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Casamance
Casamance
/ˈkæzəˌmæns, ˈkæsə-/ (Wolof and Fula: Kasamansa; French: Casamance
Casamance
[kɑ.za.mɑ̃s]; Portuguese: Casamansa[1] [kɐzɐˈmɐ̃sɐ]) is the area of Senegal
Senegal
south of the Gambia including the Casamance
Casamance
River. It consists of the Lower Casamance (Basse Casamance, Baixa Casamança—i.e. Ziguinchor
Ziguinchor
Region) and the Upper Casamance
Casamance
(Haute Casamance, Alta Casamança—i.e. Kolda Region and Sédhiou Regions). The largest city of Casamance
Casamance
is Ziguinchor.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Separatist movement

2 Climate 3 Economy 4 Ecology 5 References 6 External links

History[edit] The Casamance
Casamance
was subject to both French and Portuguese colonial efforts before a border was negotiated in 1888 between the French colony of Senegal
Senegal
and Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
(now Guinea-Bissau) to the south. Portugal lost possession of Casamance, then the commercial hub of its colony.[citation needed] Casamance, to this day, has preserved the local variant of Upper Guinea Creole known as Ziguinchor
Ziguinchor
Creole, and the members of the deep-rooted Creole community carry Portuguese surnames like Da Silva, Carvalho and Fonseca. The historical ties to Portugal were a factor in Senegal's decision to seek membership of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries
Community of Portuguese Language Countries
(CPLP), becoming an associate observer in 2008.[2] Interest in Portuguese heritage has been revived in order to exert a distinct identity,[citation needed] particularly in Baixa Casamança. Bissau-Guinean people are also present in the region, as expatriates, immigrants, and refugees from the poverty and instability that since long affects the neighbouring country, including the 1998—1999 Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
Civil War. Separatist movement[edit] Further information: Casamance
Casamance
conflict

Flag used by several separatist organisations

Though the Jola are the dominant ethnic group in the Casamance, they represent only 4% of the total population of Senegal. The Wolof dominate the nation as a whole. The Jola's sense of economic disenfranchisement within greater Senegal[citation needed] contributed to the founding of a separatist movement advocating the independence or autonomous administrative division of the Casamance, the Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance
Casamance
(MFDC), in 1982.[3] The MFDC's armed wing was established in 1985, and since 1990, the Casamance
Casamance
conflict, a low-level insurgency led by the MFDC against the government of Senegal
Senegal
that has been characterized by sporadic violence and frequent but unstable ceasefire agreements. An illegal shipment of weapons hailing from Iran was seized in Lagos, Nigeria
Nigeria
in October 2010, and the Senegalese government suspected the MFDC of having been the intended recipients of the weapons. Senegal
Senegal
recalled its ambassador to Tehran
Tehran
over the incident.[4] Climate[edit]

Women working in a paddy field.

The climate is low-lying and hot, with some hills to the southeast. The Region has average rainfall greater than the rest of Senegal, with most areas receiving over 50in/1270mm annually, and as high as 70in/1780mm in some places. The entire Casamance
Casamance
region experiences a tropical savanna climate. Economy[edit] The economy of the Casamance
Casamance
relies largely on rice cultivation and tourism. It also has excellent beaches along its coastline, particularly at Cap Skirring. Ecology[edit] Further information: environmental issues in Senegal
Senegal
and Basse Casamance
Casamance
National Park Tree cover in Casamance
Casamance
is severely threatened by illegal logging.[5][6] References[edit]

^

Novo Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa, verbete criol: Língua derivada do português e de várias línguas africanas, falada pela maior parte da população da Guiné-Bissau e da Casamansa (S. do Senegal) Dicionário Onomástico Etimológico da Língua Portuguesa (pt) Vocabulário Onomástico da Língua Portuguesa da Academia Brasileira de Letras "Língua Portuguesa com Acordo Ortográfico [em linha]. Porto: Porto Editora, 2003-2015". 

^ "OBSERVADORES ASSOCIADOS" (in Portuguese). CPLP. 10 July 2008. Retrieved 14 November 2016.  ^ "New clashes between the Senegalese army and Casamance pro-independence militias". Nationalia. 2010-03-23. Retrieved 2010-04-11.  ^ " Senegal
Senegal
recalls Tehran
Tehran
ambassador over arms shipment". BBC News. December 15, 2010. Retrieved December 15, 2010.  ^ AfricaNews (2016-06-19). " Senegal
Senegal
govt warns against Casamance deforestation". Africanews. Retrieved 2018-03-15.  ^ "Trafic de bois au Sénégal: la Casamance
Casamance
menacée de déforestation d'ici deux ans". Sciences et Avenir (in French). 2016-05-26. Retrieved 2018-03-15. 

Vincent Foucher, "Church and nation. The Catholic contribution to war and peace in Casamance
Casamance
(Senegal)", LFM. Social Sciences and Missions N°13/October 2003

External links[edit]

Senegal
Senegal
portal

Casamance.net (in French) Oxfam America, Background on the Casamance
Casamance
Conflict Alassane Diop, Weblog Commentary

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Casamance
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Coordinates: 13°00′55″N 15°19′04″W / 13.01526°N 15.31769°W / 1

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