CASAMANCE /ˈkæzəˌmæns, ˈkæsə-/ (Wolof and Fula : Kasamansa;
Casamance ; Portuguese : Casamansa ) is the area of
Senegal south of the Gambia including the
Casamance River . It
consists of the Lower
Casamance (Basse Casamance, Baixa
Ziguinchor Region ) and the Upper
Casamance, Alta Casamança—i.e.
Kolda Region and Sédhiou Regions ).
The largest city of
* 1 History
* 1.1 Separatist Movement
* 2 Climate
* 3 Economy
* 4 References
* 5 External links
Casamance was subject to both French and Portuguese colonial
efforts before a border was negotiated in 1888 between the French
Portuguese Guinea (now
Guinea-Bissau ) to the
south. Portugal lost possession of Casamance, then the commercial hub
of its colony. Casamance, to this day, has preserved the local variant
Upper Guinea Creole known as
Ziguinchor Creole, and the members of
the deep-rooted Creole community carry Portuguese surnames like Da
Silva, Carvalho and Fonseca. The historical ties to Portugal were a
factor in Senegal's decision to seek membership of the Community of
Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), becoming an associate observer
in 2008. Interest in Portuguese heritage has been revived in order to
exert a distinct identity, particularly in Baixa Casamança.
Bissau-Guinean people are also present in the region, as expatriates,
immigrants, and refugees from the poverty and instability that since
long affects the neighbouring country, including the 1998—1999
Guinea-Bissau Civil War .
Though the Jola are the dominant ethnic group in the Casamance, they
represent only 4% of the total population of Senegal. The Wolof
dominate the nation as a whole. The Jola's sense of economic
disenfranchisement within greater
Senegal contributed to the founding
of a separatist movement advocating the independence or autonomous
administrative division of the Casamance, the Movement of Democratic
Casamance (MFDC), in 1982.
The MFDC's armed wing was established in 1985, and since 1990, the
Casamance conflict , a low-level insurgency led by the MFDC against
the government of
Senegal that has been characterized by sporadic
violence and frequent but unstable ceasefire agreements. An illegal
shipment of weapons hailing from Iran was seized in
October 2010, and the Senegalese government suspected the MFDC of
having been the intended recipients of the weapons.
its ambassador to
Tehran over the incident.
The climate is low-lying and hot, with some hills to the southeast.
The Region has average rainfall greater than the rest of Senegal, with
most areas receiving over 50in/1270mm annually, and as high as
70in/1780mm in some places. The entire
Casamance region experiences a
tropical savanna climate .
The economy of the
Casamance relies largely on rice cultivation and
tourism . It also has excellent beaches along its coastline,
Cap Skirring .
Novo Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa
Novo Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa , verbete CRIOL: Língua
derivada do português e de várias línguas africanas, falada pela
maior parte da população da Guiné-Bissau e da Casamansa (S. do
* Dicionário Onomástico Etimológico da Língua Portuguesa (pt)
* Vocabulário Onomástico da Língua Portuguesa da Academia
Brasileira de Letras
* "Língua Portuguesa com Acordo Ortográfico . Porto: Porto
* ^ "OBSERVADORES ASSOCIADOS" (in Portuguese). CPLP. 10 July 2008.
Retrieved 14 November 2016.
* ^ "New clashes between the Senegalese army and Casamance
pro-independence militias". Nationalia. 2010-03-23. Retrieved
* ^ "
Tehran ambassador over arms shipment". BBC
News. December 15, 2010. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
* Vincent Foucher, "Church and nation. The Catholic contribution to
war and peace in
Casamance (Senegal)", LFM. Social Sciences and
Missions N°13/October 2003