battled to save their way of life, just as the coal miners in Japan did. Many people of my generation see the miners as a symbol; a dying breed of fighting men. Now they are gone." Except for the technology of Laputa itself, the technologies (especially the flying machines) are an example of the retrofuturistic genre of steampunk.
Telecom Animation Film is a Japanese animation studio founded on May 19, 1975 and currently affiliated with TMS Entertainment. The company produces television series, films, and original video animation , abbreviated as OVA and sometimes as OAV (original animati ...
, and Oh! Production helped animate the film. The film had a production budget of , at the time equivalent to , making it the most expensive anime film up until then. It matched the budget record of Miyazaki's Lupin III film '' Castle of Cagliostro'' (1979), and it was in turn surpassed a year later by '' Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honnêamise'' (1987).


Release and distribution

The film was released in Japan on August 2, 1986, by the Toei Company, which also released '' Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind''. In the late 1980s, an English dubbed version, produced by Magnum Video Tape and Dubbing for international Japan Airlines flights at the request of Tokuma Shoten, was briefly screened in the United States by Streamline Pictures. Carl Macek, the head of Streamline, was disappointed with this dub, deeming it "adequate, but clumsy". Following this, Tokuma allowed Streamline to dub their future acquisitions '' My Neighbor Totoro'' and '' Kiki's Delivery Service''. In UK, the premiere took place on August 12, 1987 on
MTV Europe MTV Global (formerly as MTV Europe) is the international version of the American TV channel MTV, a 24-hour music and entertainment TV channel that began broadcasting on August 1, 1987, as part of the worldwide MTV network. Initially, MTV serv ...
in its own dubbing. The original dub of ''Castle in the Sky'' is also seen on the 1996 Ghibli ga Ippai Laserdisc set, and on the first Japanese DVD release. The initial Japanese DVD release is now out of print and the subsequent re-release in 2014 replaces it with the Disney dubbed version. The English dub produced by
Walt Disney Pictures Walt Disney Pictures is an American Film studio, film production company and subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios (division), Walt Disney Studios, which is owned by The Walt Disney Company. The studio is the flagship producer of live-action featur ...
was recorded in 1998 and planned for release on video in 1999, but the release was cancelled after '' Princess Mononoke'' (1997) did not fare as well in the US as Japan, and so ''Laputa's'' release date was pushed back yet again; on occasion the completed dub was screened at select children's festivals. The film was finally released on DVD and video in the US on April 15, 2003, alongside a rerelease of '' Kiki's Delivery Service'' and '' Spirited Away''. As with ''Mononoke'' and ''Kiki'', critical opinion was mixed about the new dub, but Cloris Leachman and Mark Hamill's performances as Dola and Muska drew praise. ''Laputa'' was reissued on American home video on March 2, 2010, as a tribute accompanying the home video release of '' Ponyo''. The film was released by Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment on Blu-ray in North America on May 22, 2012, alongside '' Whisper of the Heart'' and '' The Secret World of Arrietty''. Shout! Factory and GKIDS re-issued the film on Blu-ray and DVD on October 31, 2017. The film received a re-screening on May 22, 2011, in Aberystwyth as part of a charity fund for Japan. The print shown was the original theatrical Japanese print with English subtitles. For a special promotion, it went back into US theaters November 18–20, 2018, with the widest release at 648 theaters.


Box office

At the Japanese box office, the film grossed ¥1.16billion, at the time equivalent to . In
Hong Kong Hong Kong ( (US) or (UK); , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China ( abbr. Hong Kong SAR or HKSAR), is a city and special administrative region of China China, officially the P ...
, the film's 1987 release grossed HK$13.1million, at the time equivalent to . In the United Kingdom, the film's 2012 release grossed $327,559 in its first week. In the United States, the film's 2018 limited release grossed $523,664. In other territories, the film's 2003 release grossed $5,434,627, including $4,670,084 in France alone. This adds up to a combined worldwide box office gross of . In terms of box office admissions, the film sold about 800,000 tickets in Japan and 1,066,427 tickets in Europe. Combined, about tickets were sold in Japan and Europe.


Home media

By 2003, ''Laputa: Castle in the Sky'' had sold 1.612million VHS and DVD units in Japan. At an average retail price of ( on DVD and on VHS), this is equivalent to approximately () in estimated Japanese sales revenue as of 2012. In the United States, the 2010 DVD release grossed over in sales revenue . In the United Kingdom, it was 2019's eighth best-selling foreign language film on home video (below six other Japanese films, including five Miyazaki anime films).


Differences between versions

Although the plot and much of the script was left intact, Disney's English dub of ''Castle in the Sky'' contains some changes: * A significant amount of background chatter as well as one-liners were added (even more so than in Disney's dub of ''Kiki's Delivery Service''), filling in moments of silence and increasing the frenetic effect of certain scenes. * Composer Joe Hisaishi was commissioned to rework and extend his original 60-minute electronic–orchestral score into a 90-minute symphonic orchestral score, to make the film more palatable to American audiences. The sound mix received a vast overhaul as well. * Pazu and Sheeta, voiced by James Van Der Beek and Anna Paquin, respectively, are made to sound several years older, placing them in their mid-teens rather than their pre-teens. * Several modifications were made to the Dola gang's dialogue regarding Sheeta, including a declaration of love by one of the pirates. In the original Japanese version, the dialogue presented Sheeta as a potential mother figure to the pirates, rather than a potential romantic interest. * References to Robert Louis Stevenson's '' Treasure Island'' and Jonathan Swift's '' Gulliver's Travels'' were removed, the latter of which had also been removed from the original dub. Although all these alterations were approved by Studio Ghibli and Miyazaki, some critics have called them into question. Regarding the soundtrack, Miyazaki himself is said to have approved of Hisaishi's reworking; his compliments were echoed by several reviewers. The 2010 DVD rerelease reverts some of these changes. The updated score and sound mix are replaced by the originals in the Japanese-language audio, retaining the updates in the dub. Some of the added dialogue is removed in the dub, restoring silence where it is in the original Japanese version. However, the English subtitles are not updated to reflect the trimmed dialogue, which sometimes results in text being displayed when no characters are speaking. These changes are also seen in the 2012 US Blu-ray release. For the Japanese, Australian, and British Blu-rays, the updated score is used, and the subtitles are properly timed, literal translations from the original Japanese, rather than the improperly timed dubtitles. The 2017 Blu-ray rerelease by GKIDS, besides offering the original Japanese, features the 2010 edit of the English dub but presents the option of playing it with either the original or the new score. For subtitles, the correctly translated from Japanese to English subtitles are added. The HBO Max release of the English dub only uses the original score. In the film's release on
Netflix Netflix, Inc. is an American subscription video on-demand over-the-top streaming service and production company based in Los Gatos, California. Founded in 1997 by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph in Scotts Valley, California, it offers ...
, the Japanese audio features the original audio mix and score, while the English audio features the updated audio mix and score. Subtitles are only available for the original Japanese audio.


Music

As with all other films by Hayao Miyazaki, Joe Hisaishi composed the music for ''Castle in the Sky''. For the film, Azumi Inoue performed the original song "Carrying You".


Discography


Reception

According to the
review aggregator A review aggregator is a system that collects reviews of products and services (such as films, books, video games, software, hardware, and cars). This system stores the reviews and uses them for purposes such as supporting a website where users ...
website
Rotten Tomatoes Rotten Tomatoes is an American review aggregator, review-aggregation website for film and television. The company was launched in August 1998 by three undergraduate students at the University of California, Berkeley: Senh Duong, Patrick Y. Lee ...
, 96% of critics have given the film a positive review based on 26 reviews, with an average rating of 7.5/10. The site's critics consensus reads, "With a storytelling palette as rich and brilliant as its animation, ''Castle in the Sky'' thrillingly encapsulates Studio Ghibli's unique strengths." At
Metacritic Metacritic is a website A website (also written as a web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at least one web server. Examples of notable websites are Goo ...
, the film has a weighted average score of 78 out of 100 based on 7 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". In 2001, the Japanese magazine '' Animage'' ranked ''Laputa:Castle in the Sky'' 44th in their list of ''100 Best Anime Productions of All Time''. In a 2006 poll of 100 best animations of all time by Japan's Agency for Cultural Affairs conducted at the 2006 Japan Media Arts Festival, ''Castle in the Sky'' was the second highest-ranked animated film (after '' Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind'', and third highest-ranked animation overall on the list (below '' Neon Genesis Evangelion'' and ''Nausicaä''). In a 2008 animation audience poll conducted by Oricon in Japan, ''Laputa: Castle in the Sky'' was voted first place, above ''Nausicaä'' in second place. Andrew Osmond of '' All the Anime'' calls ''Laputa'' the "best steampunk film" of all time. The film was ranked at number 10 on the list of ''Greatest Japanese Animated Films of All Time'' by Japanese film magazine kinema Junpo in 2009.


Awards

* Ōfuji Noburō Award; Mainichi Film Award * First Place; Pia Ten (Best Films of the Year) * First Place; Japanese Movies; City Road * First Place; Japanese Movies; Eiga Geijutsu (Movie Art) * First Place; Japanese Films Best 10;
Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region of Honshu in Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally , ''Nihonkoku'') is an island country in East Asia. It is situated in the northwest Pacific Ocean, and is bordered on the west ...
Film Festival * Eighth Place; Japanese Films; Kinema Junpo Best 10 * Second Place; Readers' Choice; Kinema Junpo Best 10 * Best Anime; 9th Anime Grand Prix * Special Recommendation; The Central Committee for Children's Welfare * Special Award (to Miyazaki & Takahata); Revival of Japanese Movies * Best Design Award; Anime


Cultural impact

''Castle in the Sky'' has had a strong impact on Japanese popular culture, with the "Laputa Effect" comparable to "a modern day monomyth for Japanese genre films and media." Jeff VanderMeer and S.J. Chambers, in ''The Steampunk Bible'', consider the film a milestone in the steampunk genre, calling it "one of the first modern steampunk classics." Archetypal steampunk elements in ''Laputa'' include airships, air pirates, steam-powered robots, and a view of steam power as a limitless but potentially dangerous source of power. Philip Boyes of '' Eurogamer'' also considers it an influential work in the dieselpunk genre. The most tweeted moment in the history of
Twitter Twitter is an online social media and social networking service owned and operated by American company Twitter, Inc., on which users post and interact with 280-character-long messages known as "tweets". Registered users can post, like, and ...
was during one airing of ''Castle in the Sky'' on Japanese TV on August 2, 2013, when fans tweeted the word "balus" at the exact time that it was said in an important moment of the movie. There was a global peak of 143,199 tweets in one second. ''Castle in the Sky'' has also had an influence on
popular music Popular music is music Music is generally defined as the art of arranging sound to create some combination of form, harmony, melody, rhythm or otherwise expressive content. Exact definitions of music vary considerably around ...
; the popular jazz-funk band Hiatus Kaiyote has a song called 'Laputa' and its lyrics directly reference the film. Another example of a song directly referencing the film is a song titled 'Laputa' by the indie rock band Panchiko.


Animation and comics

The success of ''Laputa'' led to a wave of steampunk
anime is hand-drawn and computer-generated animation originating from Japan. Outside of Japan and in English, ''anime'' refers specifically to animation produced in Japan. However, in Japan and in Japanese, (a term derived from a shortening ...
and
manga Manga (Japanese language, Japanese: 漫画 ) are comics or graphic novels originating from Japan. Most manga conform to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century, and the form has a long prehistory in earlier Japanese art. The term ...
. A notable example is the anime series '' Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water'' (1990). The success of ''Laputa'' inspired Hideaki Anno and Studio Gainax to create ''Nadia'', their first hit production, loosely adapting elements from '' Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea'', with Captain Nemo making an appearance. In turn, ''Nadia'' was influential on later steampunk anime, such as Katsuhiro Otomo's film production '' Steamboy'' (2004). Other steampunk anime and manga followed in the wake of ''Laputa'', including Miyazaki's own films '' Porco Rosso'' (1992) and '' Howl's Moving Castle'' (2004),
Sega is a Japanese multinational corporation, multinational video game and entertainment company headquartered in Shinagawa, Tokyo. Its international branches, Sega of America and Sega Europe, are headquartered in Irvine, California and London, r ...
's anime series '' Sakura Wars'' (1997), Square Enix's manga and anime franchise '' Fullmetal Alchemist'' (2001), and the manga and anime series '' Elemental Gelade'' (2002). Manga author Katsura Hoshino, known for the manga and anime series '' D.Gray-man'', was fascinated by ''Castle in the Sky'' to the point where she decided to seek work as an animator when growing up, before she ended up writing manga. Anime filmmaker Yasuhiro Yoshiura described his film '' Patema Inverted'' (2013) as his venture into "the world of ''Laputa'' and the boy-meets-girl story". Anime filmmaker Makoto Shinkai, known for the hit anime films '' Your Name'' (2016) and '' Weathering With You'' (2019), cited ''Laputa'' as his favourite animation. The anime series '' No Game No Life'' (2014) references the film in episode five. ''Castle in the Sky'' influenced a number of animated films from Disney and
Pixar Pixar Animation Studios (commonly known as Pixar () and stylized as P I X A R) is an American computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations ( computation) automatic ...
. For example, Disney films such as '' Atlantis: The Lost Empire'' (2001), and Pixar films such as ''
WALL-E ''WALL-E'' (stylized with an interpunct as ''WALL·E'') is a 2008 American computer-animated science fiction film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures Walt Disney Pictures is an American Film studi ...
'' (2008) and '' Up'' (2009). The French animated film '' April and the Extraordinary World'' (2015) was also influenced by ''Laputa''.


Video games

''Castle in the Sky'' has influenced numerous video games, particularly Japanese video games, with its success leading to a wave of steampunk video games. Game designer Hironobu Sakaguchi cited ''Laputa'' as an inspiration behind his '' Final Fantasy'' video game series, particularly citing it as an influence on the series' airships. Sega AM2 game designer Yu Suzuki cited ''Laputa'' as his original inspiration behind the hit arcade game '' After Burner'' (1987). '' Steel Empire'' (1992), a shoot 'em up game originally released as ''Koutetsu Teikoku'' on the Sega Mega Drive console in Japan and considered to be the first steampunk video game, was inspired by ''Laputa'', helping to propel steampunk into the video game market. This influenced '' Final Fantasy VI'' (1994), a Japanese role-playing game developed by Squaresoft, which had a considerable influence on later steampunk video games.
Sega is a Japanese multinational corporation, multinational video game and entertainment company headquartered in Shinagawa, Tokyo. Its international branches, Sega of America and Sega Europe, are headquartered in Irvine, California and London, r ...
's video game franchise '' Sakura Wars'' (1996) also followed in the wake of ''Laputa''. ''Castle in the Sky'' also inspired a number of other video games, including the '' Mega Man Legends'' series (whose Japanese version, coincidentally, would feature voice acting by Mayumi Tanaka azuand Keiko Yokozawa heetaas Rock/Mega Man Volnutt and Roll Caskett, respectively), '' Zack & Wiki'', and Japanese role-playing games such as the '' Lunar'' series, '' Valkyrie Profile'' (1999), '' Skies of Arcadia'' (2000), '' Steambot Chronicles'' (2005), and '' Dark Cloud 2'' (2002). ''Laputa'' also influenced the first-person shooter '' BioShock Infinite'' (2013), the action-adventure game '' Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild'' (2017), and the airships in the '' Mario'' and ''
Civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society characterized by the development of a state, social stratification Social stratification refers to a society's categorization of its people into groups based on socioeconomic fact ...
'' franchises. It also inspired Mojang to add the Iron Golem mob to Minecraft.


Title

The name "Laputa" comes from Jonathan Swift's '' Gulliver's Travels''. Certain English- and Spanish-language releases have opted to omit the name "Laputa" due to it resembling "la puta" ( "the whore") in Spanish. In 2003, the film's title was shortened to ''Castle in the Sky'' in several countries, including the United States, United Kingdom, Mexico, and Spain. In Spain the castle was named ''Lapuntu'' in the first dub in 2003, although in the second one made in 2010 retains the original name ''Laputa.'' In the Catalan dub in 2012, the meaning of ''Laputa'' was said with the tonic syllable in "La". The film's full title was later restored in Britain, in February 2006, when Optimum Asia – a division of London-based Optimum Releasing (
StudioCanal UK StudioCanal Limited, operating as StudioCanal (formerly Optimum Releasing), is the official branch of StudioCanal in the British Isles. The company releases many films, including foreign, anime is hand-drawn and computer-generated ...
since 2011) – acquired the UK distribution rights to the Studio Ghibli collection from Buena Vista Home Entertainment. Additionally, during the late 1980s and early 1990s, the pre-Disney dub was screened in the UK as an art-house film, under the alternative title ''Laputa: The Flying Island''. It also aired at least twice on British television, but with some scenes cut.


See also

* '' Victory Through Air Power'' (1943) * '' The Fabulous World of Jules Verne'' (1958) * '' Atlantis: The Lost Empire'' (2001) * '' April and the Extraordinary World'' (2015)


Notes


References


External links

* * * * *
''Laputa: Castle in the Sky''
at Nausicaa.net *
天空の城ラピュタ (''Tenkuu no Shiro Laputa'')
at the Japanese Movie Database (Japanese) {{Authority control 1980s children's animated films 1980s children's fantasy films 1986 fantasy films 1986 anime films 1986 films Abandoned buildings and structures in fiction Adventure anime and manga Airships in fiction Animated films about aviation Animated films about friendship Animated films about orphans Anime with original screenplays Dieselpunk films Drama anime and manga Fantasy adventure films Fictional fortifications Films directed by Hayao Miyazaki Films scored by Joe Hisaishi Films set in castles 1980s Japanese-language films Mecha anime and manga Pirate films Pirates in anime and manga Japanese robot films Romance anime and manga Steampunk anime and manga Steampunk films Studio Ghibli animated films