The Info List - Caste System

--- Advertisement ---

is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, and customary social interaction and exclusion.[1][2] Although caste systems exist in various regions, its paradigmatic ethnographic example is the division of Indian society into rigid social groups, with roots in India's ancient history and persisting until today.[3] However, the economic significance of the caste system in India has been declining as a result of urbanization and affirmative action programs. A subject of much scholarship by sociologists and anthropologists, the Indian caste system is sometimes used as an analogical basis for the study of caste-like social divisions existing outside India. In biology, the term is applied to role stratification in eusocial animals like ants and termites, though the analogy is imperfect as these also involve extremely stratified reproduction.[4]


1 Etymology 2 In South Asia

2.1 India 2.2 Nepal 2.3 Pakistan 2.4 Sri Lanka

3 Southeast Asia

3.1 Indonesia

4 East Asia

4.1 China
and Mongolia 4.2 Japan 4.3 Korea

4.3.1 North Korea

4.4 Tibet

5 Middle East

5.1 Ancient Egypt 5.2 Iran 5.3 Yemen

6 Africa

6.1 West Africa 6.2 Central Africa 6.3 Horn of Africa

7 Europe

7.1 Basque country 7.2 United Kingdom

8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 Further reading 12 External links

Etymology[edit] The origins of the term 'caste' are attributed to the Spanish and Portuguese casta, which, according to the John Minsheu's Spanish dictionary (1599), means "race, lineage, or breed".[5] When the Spanish colonized the New World, they used the word to mean a "clan or lineage". However, it was the Portuguese who employed casta in the primary modern sense when they applied it to the thousands of endogamous, hereditary Indian social groups they encountered upon their arrival in India in 1498.[5][6] The use of the spelling "caste", with this latter meaning, is first attested to in English in 1613.[5] In South Asia[edit] India[edit] Main article: Caste
system in India

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Castes in India.

Modern India's caste system is based on the social groupings called jāti and the theoretical varna. The system of varnas appears in Hindu texts dating back to 1000 BCE and envisages the society divided into four classes: Brahmins
(teachers, scholars and priests), Kashatriyas (warriors and nobles), Vaishyas
(farmers, traders and artisans) and Shudras
(labourers/service providers). The texts do not mention any separate, untouchable category in varna classification. Scholars believe that the system of varnas was a theoretical classification envisioned by the Brahmins, but never truly operational in the society. The practical division of the society had always been in terms of jātis (birth groups), which are not based on any specific principle, but could vary from ethnic origins to occupations. The jātis have been endogamous groups without any fixed hierarchy but subject to vague notions of rank articulated over time based on lifestyle and social, political or economic status. In many instances, as in Bengal, historically the kings and rulers had been called upon, when required, to mediate on the ranks of jātis, which might number in thousands all over the subcontinent and vary by region. In practice, the jātis may or may not fit into the varna classes and many prominent jatis, for example the Jats and Yadavs, straddled two varnas i.e. Kshatriyas and Vaishyas, and the varna status of jātis itself was subject to articulation over time. Starting with the British colonial Census of 1901 led by Herbert Hope Risley, all the jātis were grouped under the theoretical varnas categories.[7] According to political scientist Lloyd Rudolph, Risley believed that varna, however ancient, could be applied to all the modern castes found in India, and "[he] meant to identify and place several hundred million Indians within it."[8] The terms varna (conceptual classification based on occupation) and jāti (groups) are two distinct concepts: while varna is the idealised four-part division envisaged by the Twice-Borns, jāti (community) refers to the thousands of actual endogamous groups prevalent across the subcontinent. The classical authors scarcely speak of anything other than the varnas, as it provided a convenient shorthand; but a problem arises when even Indologists sometimes confuse the two.[9] Upon independence from Britain, the Indian Constitution listed 1,108 castes across the country as Scheduled Castes
Scheduled Castes
in 1950, for positive discrimination.[10] The Untouchable communities are sometimes called Scheduled Castes, Dalit
or Harijan
in contemporary literature.[11] In 2001, Dalits were 16.2% of India's population.[12] Most of the 15 million bonded child workers are from the lowest castes.[13][14] Independent India has witnessed caste-related violence. India's National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) records crimes against scheduled castes and scheduled tribes – the most disadvantaged groups - in a separate category. In 2005, government recorded approximately 110,000 cases of reported violent acts, including rape and murder, against Dalits [15] For 2012, the government recorded 651 murders, 3,855 injuries, 1,576 rapes, 490 kidnappings, and 214 cases of arson.[16] The socio-economic limitations of the caste system are reduced due to urbanization and affirmative action. Nevertheless, the caste system still exists in endogamy and patrimony, and thrives in the politics of democracy, where caste provides ready made constituencies to politicians. The globalization and economic opportunities from foreign businesses has influenced the growth of India's middle-class population. Some members of the Chhattisgarh Potter Caste
Community (CPCC) are middle-class urban professionals and no longer potters unlike the remaining majority of traditional rural potter members. The co-existence of the middle-class and traditional members in the CPCC has created intersectionality between caste and class.[17] There is persistence of caste in Indian politics. Caste
associations have evolved into caste-based political parties. Political parties and the state perceive caste as an important factor for mobilization of people and policy development. It is not politics that gets caste-ridden; it is caste that gets politicized.[18]

A page from the manuscript Seventy-two Specimens of Castes in India, which consists of 72 full-color hand-painted images of men and women of various religions, occupations and ethnic groups found in Madura, India in 1837, which confirms the popular perception and nature of caste as Jati, before the British made it applicable only to Hindus grouped under the varna categories from the 1901 census onwards.

Nepal[edit] Main article: Caste
system in Nepal The Nepalese caste system resembles that of the Indian jāti system with numerous jāti divisions with a varna system superimposed for a rough equivalence. But since the culture and the society is different some of the things are different. Inscriptions attest the beginnings of a caste system during the Licchavi period. Jayasthiti Malla (1382–95) categorized Newars into 64 castes (Gellner 2001). A similar exercise was made during the reign of Mahindra Malla (1506–75). The Hindu social code was later set up in Gorkha by Ram Shah (1603–36). Pakistan[edit] Main article: Caste
system among South Asian Muslims Religious, historical and sociocultural factors have helped define the bounds of endogamy for Muslims in some parts of Pakistan. There is a preference for endogamous marriages based on the clan-oriented nature of the society, which values and actively seeks similarities in social group identity based on several factors, including religious, sectarian, ethnic, and tribal/clan affiliation. Religious affiliation is itself multilayered and includes religious considerations other than being Muslim, such as sectarian identity (e.g. Shia or Sunni, etc.) and religious orientation within the sect (Isnashari, Ismaili, Ahmedi, etc.).[citation needed] Both ethnic affiliation (e.g. Pathan, Sindhi, Baloch, Punjabi, etc.) and membership of specific biraderis or zaat/quoms are additional integral components of social identity.[19] Within the bounds of endogamy defined by the above parameters, close consanguineous unions are preferred due to a congruence of key features of group- and individual-level background factors as well as affinities. McKim Marriott claims a social stratification that is hierarchical, closed, endogamous and hereditary is widely prevalent, particularly in western parts of Pakistan. Frederik Barth in his review of this system of social stratification in Pakistan
suggested that these are castes.[20][21][22] Sri Lanka[edit] Main article: Caste
system in Sri Lanka The caste system in Sri Lanka is a division of society into strata,[23] influenced by the textbook varnas and jāti system found in India. Ancient Sri Lankan texts such as the Pujavaliya, Sadharmaratnavaliya and Yogaratnakaraya and inscriptional evidence show that the above hierarchy prevailed throughout the feudal period. The repetition of the same caste hierarchy even as recently as the 18th century, in the British/Kandyan period Kadayimpoth - Boundary books as well, indicates the continuation of the tradition right up to the end of Sri Lanka's monarchy. Southeast Asia[edit]

A Sudra caste man from Bali. Photo from 1870, courtesy of Tropenmuseum, Netherlands.

Indonesia[edit] Main article: Balinese caste system Balinese caste structure has been described in early 20th-century European literature to be based on three categories – triwangsa (thrice born) or the nobility, dwijāti (twice born) in contrast to ekajāti (once born) the low folks. Four statuses were identified in these sociological studies, spelled a bit differently from the caste categories for India:[24]

Brahmanas - priest Satrias - knighthood Wesias - commerce Sudras - servitude

The Brahmana caste was further subdivided by these Dutch ethnographers into two: Siwa and Buda. The Siwa caste was subdivided into five – Kemenuh, Keniten, Mas, Manuba and Petapan. This classification was to accommodate the observed marriage between higher-caste Brahmana men with lower-caste women. The other castes were similarly further sub-classified by these 19th-century and early-20th-century ethnographers based on numerous criteria ranging from profession, endogamy or exogamy or polygamy, and a host of other factors in a manner similar to castas in Spanish colonies such as Mexico, and caste system studies in British colonies such as India.[24] East Asia[edit] China
and Mongolia[edit] During the period of Yuan Dynasty, ruler Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
enforced a Four Class System, which was a legal caste system. The order of four classes of people was maintained by the information of the descending order were:-

Mongolian Semu
people Han people (in the northern areas of China) Southerners (people of the former Southern Song dynasty)

Some scholars notes that it was a kind of psychological indication that the earlier they submitted to Mongolian people, the higher social status they would have. The 'Four Class System' and its people received different treatment in political, legal, and military affairs.[25][26] Today, the Hukou system
Hukou system
is considered by various sources as the current caste system of China.[27][28][29] There is also significant controversy over the social classes of Tibet, especially with regards to the serfdom in Tibet controversy. Japan[edit] Main article: Edo society

Japanese samurai of importance and servant.

In Japan's history, social strata based on inherited position rather than personal merit, was rigid and highly formalized in a system called mibunsei (身分制). At the top were the Emperor and Court nobles (kuge), together with the Shogun and daimyo. Below them, the population was divided into four classes: samurai, peasants, craftsmen and merchants. Only samurai were allowed to bear arms. A samurai had a right to kill any peasants, craftsman or merchant who he felt were disrespectful. Merchants were the lowest caste because they did not produce any products. The castes were further sub-divided; for example, peasants were labelled as furiuri, tanagari, mizunomi-byakusho among others. As in Europe, the castes and sub-classes were of the same race, religion and culture. Howell, in his review of Japanese society notes that if a Western power had colonized Japan
in the 19th century, they would have discovered and imposed a rigid four-caste hierarchy in Japan.[30] De Vos and Wagatsuma observe that Japanese society had a systematic and extensive caste system. They discuss how alleged caste impurity and alleged racial inferiority, concepts often assumed to be different, are superficial terms, and are due to identical inner psychological processes, which expressed themselves in Japan
and elsewhere.[31] Endogamy was common because marriage across caste lines was socially unacceptable.[31][32] Japan
had its own untouchable caste, shunned and ostracized, historically referred to by the insulting term Eta, now called Burakumin. While modern law has officially abolished the class hierarchy, there are reports of discrimination against the Buraku
or Burakumin
underclasses.[33] The Burakumin
are regarded as "ostracised."[34] The burakumin are one of the main minority groups in Japan, along with the Ainu of Hokkaidō
and those of residents of Korean and Chinese descent. Korea[edit]

A typical Yangban
Family Scene from 1904. The Yoon Family had an enduring presence in Korean politics from the 1800s until the 1970s.

The baekjeong (백정) were an “untouchable” outcaste of Korea. The meaning today is that of butcher. It originates in the Khitan invasion of Korea in the 11th century. The defeated Khitans
who surrendered were settled in isolated communities throughout Goryeo to forestall rebellion. They were valued for their skills in hunting, herding, butchering, and making of leather, common skill sets among nomads. Over time, their ethnic origin was forgotten, and they formed the bottom layer of Korean society. In 1392, with the foundation of the Confucian Joseon dynasty, Korea systemised its own native class system. At the top were the two official classes, the Yangban, which literally means "two classes." It was composed of scholars (munban) and warriors (muban). Scholars had a significant social advantage over the warriors. Below were the jung-in (중인-中人: literally "middle people". This was a small class of specialized professions such as medicine, accounting, translators, regional bureaucrats, etc. Below that were the sangmin (상민-常民: literally 'commoner'), farmers working their own fields. Korea also had a serf population known as the nobi. The nobi population could fluctuate up to about one-third of the population, but on average the nobi made up about 10% of the total population.[35] In 1801, the vast majority of government nobi were emancipated,[36] and by 1858 the nobi population stood at about 1.5 percent of the total population of Korea.[37] The hereditary nobi system was officially abolished around 1886–87 and the rest of the nobi system was abolished with the Gabo Reform of 1894,[37] but traces remained until 1930. The opening of Korea to foreign Christian missionary activity in the late 19th century saw some improvement in the status of the baekjeong. However, everyone was not equal under the Christian congregation, and even so protests erupted when missionaries tried to integrate baekjeong into worship, with non-baekjeong finding this attempt insensitive to traditional notions of hierarchical advantage.[citation needed] Around the same time, the baekjeong began to resist open social discrimination.[38] They focused on social and economic injustices affecting them, hoping to create an egalitarian Korean society. Their efforts included attacking social discrimination by upper class, authorities, and "commoners," and the use of degrading language against children in public schools.[39] With the Gabo reform
Gabo reform
of 1896, the class system of Korea was officially abolished. Following the collapse of the Gabo government, the new cabinet, which became the Gwangmu government after the establishment of the Korean Empire, introduced systematic measures for abolishing the traditional class system. One measure was the new household registration system, reflecting the goals of formal social equality, which was implemented by the loyalists’ cabinet. Whereas the old registration system signified household members according to their hierarchical social status, the new system called for an occupation.[40] While most Koreans by then had surnames and even bongwan, although still substantial number of cheonmin, mostly consisted of serfs and slaves, and untouchables did not. According to the new system, they were then required to fill in the blanks for surname in order to be registered as constituting separate households. Instead of creating their own family name, some cheonmins appropriated their masters’ surname, while others simply took the most common surname and its bongwan in the local area. Along with this example, activists within and outside the Korean government had based their visions of a new relationship between the government and people through the concept of citizenship, employing the term inmin ("people") and later, kungmin ("citizen").[40] North Korea[edit] Main article: Songbun The Committee for Human Rights in North Korea
Committee for Human Rights in North Korea
reported that "Every North Korean citizen is assigned a heredity-based class and socio-political rank over which the individual exercises no control but which determines all aspects of his or her life."[41] Regarded as Songbun, Barbara Demick describes this "class structure" as an updating of the hereditary "caste system", combining Confucianism and Stalinism.[42] She claims that a bad family background is called "tainted blood", and that by law this "tainted blood" lasts for three generations.[43] Tibet[edit] See also: Social classes of Tibet Heidi Fjeld has put forth the argument that pre-1950s Tibetan society was functionally a caste system, in contrast to previous scholars who defined the Tibetan social class system as similar to European feudal serfdom, as well as non-scholarly western accounts which seek to romanticize a supposedly 'egalitarian' ancient Tibetan society. Middle East[edit] Main article: Yazidi Yezidi
society is hierarchical. The secular leader is a hereditary emir or prince, whereas a chief sheikh heads the religious hierarchy. The Yazidi
are strictly endogamous; members of the three Yazidi castes, the murids, sheikhs and pirs, marry only within their group. Ancient Egypt[edit] The Ancient Egyptians were divided into four social classes:[44][45]

the royalty and nobles artisans, craftworkers and merchants workers slaves

Iran[edit] Pre-Islamic Sassanid
society was immensely complex, with separate systems of social organization governing numerous different groups within the empire.[46] Historians believe society comprised four[47][48][49] social classes:

Priests (Persian: Asravan‎) Warriors (Persian: Arteshtaran‎) Secretaries (Persian: Dabiran‎) Commoners (Persian: Vastryoshan‎)

Yemen[edit] Main article: Al-Akhdam In Yemen
there exists a hereditary caste, the African-descended Al-Akhdam
who are kept as perennial manual workers. Estimates put their number at over 3.5 million residents who are discriminated, out of a total Yemeni population of around 22 million.[50] Africa[edit] Main article: Caste
system in Africa Various sociologists have reported caste systems in Africa.[51][52][53] The specifics of the caste systems have varied in ethnically and culturally diverse Africa, however the following features are common - it has been a closed system of social stratification, the social status is inherited, the castes are hierarchical, certain castes are shunned while others are merely endogamous and exclusionary.[54] In some cases, concepts of purity and impurity by birth have been prevalent in Africa. In other cases, such as the Nupe of Nigeria, the Beni Amer of East Africa, and the Tira of Sudan, the exclusionary principle has been driven by evolving social factors.[55] West Africa[edit]

A Griot, who have been described as an endogamous caste of West Africa who specialize in oral story telling and culture preservation. They have been also referred to as the bard caste.

Among the Igbo of Nigeria
- especially Enugu, Anambra, Imo, Abia, Ebonyi, Edo and Delta states of the country - Obinna finds Osu caste system has been and continues to be a major social issue. The Osu caste is determined by one's birth into a particular family irrespective of the religion practised by the individual. Once born into Osu caste, this Nigerian person is an outcast, shunned and ostracized, with limited opportunities or acceptance, regardless of his or her ability or merit. Obinna discusses how this caste system-related identity and power is deployed within government, Church and indigenous communities.[51] The osu class systems of eastern Nigeria
and southern Cameroon
are derived from indigenous religious beliefs and discriminate against the "Osus" people as "owned by deities" and outcasts. The Songhai economy was based on a caste system. The most common were metalworkers, fishermen, and carpenters. Lower caste participants consisted of mostly non-farm working immigrants, who at times were provided special privileges and held high positions in society. At the top were noblemen and direct descendants of the original Songhai people, followed by freemen and traders.[56] In a review of social stratification systems in Africa, Richter reports that the term caste has been used by French and American scholars to many groups of West African artisans. These groups have been described as inferior, deprived of all political power, have a specific occupation, are hereditary and sometimes despised by others. Richter illustrates caste system in Ivory Coast, with six sub-caste categories. Unlike other parts of the world, mobility is sometimes possible within sub-castes, but not across caste lines. Farmers and artisans have been, claims Richter, distinct castes. Certain sub-castes are shunned more than others. For example, exogamy is rare for women born into families of woodcarvers.[57] Similarly, the Mandé societies in Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Senegal
and Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
have social stratification systems that divide society by ethnic ties. The Mande class system regards the jonow slaves as inferior. Similarly, the Wolof in Senegal
is divided into three main groups, the geer (freeborn/nobles), jaam (slaves and slave descendants) and the underclass neeno. In various parts of West Africa, Fulani societies also have class divisions. Other castes include Griots, Forgerons, and Cordonniers. Tamari has described endogamous castes of over fifteen West African peoples, including the Tukulor, Songhay, Dogon, Senufo, Minianka, Moors, Manding, Soninke, Wolof, Serer, Fulani, and Tuareg. Castes appeared among the Malinke people no later than 14th century, and was present among the Wolof and Soninke, as well as some Songhay and Fulani populations, no later than 16th century. Tamari claims that wars, such as the Sosso-Malinke war described in the Sunjata epic, led to the formation of blacksmith and bard castes among the people that ultimately became the Mali empire. As West Africa
evolved over time, sub-castes emerged that acquired secondary specializations or changed occupations. Endogamy was prevalent within a caste or among a limited number of castes, yet castes did not form demographic isolates according to Tamari. Social status according to caste was inherited by off-springs automatically; but this inheritance was paternal. That is, children of higher caste men and lower caste or slave concubines would have the caste status of the father.[53] Central Africa[edit] Ethel M. Albert in 1960 claimed that the societies in Central Africa were caste-like social stratification systems.[58] Similarly, in 1961, Maquet notes that the society in Rwanda
and Burundi
can be best described as castes.[59] The Tutsi, noted Maquet, considered themselves as superior, with the more numerous Hutu
and the least numerous Twa
regarded, by birth, as respectively, second and third in the hierarchy of Rwandese society. These groups were largely endogamous, exclusionary and with limited mobility.[60] Maquet's theories have been controversial. Horn of Africa[edit]

The Madhiban (Midgan) specialize in leather occupation. Along with the Tumal and Yibir, they are collectively known as sab.[61]

In a review published in 1977, Todd reports that numerous scholars report a system of social stratification in different parts of Africa that resembles some or all aspects of caste system. Examples of such caste systems, he claims, are to be found in Ethiopia
in communities such as the Gurage and Konso. He then presents the Dime of Southwestern Ethiopia, amongst whom there operates a system which Todd claims can be unequivocally labelled as caste system. The Dime have seven castes whose size varies considerably. Each broad caste level is a hierarchical order that is based on notions of purity, non-purity and impurity. It uses the concepts of defilement to limit contacts between caste categories and to preserve the purity of the upper castes. These caste categories have been exclusionary, endogamous and the social identity inherited.[62] Alula Pankhurst has published a study of caste groups in SW Ethiopia.[63] Among the Kafa, there were also traditionally groups labeled as castes. "Based on research done before the Derg regime, these studies generally presume the existence of a social hierarchy similar to the caste system. At the top of this hierarchy were the Kafa, followed by occupational groups including blacksmiths (Qemmo), weavers (Shammano), bards (Shatto), potters, and tanners (Manno). In this hierarchy, the Manjo were commonly referred to as hunters, given the lowest status equal only to slaves."[64] The Borana Oromo
Borana Oromo
of southern Ethiopia
in the Horn of Africa
also have a class system, wherein the Wata, an acculturated hunter-gatherer group, represent the lowest class. Though the Wata today speak the Oromo language, they have traditions of having previously spoken another language before adopting Oromo.[65] The traditionally nomadic Somali people
Somali people
are divided into clans, wherein the Rahanweyn agro-pastoral clans and the occupational clans such as the Madhiban were traditionally sometimes treated as outcasts.[66] As Gabboye, the Madhiban along with the Yibir and Tumaal (collectively referred to as sab) have since obtained political representation within Somalia, and their general social status has improved with the expansion of urban centers.[61] Europe[edit] Medieval Europe's caste system had the following order:[67][68]

Nobility, royalty Knights, squires, pages, clergy Artisans Peasants, slaves, serfs

Basque country[edit] For centuries, through the modern times, the majority regarded Cagots who lived primarily in the Basque region of France and Spain as an inferior caste, the untouchables. While they had the same skin color and religion as the majority, in the churches they had to use segregated doors, drink from segregated fonts, and receive communion on the end of long wooden spoons. It was a closed social system. The socially isolated Cagots were endogamous, and chances of social mobility non-existent.[69][70] United Kingdom[edit] In July 2013, the UK government announced its intention to amend the Equality Act 2010
Equality Act 2010
to "introduce legislation on caste, including any necessary exceptions to the caste provisions, within the framework of domestic discrimination law".[71] Section 9(5) of the Equality Act 2010 provides that "a Minister may by order amend the statutory definition of race to include caste and may provide for exceptions in the Act to apply or not to apply to caste". From September 2013 to February 2014, Meena Dhanda led a project on ‘ Caste
in Britain’ for the UK Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC).[72] See also[edit]

Estates of the realm Kamaiya Propiska Social exclusion


^ Scott & Marshall 2005, p. 66. ^ Winthrop 1991, pp. 27–30. ^ Béteille 2002, p. 66. ^ Wilson, E. O. (1979). "The Evolution of Caste
Systems in Social Insects". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 123 (4): 204–210. JSTOR 986579.  ^ a b c "Caste, n". Oxford English Dictionary. 1989.  ^ Pitt-Rivers, Julian (1971), "On the word 'caste'", in T O Beidelman, The translation of culture essays to E.E. Evans-Pritchard, London, UK: Tavistock, pp. 231–256, GGKEY:EC3ZBGF5QC9  ^ Nicholas B. Dirks (2001). Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of New India. ISBN 978-0-691-08895-2.  ^ Rudolph, Lloyd I. (1984). The Modernity of Tradition: Political Development in India. Rudolph, Susanne Hoeber. University of Chicago Press. pp. 116–117. ISBN 0-226-73137-5.  ^ Dumont, Louis (1980), Homo hierarchicus: the caste system and its implications, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 66–67, ISBN 0-226-16963-4  ^ "The Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Order 1950". Lawmin.nic.in. Retrieved 2013-11-30.  ^ Lydia Polgreen (21 December 2011). "Scaling Caste
Walls With Capitalism's Ladders in India". The New York Times.  ^ "Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes population: Census 2001". Government of India. 2004.  ^ "Children pay high price for cheap labour". UNICEF. ^ ZAMA COURSEN-NEFF (30 January 2003). "For 15 million in India, a childhood of slavery". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 March 2017.  ^ "UN report slams India for caste discrimination". CBC News. 2 March 2007. ^ "Viewpoint: India must stop denying caste and gender violence". BBC News. 11 June 2014 ^ Natrajan, Balmurli (2005). "Caste, class, and community in india: An ethnographic approach". Ethnology. 4 (3): 227–241.  ^ Sen, Ronojoy. (2012). "The persistence of caste in indian politics". Pacific Affairs. 85 (2): 363–369. doi:10.5509/2012852363.  ^ Barth, Fredrik (1962). E. R. Leach, ed. The System Of Social Stratification In Swat, North Pakistan
(Aspects of Caste
in South India, Ceylon, and North-West Pakistan). Cambridge University Press. p. 113.  ^ Fredrick Barth (December 1956). "Ecologic Relationships of Ethnic Groups in Swat, North Pakistan". American Anthropologist. 58 (6): 1079–1089. doi:10.1525/aa.1956.58.6.02a00080.  ^ Zeyauddin Ahmed (1977). The New Wind: Changing Identities in South Asia (Editor: Kenneth David). Aldine Publishing Company. pp. 337–354. ISBN 90-279-7959-6.  ^ McKim Marriott (1960). Caste
ranking and community structure in five regions of India and Pakistan.  ^ John Rogers (February 2004). " Caste
as a social category and identity in colonial Lanka". Indian Economic Social History Review. 41 (1): 51–77. doi:10.1177/001946460404100104.  ^ a b James Boon (1977). The Anthropological Romance of Bali 1597-1972: Dynamic Perspectives in Marriage and Caste, Politics and Religion. ISBN 0-521-21398-3.  ^ "'Four-Class System' of Yuan Dynasty". Travelchinaguide.com. Retrieved 2013-11-30.  ^ "The Cambridge History of China: Volume 6, Alien Regimes and Border States, 710-1368", by Denis C. Twitchett, Herbert Franke, John King Fairbank, p. 610 ^ "Chinese Society: Change, Conflict and Resistance", by Elizabeth J. Perry, Mark Selden, page 90 ^ "China's New Confucianism: Politics and Everyday Life in a Changing Society", p. 86, by Daniel A. Bell ^ "Trust and Distrust: Sociocultural Perspectives", p. 63, by Ivana Marková, Alex Gillespie ^ David L. Howell (2005). Geographies of identity in nineteenth-century Japan. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24085-5.  ^ a b George De Vos and Hiroshi Wagatsuma (1966). Japan's invisible race: caste in culture and personality. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-00306-4.  ^ Toby Slade (2009). Japanese Fashion: A Cultural History. Berg. ISBN 978-1-84788-252-3.  ^ "Class, Ethnicity and Nationality: Japan
Finds Plenty of Space for Discrimination". Hrdc.net. 2001-06-18. Retrieved 2013-11-30.  ^ William H. Newell (December 1961). "The Comparative Study of Caste in India and Japan". Asian Survey. 1 (10): 3–10. doi:10.1525/as.1961.1.10.01p15082. JSTOR 3023467.  ^ Rodriguez, Junius P. (1997). The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery. ABC-CLIO. p. 392. ISBN 9780874368857. Retrieved 14 February 2017.  ^ Kim, Youngmin; Pettid, Michael J. (2011-11-01). Women and Confucianism in Choson Korea: New Perspectives. SUNY Press. p. 141. ISBN 9781438437774. Retrieved 14 February 2017.  ^ a b Campbell, Gwyn (2004-11-23). Structure of Slavery
in Indian Ocean Africa
and Asia. Routledge. p. 163. ISBN 9781135759179. Retrieved 14 February 2017.  ^ Kim, Joong-Seop (1999). "In Search of Human Rights: The Paekchŏng Movement in Colonial Korea". In Gi-Wook Shin and Michael Robinson. Colonial Modernity in Korea. p. 326. ISBN 0-674-00594-5.  ^ Kim, Joong-Seop (2003). The Korean Paekjŏng under Japanese rule: the quest for equality and human rights. p. 147.  ^ a b Hwang, Kyung Moon (2004), University of Southern California. Citizenship, Social Equality and Government Reform: Changes in the Household Registration System in Korea, 1894-1910 ^ 06 Jun 2012 (2012-06-06). "North Korea caste system 'underpins human rights abuses'". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-11-30.  ^ Barbara Demick, Nothing to Envy: Love, Life and Death in North Korea, Fourth Estate, London, 2010, pp 26-27. ^ Demick, pp 28, 197, 202. ^ Daily Life of the Ancient Egyptians, Bob Brier, A. Hoyt Hobbs, p.73, Greenwood Publishing Group, p.73 ^ Teaching with a Multicultural Perspective: A Practical Guide, p.214, Leonard Davidman ^ Nicolle, p. 11 ^ These four are the three common "Indo-Euoropean" social tripartition common among ancient Iranian, Indian and Romans with one extra Iranian element (from Yashna xix/17). cf. Frye, p. 54. ^ Amir Taheri. The Persian Night: Iran under the Khomeinist Revolution. Encounter books. p. 1982.  ^ Kāẓim ʻAlamdārī. Why the Middle East Lagged Behind: The Case of Iran. University Press of America. p. 72.  ^ "Yemen's Al-Akhdam
face brutal oppression". CNN iReport. Retrieved 22 October 2017.  ^ a b Elijah Obinna (2012). "Contesting identity: the Osu caste system among Igbo of Nigeria". African Identities. 10 (1): 111–121. doi:10.1080/14725843.2011.614412.  ^ James B. Watson (Winter 1963). " Caste
as a Form of Acculturation". Southwestern Journal of Anthropology. 19 (4): 356–379.  ^ a b Tal Tamari (1991). "The Development of Caste
Systems in West Africa". The Journal of African History. 32 (2): 221–250. doi:10.1017/S0021853700025718.  ^ Leo Igwe (21 August 2009). " Caste
discrimination in Africa". International Humanist and Ethical Union.  ^ SF Nadel (1954). " Caste
and government in primitive society". Journal of Anthropological Society. 8: 9–22.  ^ "AFRICAN KINGDOMS - Kingdoms of Ancient African History". www.africankingdoms.com. Retrieved 22 October 2017.  ^ Dolores Richter (January 1980). "Further considerations of caste in West Africa: The Senufo". Africa. 50: 37–54. doi:10.2307/1158641. JSTOR 1158641.  ^ Ethel M. Albert (Spring 1960). "Socio-Political Organization and Receptivity to Change: Some Differences between Ruanda and Urundi". Southwestern Journal of Anthropology. 16 (1): 46–74.  ^ Jacques J. Maquet (1962). The Premise of Inequality in Ruanda: A Study of Political Relations in a Central African Kingdom. Oxford University Press, London. pp. 135–171. ISBN 978-0-19-823168-4.  ^ Helen Codere (1962). "Power in Ruanda". Anthropologica. 4 (1): 45–85. JSTOR 25604523.  ^ a b Lewis, I.M. (2008). Understanding Somalia
and Somaliland: Culture, History, Society. Columbia University Press. p. 8. ISBN 0231700849.  ^ D. M. Todd (October 1977). "LA CASTE EN AFRIQUE? ( Caste
in Africa?)". Africa. 47 (4): 398–412. doi:10.2307/1158345. JSTOR 1158345.  ^ Pankhurst, Alula. 1999. ‘“Caste” in Africa: the evidence from south-western Ethiopia
reconsidered’. Africa
69(4), pp.485-509. ^ p. 299. Sayuri Yoshida. Why did the Manjo convert to Protestant? Social Discrimination
and Coexistence in Kafa, Southwest Ethiopia? Proceedings of the 16th International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, ed. by Svein Ege, Harald Aspen, Birhanu Teferra and Shiferaw Bekele, Trondheim 2009. p. 299-309. ^ Diedrich Westermann, Edwin William Smith, Cyril Daryll Forde (1981). Africa. Oxford University Press. p. 853.  ^ I. M. Lewis, A pastoral democracy: a study of pastoralism and politics among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa, (LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster: 1999), pp.13-14 ^ Encyclopedia Of Freemasonry (Annotated Edition), p. 3671, Albert G. Mackey, Jazzybee Verlag ^ The Everything Bird Book: From Identification to Bird Care, Everything You Need to Know about Our Feathered Friends p.119, Tershia D'Elgin, Adams Media, 1998 ^ Sean Thomas (28 July 2008). "The last untouchable in Europe". London: The Independent, United Kingdom.  ^ Anders Hansson (1996). Chinese Outcasts: Discrimination
and Emancipation in Late Imperial China. BRILL. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-90-04-10596-6.  ^ Government Equalities Office, Caste
legislation introduction – programme and timetable, accessed 2 June 2016 ^ "Research report 91: Caste
in Britain: Socio-legal Review Equality and Human Rights Commission". www.equalityhumanrights.com. Retrieved 2017-10-21. 


Béteille, André (2002), "Caste", in Barnard, Alan; Spencer, Jonathan, Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology, New York, NY; London, UK: Routledge, pp. 136–137, ISBN 978-0-415-28558-2  Doniger, Wendy, ed. (1999), "Caste", Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, p. 186, ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0, retrieved 24 September 2012  Gupta, Dipankar (2008), "Caste", in Schaefer, Richard T., Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society, Thousand Oaks: SAGE, pp. 246–250, ISBN 978-1-4129-2694-2, retrieved 5 August 2012  Lagasse, Paul, ed. (2007), "Caste", The Columbia Encyclopedia, New York, NY: Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-14446-9, retrieved 24 September 2012  Madan, T. N.; Editors (2012), caste, Encyclopæida Britannica Online  Mitchell, Geoffrey Duncan (2006), "Castes (part of SOCIAL STRATIFICATION)", A New Dictionary of the Social Sciences, New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Transaction Publishers, pp. 194–195, ISBN 978-0-202-30878-4, retrieved 10 August 2012  Morris, Mike (2012), "caste", Concise Dictionary of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons, p. 33, ISBN 978-1-4443-3209-4, retrieved 10 August 2012  Nagar, Richa (2011), "caste", in Derek Gregory, The Dictionary of Human Geography, Ron Johnston, Geraldine Pratt, Michael Watts, Sarah Whatmore, John Wiley & Sons, p. 72, ISBN 978-1-4443-5995-4, retrieved 10 August 2012  Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
("caste, n.", Oxford English Dictionary, Second edition; online version June 2012, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1989, retrieved 5 August 2012 ) Quote: caste, n. 2a. spec. One of the several hereditary classes into which society in India has from time immemorial been divided; ... This is now the leading sense, which influences all others. Parry, Jonathan (2003), "Caste", in Kuper, Adam; Kuper, Jessica, Social Science Encyclopedia, London and New York: Routledge, p. 131, ISBN 978-0-415-28560-5  Pavri, Firooza (2004), "Caste", in Tim Forsyth, Encyclopedia of International Development, Abingdon, Oxon, OX ; New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 63–, ISBN 978-0-415-25342-0  Ramu, G. N. (2008), "Caste", in William A. Darity, International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, (Macmillan social science library), Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference USA, ISBN 978-0-02-865967-1, retrieved 24 September 2012  Roberts, Nathaniel P. (2008), "Anthropology of Caste", in William A. Darity, International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, (Macmillan social science library), Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference USA, ISBN 978-0-02-865967-1, retrieved 24 September 2012  Salamone, Frank A. (1997), "Caste", in Rodriguez, Junius P., The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery, Volume 1, Santa Barbara, CA; Oxford, UK: ABC-CLIO, p. 133, ISBN 978-0-87436-885-7, retrieved 5 August 2012  Scott, John; Marshall, Gordon (2005), "caste", A Dictionary of Sociology, Oxford, UK; New York, NY: Oxford University Press, p. 66, ISBN 978-0-19-860987-2, retrieved 10 August 2012  Sonnad, Subhash R. (2003), "Caste", in Christensen, Karen; Levinson, David, Encyclopedia of Community: From the Village to the Virtual World, Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, pp. 115–121, ISBN 978-0-7619-2598-9, retrieved 5 August 2012  Sooryamoorthi, Radhamany (2006), " Caste
Systems", in Leonard, Thomas M. (editor), Encyclopedia of the Developing World, New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 252–, ISBN 978-0-415-97662-6, retrieved 5 August 2012 CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Winthrop, Robert H. (1991), Dictionary of Concepts in Cultural Anthropology, ABC-CLIO, pp. 27–30, ISBN 978-0-313-24280-9, retrieved 10 August 2012 

Further reading[edit]

Spectres of Agrarian Territory by David Ludden 11 December 2001 "Early Evidence for Caste
in South India", p. 467-492 in Dimensions of Social Life: Essays in honor of David G. Mandelbaum, Edited by Paul Hockings and Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, New York, Amsterdam, 1987.

External links[edit]

Auguste Comte on why and how castes developed across the world - in The Positive Philosophy, Volume 3 (see page 55 onwards) Robert Merton on Caste
and The Sociology of Science Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age - Susan Bayly Class In Yemen
by Marguerite Abadjian (Archive of the Baltimore Sun) International Dalit
Solidarity Network: An international advocacy group for Dalits

v t e

Segregation in countries by type

Geographical (religious)

Bosnia and Herzegovina Partition of India Northern Ireland Greece and Turkey Partition of Bengal Saudi Arabia Bahrain Myanmar


Australia Argentina Canada Bahrain Brazil Dominican Republic Fiji France Malaysia Nazi Germany Poland Portugal Rhodesia South Africa Spain Saudization Emiratisation United States

schools Anti-miscegenation laws
Anti-miscegenation laws
in the United States


Islam (in Iran) Taliban Saudi Arabia Judaism Separatist feminism


Auto-segregation Balkanization Ethnic cleansing Exclusionary zoning Forced migration Internment

labor camps

Residential segregation in the United States Social exclusion

Related topics



Anti-miscegenation laws Black Codes Corporative federalism Discrimination Hafrada Jim Crow laws Nativism Nuremberg Laws Racism Rankism Religious intolerance Reservation in India Second-class citizen Separate but equal Separate school (Canada) Shunning Social apartheid Xenophobia

See also: Desegregation


Pillarisation Category

caste gender racial


v t e


General forms

Age Caste Class Color Disability Gender Genotype Hair Height Language Looks Mental condition Race / Ethnicity / Nationality Rank Religion Sex Sexuality Size Species


AIDS stigma Adultism Anti-albinism Anti-autism Anti-homelessness Anti-intellectualism Anti-intersex Anti-left handedness Anti-Masonry Antisemitism Audism Binarism Biphobia Cronyism Drug use Elitism Ephebiphobia Ethnopluralism Fatism Genderism Gerontophobia Heteronormativity Heterosexism Homophobia Islamophobia Leprosy stigma Lesbophobia Mentalism Misandry Misogyny Nepotism Pedophobia Pregnancy Reverse Sectarianism Shadism Supremacism

Arab Black White

Transmisogyny Transphobia Vegaphobia Xenophobia


Animal cruelty Animal testing Blood libel Blood sport Carnism Compulsory sterilization Counter-jihad Cultural genocide Democide Disability
hate crime Educational Economic Eliminationism Employment Enemy of the people Ethnic cleansing Ethnic hatred Ethnic joke Ethnocide Forced conversion Freak show Gay bashing Gendercide Genital mutilation Genocide


Glass ceiling Group libel Hate crime Hate group Hate speech Homeless dumping Housing Indian rolling LGBT hate crime Lavender scare Lynching Meat eating Mortgage Murder music Occupational segregation Persecution Pogrom Purge Race war Red Scare Religious persecution Scapegoating Segregation academy Sex-selective abortion Slavery Slut-shaming Trans bashing Victimisation Violence against women White flight White power music Wife selling Witch-hunt

Discriminatory policies


age racial religious sex

Age of candidacy Blood quantum Cleanliness of blood Crime of apartheid Disabilities

Jewish Catholic

Ethnocracy Gender pay gap Gender roles Gerontocracy Gerrymandering Ghetto benches Internment Jewish quota Jim Crow laws Law for Protection of the Nation McCarthyism MSM blood donor controversy Nonpersons Numerus clausus (as religious or racial quota) Nuremberg Laws One-drop rule Racial quota Racial steering Redlining Same-sex marriage
Same-sex marriage
(laws and issues prohibiting) Sodomy law Ugly law Voter suppression


Affirmative action Animal rights Anti-discrimination law Cultural assimilation Cultural pluralism Desegregation Diversity training Empowerment Feminism Fighting Discrimination Human rights Intersex rights Multiculturalism Nonviolence Racial integration Self-determination Social integration Toleration Vegetarianism Veganism

Related topics

Allophilia Anthropocentrism Anti-cultural sentiment Assimilation Bias Christian privilege Data discrimination Dehumanization Diversity Ethnic penalty Eugenics Intersectionality Male privilege Masculism Multiculturalism Neurodiversity Oikophobia Oppression Police brutality Political correctness Power distance Prejudice Racial bias in criminal news Racism
by country Regressive left Religious intolerance Second-generation gender bias Snobbery Social exclusion Social stigma Stereotype


White privilege

Category Portal

v t e

Social class Status


Gilbert model Marxian Mudsill theory New class Spoon class theory Weberian (three-component)

Related topics

Caste Chattering classes Class conflict Class discrimination Classicide Classless society Euthenics Nouveau riche / Parvenu Poverty Ranked society Snobbery Social exclusion Social mobility Social position Social stigma Subaltern

By demographic

By status

Administrative detainee Alien

illegal immigrant refugee


dual or multiple native-born naturalized second-class

Convicted Migrant worker Political prisoner Stateless

By "collar"

Blue Gold Green Grey Pink White

By type


Bohemians Robber baron Russian oligarch Business magnate Overclass Superclass


Lower middle class Upper middle class Bourgeoisie Petite bourgeoisie


Working poor Proletariat Lumpenproletariat


Harii Kshatriya Yadav Nair Cossacks Hashashin Knight Vanniyar Samurai Cuāuh Ocēlōtl Spartiate


Commoner Outcast Outlaw Peasant / Serf Slave Untouchable


Bourgeoisie Elite Gentry Global elite Nobility Old money


Aristocracy Hanseaten Patrician Royal family


Clergy Knowledge worker

By country or region

United States

Affluence American Dream Conflict Social class
Social class
in American history


Lower Middle (Mexican-American, Black) Upper Under


Household Inequality Personal Poverty

Standard of living

Educational attainment Homelessness Home ownership Wealth

Other countries or regions

Africa Cambodia China Colombia Ecuador France Haiti India Iran Italy New Zealand Romania Sri Lanka Tibet United Kingdom


Ancient Greece Ancient Rome Aztec Ottoman Empire Soviet Union Pre-industrial East Asia Pre-industrial Europe


Authority control

GND: 41634