La Mancha (/kæˈstiːjə lɑː ˈmɑːntʃə/;
Spanish: [kasˈtiʎa la ˈmantʃa] ( listen); or
Castile–La Mancha) is a south-western European region that was part
Kingdom of Castile
Kingdom of Castile and one of the seventeen autonomous
communities of modern Spain. It is bordered by Castile and León,
Madrid, Aragon, Valencia, Murcia, Andalusia, and Extremadura. It is
one of the most sparsely populated of Spain's autonomous communities.
Albacete is the largest and most populous city. Its capital city is
Toledo, and its judicial capital city is Albacete.
La Mancha was formerly grouped with the province of Madrid
into New Castile (Castilla la Nueva), but with the advent of the
modern Spanish system of autonomous regions (Estado de las
autonomías), it was separated due to great demographic disparity
between the capital and the remaining New-Castilian provinces. Also,
distinct from the former New Castile, Castilla-
La Mancha added the
province of Albacete, which had been part of Murcia; adding Albacete
placed all of the historic region of
La Mancha within this single
It is mostly in this region where the story of the famous Spanish
Don Quixote by
Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes is situated, due to which La
Mancha is internationally well-known. Although
La Mancha is a
windswept, battered plateau, it remains a symbol of Spanish culture
with its vineyards, sunflowers, mushrooms, olive plantations,
windmills, Manchego cheese, and Don Quixote.
2 Regional divisions
3 Official symbols
3.2 Coat of arms
4 Politics and government
4.1 Cortes of Castilla-La Mancha
4.2 Council of Government
4.3 President of the Junta
6.1 Number of inhabitants
6.2 Population density
6.3 Composition of population by age and sex
6.4 Birth rate, death rate, life expectancy
7.2.1 Long distance
7.2.2 Local trains
8.1 Economic data
8.1.1 Gross domestic product
8.1.2 Work force
8.2 Economic sectors
Agriculture and husbandry
8.4 Industry and construction
8.6 Service sector
11 List of cathedrals in Castilla-La Mancha
12 List of castles in Castilla-La Mancha
13 See also
15 External links
The origins of Castilla-
La Mancha lay in the
Muslim period between the
8th and 14th century. Castilla-
La Mancha was the region of many
historical battles between Christian crusaders and
during the period from 1000 to the 13th century. It was also the
region where the
Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile and
Aragon were unified in 1492
under Queen Isabel and King Ferdinand.
La Mancha is the successor to New Castile (Castilla la
Nueva), which in turn traces back to the
Taifa of Toledo, one
of the taifas of Al Andalus. Alfonso VI conquered the region from the
Muslims, taking Toledo in 1085. The
Reconquista ("Reconquest") took
Cuenca in 1177. Other provinces to the south—the Campo de Calatrava,
the Valle de Alcudia, and the Alfoz de Alcaraz (Campo de
Sierra de Alcaraz)—were consolidated during the reign of Alfonso
VIII (reigned 1158–1214), whose conquests were completed by the
Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212). That victory assured Castilian
domination of the region and hastened the decline of the Almohad
Dynasty. From the time of the Reconquista, Castilla-
La Mancha formed
part of the Kingdom of Castile. Four centuries later, in 1605,
Don Quixote gave the world an indelible picture of La
In 1785, the territorial organization by the reformer Floridablanca
divided the region into the provinces of Cuenca, Guadalajara, Madrid,
La Mancha, and Toledo. Albacete, Chinchilla, Almansa,
Yeste, however, became part of Murcia. In 1833 Javier de Burgos
modified the provincial borders; most of the province of
La Mancha was
transferred to the province of Ciudad Real, with smaller parts
incorporated into the provinces of Cuenca, Toledo and the newly
created province of Albacete. Albacete, in turn, also incorporated
parts of the territories of the old provinces of Cuenca and Murcia.
Albacete was administered as part of the
Region of Murcia
Region of Murcia until the
1978 configuration of autonomous regions. Nonetheless, during the
First Spanish Republic,
Albacete was one of the signatories to the
Pacto Federal Castellano (1869) and in 1924 its deputation favored the
formation of a "Comunidad Manchega" that would have recognized La
Mancha (including Albacete) as a region.
The Autonomous Community of Castilla-
La Mancha dates from November 15,
1978, as one of the many autonomous regions defined by the Spanish
central government. (More precisely, each of these regions was
initially a preautonomía, a "pre-autonomous" region, until
establishing its Statute of Autonomy). The new, hyphenated name
constituted an effort to bridge two distinct regionalisms: that of the
larger Castilla (extending beyond this autonomous region) and that of
the smaller onetime province of La Mancha. The
Statute of Autonomy of
La Mancha was approved August 10, 1982 and took effect
August 17, 1982.
The Old City of Toledo was declared a World Heritage Site for its
extensive cultural and monumental heritage. Toledo is the capital of
La Mancha is divided into 5 provinces named after their
capital cities. The following category includes:
Casas Colgadas in Cuenca, Spain.
According to the official data of the INE, Castilla-
La Mancha consists
of 919 municipalities, which amount to 11.3 percent of all the
municipalities in Spain. 496 of these have less than 500 inhabitants,
231 have between 501 and 2,000 inhabitants, 157 between 2,000 and
10,000 inhabitants, and only 35 have more than 10,000 inhabitants. The
municipalities in the north are small and numerous, while in the south
they are larger and fewer. This reflects different histories of how
these sub-regions were repopulated during the Reconquista.
The 25 most populous municipalities of Castilla-
La Mancha according to
the INE are:
Group of old windmills at
Consuegra in Castilla-La Mancha.
Most populous municipalities of Castilla-La Mancha
Talavera de la Reina
Azuqueca de Henares
Alcázar de San Juan
Campo de Criptana
Statute of Autonomy allows for comarcas of
political/juridical significance, this has never been followed through
at the level of the entire region, and there are no comarcas in
La Mancha with political or juridical functions. Individual
provinces of Castilla-
La Mancha have performed comarcalizations for
administrative, economic and touristic purposes. Many
Castellano-Manchegan comarcas important traditional significance, with
some figuring in history well beyond their respective provinces.
Comarcal division of Castilla-La Mancha.
Molina de Aragón
Molina de Aragón with its walls.
Comarcas of Albacete:
Campos de Hellín
Llanos de Albacete
La Mancha del Júcar-Centro
Monte Ibérico–Corredor de Almansa
Sierra de Alcaraz
Sierra de Alcaraz y Campo de Montiel
Sierra del Segura
Comarcas of Ciudad Real:
Campo de Calatrava
Comarcas of Cuenca:
La Alcarria conquense
La Mancha de Cuenca
Anguita, a village from
La Serranía (Guadalajara).
Monasterio de Uclés, in Uclés.
Comarcas of Guadalajara:
La Alcarria (comarca)
La Campiña (comarca)
Señorío de Molina
Comarcas of Toledo:
La Campana de Oropesa
La Mancha Alta de Toledo
Mesa de Ocaña
Montes de Toledo
Sierra de San Vicente
Talavera (co-extensive with the municipality of Talavera de la Reina).
Toledo (co-extensive with the municipality of Toledo).
The Organic Law 9/1982 (August 10, 1982), which is the Statute of
Autonomy of Castilla-
La Mancha established the flag of Castilla-La
Mancha and the law 1/1983 (June 30, 1983) established the coat of
Seven different designs for a flag were proposed during the era of the
"pre-autonomous" region. The selected design was that of Manchego
heraldist Ramón José Maldonado. This was made official in Article 5
of the Statute of Autonomy:
One. The flag of the region consists of a rectangle divided vertically
into two equal squares: the first, together with the mast, crimson red
with a castle of Or masoned in sable and port and windows of azure;
the second, white.
Two. The flag of the region will fly at regional, provincial, or
municipal public buildings, and will appear next to the Spanish flag,
which will be displayed in the preeminent place; historic territories
[provinces] may also be represented.
Coat of arms
The coat of arms of Castilla-
La Mancha is based on the flag of the
region, and not the other way around, as is more typical in heraldry.
Article 1 of the law 1/1983 describes it as follows:
The coat of arms of the Communities of Castilla-
La Mancha is party per
pale. On the dexter [the statute literally says "On the first
quarter"], on a field gules a castle Or, embattled, port and windows
of azure and masoned sable. On the sinister [the statute literally
says "The second quarter"], a field argent. On the crest, a royal
crown enclosed, which is a circle of Or crimped with precious gems,
composed of eight finials, of Acanthus mollis, five visible, topped by
pearls and whose leaves emerge from diadems, which converge in a globe
of azure or blue, with a semimeridian and the equator Or topped by a
cross Or. The crown lined with gules or red.
Some institutions of the region have adopted this coat of arms as part
of their own emblem, among these the Cortes of Castilla–La Mancha,
the Consultative Council and the University of Castilla-La Mancha.
Although Article 5 of the
Statute of Autonomy indicates that the
region will have its own anthem, after more than 25 years no such
anthem has been adopted. Among the proposed anthems have been the
"Canción del Sembrador" ("Song of the Sower") from the zarzuela La
rosa del azafrán by Jacinto Guerrero, the "Canto a la Mancha" ("Song
of La Mancha") by Tomás Barrera, and many others, such as one
presented by a group of citizens from
Villarrobledo with the title
"Patria sin fin" ("Fatherland without end").
Politics and government
Article 8 of the
Statute of Autonomy states that the powers of the
region are exercised through the Junta of Communities of Castilla-La
Mancha (Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha). Organs of the
Junta are the Cortes of Castilla-La Mancha, the President of the Junta
and the Council of Government.
Cortes of Castilla-La Mancha
Cortes of Castilla-La Mancha
Cortes of Castilla-La Mancha represent the popular will through 33
deputies elected by universal adult suffrage through the secret
ballot. They are elected for a term of four years under a proportional
system intended to guarantee representation to the various territorial
zones of Castilla–La Mancha. The electoral constituency is at the
level of each province, with provinces being assigned the following
number of deputies as of 2009: Albacete, 6; Ciudad Real, 8; Cuenca, 5;
Guadalajara, 5; and Toledo, 9. Article 10 of the Statute of Autonomy
states that elections will be convoked by the President of the Junta
of Communities, following the General Electoral Regime (Régimen
Electoral General), on the fourth Sunday in May every four years. This
stands in contrast to the autonomous communities of the Basque
Country, Catalonia, Galicia,
Andalusia and the Valencian Community
where the president has the power to convoke elections at any time.
Valencian Community that power has never been exercised.
Elections there have, in practice, taken place on a four-year cycle.)
Since the Spanish regional elections of 2015, the Cortes of
La Mancha has consisted of 16 deputies from the conservative
People's Party, 15 from the socialist PSOE and 2 from the left-wing
Podemos. The Cortes sits in the former
Franciscan convent in Toledo,
the Edificio de San Gil ("San Gil building").
Council of Government
The Council of Government is the collegial executive organ of the
region. It directs regional political and administrative action,
exercises an executive function and regulatory powers under the
Spanish Constitution of 1978, the Statute of Autonomy, and the laws of
the nation and region. The Council of Government consists of the
president, vice presidents (if any) and the Councilors.
President of the Junta
The President of the Junta directs the Council of Government and
coordinates the functions of its members. The president is elected by
the Cortes from among its members, then formally named by the monarch
of Spain. The president's official residence is the Palace of
Fuensalida in Toledo.
Presidents of the Junta
Antonio Fernández-Galiano Fernández
Pre-autonomous president until August 16, 1982.
Gonzalo Payo Subiza
Pre-autonomous president. He replaced Fernández-Galiano, but left
politics the same year.
Jesús Fuentes Lázaro
Last pre-autonomous president.
José Bono Martínez
First president of the autonomous region. He retained the post until
2004, winning all elections for the position by absolute majority,
until he resigned his charge to take on the post of defence minister
José María Barreda
José María Barreda Fontes
José Bono when the latter resigned to become minister of
defense. Elected by an absolute majority after the Spanish regional
elections of 2007.
María Dolores de Cospedal
Elected by an absolute majority after the Spanish regional elections
Elected with the support of Podemos after the Spanish regional
elections of 2015
Satellite image of Castilla-La Mancha.
La Mancha is located in the middle of the Iberian peninsula,
occupying the greater part of the Submeseta Sur, the vast plain
composing the southern part of the Meseta Central. The Submeseta Sur
(and the autonomous community) is separated from the Submeseta Norte
(and the community of Castilla y León) by the mountain range known as
the Sistema Central. Despite this, the region has no shortage of
mountain landscapes: the southern slopes of the aforementioned Sistema
Central in the north, the
Sistema Ibérico in the northeast, and the
Sierra Morena and
Montes de Toledo
Montes de Toledo in the south.
La Mancha is the third largest of Spain's autonomous regions,
with a surface area of 79,463 square kilometres
(30,681 sq mi), representing 15.7 percent of Spain's
The Manchegan plain in
Natural land formations in Ciudad Encantada.
The region has two distinct types of terrain. The Meseta is a vast,
uniform plain with little relief. Within that uniformity, the most
outstanding variation in altitude is that of the Montes de Toledo,
with peaks such as
La Villuerca (1,601 meters (5,253 ft)), the
highest peak of the
Montes de Toledo
Montes de Toledo range, and Rocigalgo (1,447
meters (4,747 ft)). At the south of that system are the Montes de
Toledo, which cross the region from west to east, dividing the Tagus
Guadiana drainage basins, forming the southern slope of the
basin of the former and the northern slope of the latter.
In contrast, a more mountainous zone surrounds the Meseta and serves
as the region's natural border. In the north of the
Madrid and Segovia, is a mountain range forming
part of the Sistema Central, among which can be distinguished the
mountain ranges Pela, Ayllón, Somosierra, Barahona and Ministra, with
the headwaters of the rivers Jarama, Cañamares and Henares. The
Sistema Central also penetrates the
Province of Toledo, which
intersects a southerly part of the Sierra de Gredos, known as the
Sierra de San Vicente, delimited on the north by the river Tiétar and
on the south by the
Alberche and the Tagus.
On the northwest is the Sistema Ibérico, where there is important
fluvial and especially karstic activity, which has given rise to such
landscapes as the Ciudad Encantada, the Callejones de Las Majadas and
the Hoces del Cabriel.
In the southeast is the ridge of the Sierra Morena, the southern
border of the
Meseta Central and the region's border with Andalusia.
Within the Sierra Morena, distinction can be made between the Sierra
Madrona, Sierra de Alcudia and Sierra de San Andrés. At the other
southern extreme of Castilla–La Mancha, the
Sierra de Alcaraz
Sierra de Alcaraz and
Sierra del Segura
Sierra del Segura form part of the Sistema Bético.
See also: Tagus, Guadiana, Guadalquivir, Júcar, and Segura
Júcar passing through Cuenca.
The territory of Castilla-
La Mancha is divided into five principal
watersheds. The Tagus, Guadiana, and
Guadalquivir drain into the
Atlantic Ocean and the
Segura into the Mediterranean. The
Tagus provides water for some 587,000 inhabitants in a watershed of
26,699 square kilometres (10,309 sq mi). It includes the
entire province of Guadalajara and the greater part of the province of
Toledo, including the two largest cities of the latter province: the
capital, Toledo, and the slightly larger city of Talavera de la Reina.
Guadiana watershed extends 26,646 square kilometres
(10,288 sq mi) in Castilla-La Mancha, 37 percent of that
river's entire watershed, with a population of 583,259
inhabitants. It includes the southern part of the province of
Toledo, nearly all of the province of
Ciudad Real (except the very
south), the southwest of the province of Cuenca and the northwest of
the province of Albacete. The
Guadalquivir watershed extends over 5.17
percent of the surface area of the autonomous community, extending
4,100 square kilometres (1,600 sq mi) through the southern
parts of the provinces of
Ciudad Real and Albacete, including such
important population center as Puertollano.
Júcar watershed had, in 2006, 397,000 inhabitants in an area of
15,737 square kilometres (6,076 sq mi), 19.86 percent of the
Castillian-Manchegan territory and 36.61 percent of total of the
Júcar watershed. It includes the eastern parts of the provinces
of Cuenca and Albacete, including their respective capitals. Finally,
the 34 municipalities of southeastern
Albacete fall in the Segura
watershed, with an extent of 4,713 square kilometres
(1,820 sq mi).
Climates of Castilla-La Mancha.
La Mancha has a continentalized Mediterranean climate: a
Mediterranean climate with a marked character of a continental
climate. The continentalized
Mediterranean climate is similar to a
typical Mediterranean climate, but with more extreme temperatures
typical of a continental climate. Lack of a marine influence leads to
much more extreme temperatures: hotter summers and quite cold winters,
with a daily oscillation of 18.5 °C (33.3 °F). Summer is
the driest season, with temperatures often exceeding 30 °C
(86 °F), sometimes reaching and exceeding 35 °C
(95 °F). In winter, temperatures often drop below 0 °C
(32 °F), producing frosts on clear nights, and occasional snow
on cloudy nights.
La Mancha is part of what has traditionally been called
España Seca ("Dry Spain"). It receives relatively little
precipitation, much as in a typical Mediterranean climate.
Precipitation presents a notable gradient from the center of the
region, where it does not surpass 400 millimetres (16 in) per
year, to the mountains where it can exceed 1,000 millimetres
(39 in) per year, on the slopes of the
Sierra de Gredos
Sierra de Gredos and the
Serranía de Cuenca, as the rain in
Spain does not fall mainly in the
plains. The greater part of the region has less than 600 millimetres
(24 in) of rain annually. The driest part of the region is along
Hellín axis, with less than 300 millimetres (12 in)
Municipal population density in Castilla-
La Mancha (2008):
0 - 9.99 inhabitants/km²
10 - 19.99 inhabitants/km²
20 - 29.99 inhabitants/km²
30 - 39.99 inhabitants/km²
40 - 49.99 inhabitants/km²
50 - 59.99 inhabitants/km²
60 - 69.99 inhabitants/km²
70 - 79.99 inhabitants/km²
80 - 89.99 inhabitants/km²
90 - 99.99 inhabitants/km²
Over 100 inhabitants/km²
Percentage of the population of Castilla-
La Mancha by province (2007)
Number of inhabitants
According to the official January 11, 2008, data of the INE
La Mancha has 2,043,100 inhabitants in its five provinces.
Despite being the third largest of Spains communities by surface area
Castilla y León
Castilla y León and Andalusia), it is only the ninth most
La Mancha has just 4.42 percent of Spain's
Composition of the population of Castilla-
La Mancha by age and sex.
With an average population density of 25.71 per square kilometre
(66.6/sq mi), Castilla-
La Mancha has the least dense population
in all of Spain: the national average is 88.6 per square kilometre
(229/sq mi). Industrialized zones such as the
(along the river Henares, a tributary of the Jarama) with a density of
126 per square kilometre (330/sq mi), the comarca of la Sagra
or the industrial zone of
Sonseca are dramatically more dense than the
region as a whole.
Composition of population by age and sex
The population pyramid of Castilla-
La Mancha is typical for a
developed region, with the central zone wider than the base or the
upper zone. The population between 16 and 44 years of age represents
about 44 percent, from 45 to 64 about 21.3 percent, with those 15 and
under constituting 15 percent and those over 65, 18 percent. These
data show the progressive aging of the castellano-manchego population.
The region has about 9,000 more males than females; in percentage
terms, 50.25 percent versus 49.75 percent. This is opposite to Spain
as a whole, where women constitute 50.57 percent of the population.
Birth rate, death rate, life expectancy
According to 2006 INE numbers, the birth rate in Castilla-
La Mancha is
10.21 per thousand inhabitants, lower than the national average of
10.92 per thousand. The death rate is 8.83 per thousand inhabitants,
higher than the national average of 8.42 per thousand.
Life expectancy at birth is one of the highest in Spain: 83.67 years
for women and 77.99 years for men.
La Mancha population 1900–2000 (in thousands)
Smallest unit: 20,000 people.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadística de España
Graphic elaborated by:
La Mancha has the most kilometers of autopistas (a type of
limited access highway) and autovías dual carriageways, with a total
of 2,790 kilometres (1,730 mi). The most heavily trafficked
of these are the radial routes surrounding
Madrid and the routes in
and out of the city, but there are also routes within Castilla-La
Mancha, and national and international routes that pass through the
province, including highways in the International E-road network.
The regional government put into action a Plan Regional de Autovías
with the objective that all municipalities with 10,000 or more
inhabitants would be connected to an autovía. If it is completed, 96
percent of the region's population will live within 15 minutes of a
high-capacity road. Among the developed projects of this plan are:
Autovía de los Viñedos, 127 kilometres (79 mi) connecting
Tomelloso (completely in service).
Autovía de la Sagra, 85 kilometres (53 mi) connecting the
Autovía A-5 with the
Autovía A-4 (Tranches I and II under way,
duplication of highway CM-4001 in the tendering of works phase).
Autovía del IV Centenario, 142 kilometres (88 mi) departs Ciudad
Real to meet with the future Autovía Linares-
Albacete (A-32), passing
Valdepeñas (first phase partially under way, second currently
Autovía del Júcar, 130 kilometres (81 mi), will connect
Albacete to Cuenca (in project).
Autovía de la Alcarria: although initially contemplated in the Plan
Regional de Autovías, the Ministry of Development has taken over the
work. It will connect the
Autovía del Este
Autovía del Este (Autovía A-4) with the
Autovía del Nordeste
Autovía del Nordeste (Autovía A-2) (currently being studied).
The red autonómica—the road network of the autonomous
community—currently extends 7,900 kilometres (4,900 mi), of
which 1,836 kilometres (1,141 mi) correspond to the basic
network, 5,314 kilometres (3,302 mi) to the comarcal networks and
750 kilometres (470 mi) to local networks.
Autovías and autopistas in service
Important cities in Castilla-
La Mancha on route
Autovía del Nordeste
Madrid - Barcelona
Azuqueca de Henares, Guadalajara, Alcolea del Pinar
Autovía del Este
Madrid - Valencia
Tarancón, La Almarcha, Honrubia, Motilla del Palancar, Minglanilla
Autovía del Sur
Madrid - Cádiz
Ocaña, Madridejos, Manzanares, Valdepeñas
Autovía del Suroeste
Madrid - Badajoz
Talavera de la Reina, Oropesa
Autopista Radial R-2
Madrid - Guadalajara
Autopista Radial R-4
Madrid - Ocaña
Autovía de Murcia
Albacete - Cartagena
Autovía de Alicante
Atalaya del Cañavate - Alicante
Atalaya del Cañavate, Sisante, La Roda, Albacete, Almansa
Almansa - Játiva
Autopista Ocaña-La Roda
Ocaña - La Roda
Ocaña, Corral de Almaguer, Quintanar de la Orden, Mota del Cuervo,
Las Pedroñeras, San Clemente, La Roda
Ciudad Real - Puertollano
Ciudad Real - Puertollano
Argamasilla de Calatrava
Madrid - Toledo
Autovía de Toledo
Madrid - Toledo
Autovía de los Viñedos
Toledo - Tomelloso
Toledo, Mora, Consuegra, Madridejos, Alcázar de San Juan, Tomelloso
Autovías in autopistas projected or under construction
Important cities in Castilla-
La Mancha on route
Linares - Albacete
Autovía de Castilla-La Mancha
Ávila - Cuenca
Torrijos, Toledo, Ocaña, Tarancón, Cuenca
Autovía Extremadura-Comunidad Valenciana
Mérida - Atalaya del Cañavate
Ciudad Real, Almadén, Daimiel, Manzanares, Argamasilla de Alba,
Tomelloso, San Clemente, Villarrobledo
Autovía de la Alcarria
Guadalajara - Tarancón
Guadalajara, Mondéjar, Tarancón
Autovía de la Sagra
A-5 - A-4
Valmojado, Illescas, Borox, Añover de Tajo
Autovía de la Solana
Manzanares - La Solana
Manzanares, La Solana
Autovía del IV Centenario
Ciudad Real - Valdepeñas
Ciudad Real, Almagro, Valdepeñas
Autovía del Júcar
Albacete - Cuenca
Cuenca, Motilla del Palancar, Villanueva de la Jara, Quintanar del
Rey, Tarazona de la Mancha, Madrigueras, Albacete
Daimiel - Tarancón
Daimiel, Villarrubia de los Ojos, Alcázar de San Juan, Quintanar de
la Orden, Villamayor de Santiago, Horcajo de Santiago, Tarancón
Ronda Suroeste de Toledo
CM-42 - A-40
Burguillos de Toledo, Cobisa, Argés, Bargas
Ronda Este de Toledo
CM-42 - A-40
RENFE, Spain's state-owned national passenger railway network has
numerous lines and stations throughout Castilla-La Mancha.
Numerous long distance rail lines (líneas de largo recorrido) pass
through Castilla-La Mancha, most of them radiating out of Madrid. Some
of these are high-velocity trains (Alta Velocidad Española AVE):
Normal Largo Recorrido trains
Alcázar de San Juan
Alcázar de San Juan - Ciudad Real
Ciudad Real - Jaén
Ciudad Real - Badajoz
Madrid - Cuenca - Valencia
Madrid - Guadalajara - Soria
Madrid - Guadalajara - Arcos de Jalón
Talavera de la Reina
Talavera de la Reina - Badajoz
Ciudad Real -
Puertollano - Córdoba - Seville).
Madrid - Toledo
Madrid - Guadalajara -
Zaragoza - Barcelona.
Madrid - Cuenca -
Valencia (in project).
Madrid - Toledo (La Sagra) -
Talavera de la Reina
Talavera de la Reina - Navalmoral de la
Mata - Plasencia - Fuentidueñas - Cáceres - Mérida -
Lisbon (in project).
Two local commuter rail lines out of
Madrid (Cercanías Madrid) pass
through Castilla-La Mancha. The C-2 line stops in Azuqueca de Henares
in the province of Guadalajara and in the city of Guadalajara itself.
The C-3 to
Aranjuez used to stop at Seseña, but service to that
station was discontinued in April 2007.
As of 2009, Castilla-
La Mancha had two airports.
Albacete Airport is 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) south of Albacete,
connected by the CM-3203 highway. It has been a civilian airport since
July 1, 2003, sharing facilities with the military airbase of Los
Ciudad Real Central Airport is located between Ciudad Real
Puertollano and is Spain's largest private airport. Located
adjacent to the A-43 highway (Autovía Extremadura-Comunidad
Valenciana) and a short distance from the AP-41 toll highway (Autovía
Ciudad Real - Puertollano)
Residents of some
Madrid exurbs have easy access to
Barajas Airport in
northeast Madrid, as well.
The economy of Castilla-
La Mancha continues to be dominated by
agriculture and the raising of livestock, but industry is continually
more present, including the processing of agricultural goods. In
recent years, tourism has been increasingly important, with the growth
of agritourism in the form of casas rurales, and the establishment of
the Ruta de Don Quijote, a campaign of tourism to the locations
mentioned in Cervantes novel.
Gross domestic product
Annual national and regional
GDP growth, 2000–06
Distribution of employment by sectors, 2006
La Mancha generates a
GDP of €33,077,484,000, 3.4 percent
of the Spanish GDP, placing it ninth among the 19 Spanish autonomous
GDP has been roughly 3.4 percent of the national GDP
since at least 2000. A per capita
GDP of €17,339 places Castilla-La
Mancha 17th among the 19 communities, with only
Extremadura having lower per capita GDP; the national average is
€22,152. Nonetheless, in the early to mid-1990s,
Sonseca in the
province of Toledo several times had the highest per capita income in
In 2005 the Manchego
GDP broke down by productive sectors as
According to the statistics of the INE's Encuesta de Población Activa
for the first trimester of 2007, the active work force of Castilla-La
Mancha numbered 896,513 persons, of whom 827,113 were employed and
69,900 unemployed, giving a workforce density of 55.5 percent of the
population and an unemployment rate of 7.68 percent.
As noted above, for statistical purposes the economy of Castilla-La
Mancha is divided into agriculture (including livestock husbandry),
industry (including agro-industry), energy, construction, and services
Agriculture and husbandry
Vineyard in Ciudad Real.
Sheep grazing on the meseta.
Agriculture and husbandry, still the foundation of the local economy,
constitutes 11.64 percent of regional GDP, and employs 9.9 percent of
the active workforce.
Fifty-two percent of the soil of Castilla-
La Mancha is considered
"dry". Agricultural activities have historically been based on the
cultivation of wheat (37 percent), grapes (17.2 percent) and olives
(6.6 percent). Castilla-
La Mancha has some of the most extensive
vineyards in Europe, nearly 700,000 hectares (1,700,000 acres). The
vineyards are predominantly, but by no means exclusively, in the west
and southwest of La Mancha. In 2005 the region produced 3,074,462
metric tons (3,389,014 short tons) of grapes, constituting 53.40
percent of Spain's national production. After grapes, the next most
important agricultural product is barley, 2,272,007 metric tons
(2,504,459 short tons), 25 percent of the national total.
In terms of agricultural productivity and income, since Spain's
incorporation into the
European Union (EU) the primary sector of the
regional economy has evolved dynamically. Among the reasons for this
are growth rates higher than the national average, as well as
increased capitalization fostering specialization and modernization,
including the integration an externalization of the sector, whereby
activities previously performed on the farm are now performed
elsewhere. These changes have been fostered by the regional
articulation of the EU's Common Agricultural Policy. Since 1986,
subsidies have played a significant role in this sector.
Animal husbandry plays a lesser, but not negiglible, role in the
regional economy. 2005 statistics show 3,430,501 head of sheep,
1,602,576 pigs, 405,778 goats and 309,672 cattle; these last produce
224,692,000 liters (59,357,000 U.S. gal) of milk each year.
Apiculture (bee-keeping) is also important, with 180,000 hives.
Industry and construction
Partial view of the petrochemical complex at Puertollano.
La Mancha has had little industrial
production, due to several factors among which are low population
density and a shortage of qualified workers. However, since Spain's
incorporation into the EU, there has been much progress. Industry has
been growing as a sector of the Manchego economy at a faster pace than
nationally. July 2006 figures show the region as third among the
autonomous communities in the rate of growth of the industrial sector.
GDP grew 2.8 percent in 2000-2005, compared to 1
percent nationally for the same period.
The greatest obstacles to industrial growth in the region have
Lack of a dense business fabric.
Undersized industrial enterprises.
Little specialization of labor.
Little investment in R & D.
Poor infrastructure with respect to services to enterprises.
Little export orientation.
Inadequate marketing channels and distribution for regional products.
The principal industrial areas within the region are
Sonseca and its
Henares Corridor, Puertollano, Talavera de la Reina, La
Sagra y Almansa, as well as all of the provincial capitals.
Spain in recent decades, the construction sector is one
of the strongest. It employs 15.6 percent of the work force and
produces 10.06 percent of regional GDP. It is one of the
fastest-growing sectors of the economy: growth in 2006 was 13.6
percent. Most of the construction sector, is housing, including a new
city of 30,000 inhabitants, Ciudad Valdeluz in Yebes, Guadalajara;
13,000 dwellings in Seseña, Toledo and the Reino de Don Quijote
complex in the province of Ciudad Real, with 9,000 dwellings and 4,000
Although wind energy and solar energy have been playing increasingly
important roles in Castilla–La Mancha, the majority of the energy
generated in the region comes from the region's large thermal power
Thermal power stations in Castilla–La Mancha
Elcogas Thermal Power Station
Puertollano Thermal Power Station
Aceca Thermal Power Station
Villaseca de la Sagra
Iberdrola and Unión Fenosa
La Mancha is also the home of the Trillo Nuclear Power Plant
near Trillo, Guadalajara.
As of 2009, thermosolar plants are under development in Puertollano
(being built by
Iberdrola Renovables, as well as two more in Cinco
Casas, province of
Ciudad Real (called Manchasol, being built by Grupo
Interior of the Pasaje de Gabriel Lodares in Albacete.
The majority of the Manchego workforce—55.5 percent—is employed in
the service sector, generating 49.78 percent of regional GDP,
according to Economic and Social Council of Castilla-La Mancha
(Consejo Económico y Social de Castilla-La Mancha, CES) data for
2006. Although a large sector of the Manchego economy, it is small by
national standards: 67.2 percent of employment in
Spain is in the
service sector. Counted in the service sector are commerce,
tourism, hospitality, finance, public administration, and
administration of other services related to culture and leisure.
In the area of tourism, there has been a great deal of growth, with
La Mancha becoming in recent decades one of the principal
tourist destinations in the Spanish interior. During 2006 the region
had more than 2 million tourists (3 percent more than the previous
year) for a total of 3,500,000 overnight hotel stays. Rural tourism
increased 14 percent in overnight stays in a single year. From 2000 to
2005 the number of hotel beds increased 26.4 percent to 17,245 beds in
254 hotels. In the same period, the number of casas rurales (for farm
stays) increased 148 percent to 837 and the number of beds in such
facilities 175 percent to 5,751.
The Servicio de Salud de Castilla-
La Mancha (SESCAM, "Health Service
of Castilla–La Mancha"), part of the Consejería de Salud y
Bienestar Social ("Council of Health and Social Welfare") is the
entity in charge of health in Castilla–La Mancha. It is an integral
part of Spain's National Health System, based on universal coverage,
equal access, and public financing.
The Junta of Castilla-
La Mancha assumed responsibility for education
in the autonomous community as of January 1, 2000, directly managing
over 1,000 schools, with 22,000 teachers and 318,000 students. In
the 2006–2007 school year, the region had 324,904 students below the
university level, of whom 17.7 percent were in private schools. In
that same year, the region had 1,037 schools and 30,172
schoolteachers; 15.21 percent of the schools were private.
The decentralized University of Castilla-
La Mancha was formally
established in 1982 and has operated since 1985. There are four main
campuses, one each at Albacete, Ciudad Real, Cuenca and Toledo, with
classes also offered in Almadén,
Talavera de la Reina
Talavera de la Reina and
Puertollano. The university offers 54 degree programs (titulaciones).
The province of Guadalajara stands outside the regional university,
with its own
University of Alcalá
University of Alcalá offering degrees in education,
business, tourism, technical architecture, and nursing. The National
University of Distance Education also offers services in the region
through five affiliated centers, one in each province:
an extension in Almansa), Valdepeñas, Cuenca, Guadalajara, and
Talavera de la Reina. Finally, the Menéndez Pelayo International
University has a location in Cuenca.
In the 2005–06 school year, the region had 30,632 students enrolled
at universities, down 1.01 percent from the previous year.
Historically, the region has had other universities, but these no
longer exist. The present University of Castilla-
La Mancha uses one of
the buildings of the Royal University of Toledo (1485–1807). Other
former universities in the region were the Royal and Pontifical
University of Our Lady of Rosario in Almagro (1550–1807) and the
University of San Antonio de Porta Coeli in
Sigüenza founded in the
15th century by Cardinal
Pedro González de Mendoza
Pedro González de Mendoza and, like the
others, closed in the Napoleonic era.
List of cathedrals in Castilla-La Mancha
Ciudad Real Cathedral
List of castles in Castilla-La Mancha
La Mancha is one of the regions of
Spain with the highest
number of castles. This is the Castle of Almansa.
These are some castles of Castilla-La Mancha:
Alcázar of Toledo
Alcázar of Molina de Aragón
Alcazaba de Zorita
Castle of Alarcón
Castle of Almansa
Castle of Argamasilla de Alba
Castle of Atienza
Castle of Barcience
Calatrava la Vieja
Calatrava la Nueva
Castle of Chinchilla
Castle of Consuegra
Castillo de Garcimuñoz
Castle of Guadamur
Castle of Jadraque
Castle of Maqueda
Castle of Montiel
Castle of Orgaz
Castle of Pioz
Castle of Sigüenza
Castle of Socovos
Castle of Torija
Castle of Uclés
Castle of Zafra
List of Presidents of the Cortes of Castilla-La Mancha
Castile (historical region)
Crown of Castile
^ 4 from province of Albacete, 5 from Ciudad Real, 3 from Cuenca, 3
from Guadalajara and 6 from Toledo.
^ 20 are directly elected by the people, each province forms a
constituency and is granted 4 senators, and 2 regional
^ The statute is L.O. [ley orgánica, "organic law"] 9/1982
^ "Comarcas de Albacete. Diputación Provincial de Albacete".
^ "Comarcas de Ciudad Real. Diputación Provincial de Ciudad Real".
Retrieved 2008-10-26. [dead link]
^ "Municipios de Cuenca. Diputación Provincial de Cuenca". Archived
from the original on 2008-03-27. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
^ "Comarcas de Guadalajara. Diputación Provincial de Guadalajara".
Archived from the original on 2008-04-19. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
^ "Diputación provincial de Toledo". Retrieved 2007-06-26.
^ "La bandera". Retrieved 17 November 2009. Estatuto de Autonomía de
Castilla-La Mancha, Artículo quinto.
Uno. La bandera de la región se compone de un rectángulo dividido
verticalmente en dos cuadrados iguales: el primero, junto al mástil,
de color rojo carmesí con un castillo de oro mazonado de sable y
aclarado de azur y el segundo, blanco.
Dos. La bandera de la región ondeará en los edificios públicos de
titularidad regional, provincial o municipal, y figurará al lado de
la bandera de España, que ostentará lugar preeminente; también
podrá figurar la representativa de los territorios históricos.
^ "El Escudo de Castilla-La Mancha". Archived from the original on 20
July 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2009. Article 1 of the law 1/1983:
El escudo de la Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-
La Mancha es partido.
En el primer cuartel, en campo de gules un castillo de oro almenado,
aclarado de azur y mazonado de sable. El segundo cuartel, campo de
argento plata. Al timbre, corona real cerrada, que es un círculo de
oro engastado de piedras preciosas, compuesto de ocho florones, de
hojas de acanto, visibles cinco, interpolado de perlas y de cuyas
hojas salen sendas diademas sumadas de perlas, que convergen en un
mundo de azur o azul, con el semimeridiano y el ecuador de oro sumado
de cruz de oro. La corona forrada de gules o rojo.
^ "Himno de Castilla-La Mancha". Retrieved 2008-05-12.
^ "Distribución territorial y de la población por CC.AA. de la
Cuenca Hidrográfica del Tajo". Archived from the original on
2008-05-12. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
^ "La gestión del agua en Castilla-La Mancha" (PDF). Retrieved
2008-05-12. [permanent dead link]
^ "Distribución Territorial de la Cuenca Hidrográfica del
Guadalquivir". Archived from the original on 2008-04-14. Retrieved
^ "¿Quién debe gestionar los ríos?". Retrieved 2008-05-12.
^ "Confederación Hidrográfica del Júcar". Retrieved
^ "Distribución Territorial de la Cuenca Hidrográfica del Segura".
Archived from the original on 2007-01-07. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
^ "Alcaldes del corredor del
Henares conocerán el jueves el texto
inicial del plan de ordenación". Archived from the original on
2008-03-09. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
^ "Castilla-La Mancha, la Comunidad Autónoma con más kilómetros de
autovías de España". Archived from the original on 2008-02-29.
^ "Plan Regional de Autovías". Archived from the original on
2008-05-07. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
^ "Renfe Media Distancia en Castilla-La Mancha". Retrieved
^ "Consejo Económico y Social de Castilla-
La Mancha (Producción y
sectores productivos)" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-05-12.
^ "Pacto por el Desarrollo y la Competitividad en Castilla-La Mancha"
(PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-28. Retrieved
^ CSIC: Las escorias de la central térmica GICC ELCOGAS como materia
^ JCCM: Visita a la central térmica de ciclo combinado de Aceca
^ "El sector servicios. Panorámica de su estructura y
características" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-05-12.
^ "Plan de Ordenación y Promoción del Turismo en Castilla-La
Mancha". Archived from the original on 2008-04-16. Retrieved
^ "La educación en Castilla-La Mancha". Archived from the original on
2008-02-28. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
^ "Instituto de Estadística de CLM. Total matriculados por provincia
y enseñanza. Curso 2006-2007". 2008-05-12.
^ a b "Instituto de Estadística de CLM. Clasificación de los centros
por tipo, provincia y enseñanza que imparten". Retrieved
^ "Instituto de Estadística de CLM. Profesorado por provincia y tipo
de centro". Retrieved 2008-05-12.
^ "Instituto de Estadística de CLM. Alumnado matriculado en
educación universitaria por CC.AA. y tipo de estudio". Retrieved
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Estatuto de Autonomía de Castilla-
La Mancha de 1982
Official Web Site of Castile-La Mancha
Government of Castile-La Mancha
Statistics Institute of Castile-La Mancha
University of Castilla-La Mancha
Diario de la Mancha
Regional Meteorological Institute of Castile-La Mancha
Innovation in Castile-
La Mancha Web Site
La Mancha on About-Spain.net
Surface area of municipalities in Castile-La Mancha
Provinces of Castilla–La Mancha
Autonomous communities of Spain
Castile and León
Community of Madrid
Plazas de soberanía