Casamance /ˈkæzəˌmæns, ˈkæsə-/ (Wolof and Fula: Kasamansa;
Casamance [kɑ.za.mɑ̃s]; Portuguese: Casamansa
[kɐzɐˈmɐ̃sɐ]) is the area of
Senegal south of the Gambia
Casamance River. It consists of the Lower Casamance
(Basse Casamance, Baixa Casamança—i.e.
Ziguinchor Region) and the
Casamance (Haute Casamance, Alta Casamança—i.e. Kolda Region
and Sédhiou Regions). The largest city of
Casamance is Ziguinchor.
1.1 Separatist movement
6 External links
Casamance was subject to both French and Portuguese colonial
efforts before a border was negotiated in 1888 between the French
Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea-Bissau) to the
south. Portugal lost possession of Casamance, then the commercial hub
of its colony. Casamance, to this day, has preserved
the local variant of
Upper Guinea Creole known as
and the members of the deep-rooted Creole community carry Portuguese
surnames like Da Silva, Carvalho and Fonseca. The historical ties to
Portugal were a factor in Senegal's decision to seek membership of the
Community of Portuguese Language Countries
Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), becoming an
associate observer in 2008. Interest in Portuguese heritage has
been revived in order to exert a distinct identity,
particularly in Baixa Casamança.
Bissau-Guinean people are also present in the region, as expatriates,
immigrants, and refugees from the poverty and instability that since
long affects the neighbouring country, including the 1998—1999
Guinea-Bissau Civil War.
Flag used by several separatist organisations
Though the Jola are the dominant ethnic group in the Casamance, they
represent only 4% of the total population of Senegal. The Wolof
dominate the nation as a whole. The Jola's sense of economic
disenfranchisement within greater Senegal contributed
to the founding of a separatist movement advocating the independence
or autonomous administrative division of the Casamance, the Movement
of Democratic Forces of
Casamance (MFDC), in 1982.
The MFDC's armed wing was established in 1985, and since 1990, the
Casamance conflict, a low-level insurgency led by the MFDC against the
Senegal that has been characterized by sporadic violence
and frequent but unstable ceasefire agreements. An illegal shipment of
weapons hailing from Iran was seized in Lagos,
Nigeria in October
2010, and the Senegalese government suspected the MFDC of having been
the intended recipients of the weapons.
Senegal recalled its
Tehran over the incident.
Women working in a paddy field.
The climate is low-lying and hot, with some hills to the southeast.
The Region has average rainfall greater than the rest of Senegal, with
most areas receiving over 50in/1270mm annually, and as high as
70in/1780mm in some places. The entire
Casamance region experiences a
tropical savanna climate.
The economy of the
Casamance relies largely on rice cultivation and
tourism. It also has excellent beaches along its coastline,
particularly at Cap Skirring.
Further information: environmental issues in
Senegal and Basse
Casamance National Park
Tree cover in
Casamance is severely threatened by illegal
Novo Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa, verbete criol: Língua
derivada do português e de várias línguas africanas, falada pela
maior parte da população da Guiné-Bissau e da Casamansa (S. do
Dicionário Onomástico Etimológico da Língua Portuguesa (pt)
Vocabulário Onomástico da Língua Portuguesa da Academia Brasileira
"Língua Portuguesa com Acordo Ortográfico [em linha]. Porto: Porto
^ "OBSERVADORES ASSOCIADOS" (in Portuguese). CPLP. 10 July 2008.
Retrieved 14 November 2016.
^ "New clashes between the Senegalese army and Casamance
pro-independence militias". Nationalia. 2010-03-23. Retrieved
Tehran ambassador over arms shipment". BBC News.
December 15, 2010. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
^ AfricaNews (2016-06-19). "
Senegal govt warns against Casamance
deforestation". Africanews. Retrieved 2018-03-15.
^ "Trafic de bois au Sénégal: la
Casamance menacée de
déforestation d'ici deux ans". Sciences et Avenir (in French).
2016-05-26. Retrieved 2018-03-15.
Vincent Foucher, "Church and nation. The Catholic contribution to war
and peace in
Casamance (Senegal)", LFM. Social Sciences and Missions
Casamance.net (in French)
Oxfam America, Background on the
Alassane Diop, Weblog Commentary
Arab slave trade
French West Africa
African slave trade
Bissau-Guinean Civil War
Bissau-Guinean Civil War involvement
Environmental issues in Senegal
World Heritage Sites
Court of Cassation (judiciary)
Water supply and sanitation
Coat of arms
Coordinates: 13°00′55″N 15°19′04″W / 13.01526°N
15.31769°W / 1