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Caryophyllineae Polygonineae

Synonyms

Centrospermae

Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales
(/ˌkærioʊfɪˈleɪliːz/ KARR-ee-oh-fil-AY-leez)[2] is an order of flowering plants that includes the cacti, carnations, amaranths, ice plants, beets, and many carnivorous plants. Many members are succulent, having fleshy stems or leaves.

Contents

1 Description 2 Circumscription

2.1 APG IV 2.2 APG III 2.3 APG II 2.4 APG 2.5 Cronquist 2.6 Earlier circumscriptions

3 References 4 External links

Description[edit] The members of Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales
include about 6% of eudicot species.[3] This order is part of the core eudicots.[4] Currently, the Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales
contains 33 families, 692 genera and 11,155 species.[5] The monophyly of the Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales
has been supported by DNA sequences, cytochrome c sequence data and heritable characters such as anther wall development and vessel-elements with simple perforations.[6] Circumscription[edit] As with all taxa, the circumscription of Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales
has changed within various classification systems. All systems recognize a core of families with centrospermous ovules and seeds. More recent treatments have expanded the Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales
to include many carnivorous plants. Although the monophyly of the order has been strongly supported, their placement is still uncertain. Systematists are undecided on whether Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales
should be placed within the rosid complex or sister to the asterid clade.[6] The possible connection between sympetalous angiosperms and Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales
was presaged by Bessey, Hutchinson, and others; as Lawrence relates: "The evidence is reasonably conclusive that the Primulaceae and the Caryophyllaceae
Caryophyllaceae
have fundamentally the same type of gynecia, and as concluded by Douglas (1936)(and essentially Dickson, 1936) '...the vascular pattern and the presence of locules at the base of the ovary point to the fact that the present much reduced flower of the Primulaceae has descended from an ancestor which was characterized by a plurilocular ovary and axial placentation. This primitive flower might well be found in centrospermal stock as Wernham, Bessy, and Hutchinson have suggested.' "[7] Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales
is separated into two suborders: Caryophyllineae
Caryophyllineae
and Polygonineae.[6] These two suborders were formerly (and sometimes still are) recognized as two orders, Polygonales
Polygonales
and Caryophyllales.[6]

Cactaceae
Cactaceae
native to the middle region of South America, at Marsh Botanical Garden. Cactaceae
Cactaceae
are a plant family, under the order Caryophyllales.

APG IV[edit] Kewaceae, Macarthuriaceae, Microteaceae, and Petiveriaceae
Petiveriaceae
were added in APG IV. [8] APG III[edit] As circumscribed by the APG III system (2009), this order includes the same families as the APG II system
APG II system
(see below) plus the new families, Limeaceae, Lophiocarpaceae, Montiaceae, Talinaceae, and Anacampserotaceae.[1]

family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Anacampserotaceae family Ancistrocladaceae family Asteropeiaceae family Barbeuiaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Didiereaceae family Dioncophyllaceae family Droseraceae family Drosophyllaceae family Frankeniaceae family Gisekiaceae family Halophytaceae family Kewaceae family Limeaceae family Lophiocarpaceae family Macarthuriaceae family Microteaceae family Molluginaceae family Montiaceae family Nepenthaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Petiveriaceae family Physenaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Plumbaginaceae family Polygonaceae family Portulacaceae family Rhabdodendraceae family Sarcobataceae family Simmondsiaceae family Stegnospermataceae family Talinaceae family Tamaricaceae

APG II[edit] As circumscribed by the APG II system
APG II system
(2003), this order includes well-known plants like cacti, carnations, spinach, beet, rhubarb, sundews, venus fly traps, and bougainvillea. Recent molecular and biochemical evidence has resolved additional well-supported clades within the Caryophyllales.

order Caryophyllales

family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae

Pupalia lappacea Forest Burr from family Amaranthaceae

family Anacampserotaceae
Anacampserotaceae
(added in APG III)[1] family Ancistrocladaceae family Asteropeiaceae family Barbeuiaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Didiereaceae family Dioncophyllaceae family Droseraceae family Drosophyllaceae family Frankeniaceae family Gisekiaceae family Halophytaceae family Limeaceae
Limeaceae
(added in APG III)[1] family Lophiocarpaceae (added in APG III)[1] family Molluginaceae

Glinus oppositifolius from family Molluginaceae

family Montiaceae
Montiaceae
(added in APG III)[1] family Nepenthaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Physenaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Plumbaginaceae family Polygonaceae family Portulacaceae family Rhabdodendraceae family Sarcobataceae family Simmondsiaceae family Stegnospermataceae family Talinaceae
Talinaceae
(added in APG III)[1] family Tamaricaceae

Cactaceaeː Gymnocalycium Matoensea at Yale's Marsh Botanical Garden.

APG[edit]

Carnegiea gigantea

Sweet William Dwarf from the family Caryophyllaceae

A flower of Dianthus

This represents a slight change from the APG system, of 1998

order Caryophyllales

family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Ancistrocladaceae family Asteropeiaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Didiereaceae family Dioncophyllaceae family Droseraceae family Drosophyllaceae family Frankeniaceae family Molluginaceae family Nepenthaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Physenaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Plumbaginaceae family Polygonaceae family Portulacaceae family Rhabdodendraceae family Sarcobataceae family Simmondsiaceae family Stegnospermataceae family Tamaricaceae

Cronquist[edit]

Chenopodium album

The Cronquist system
Cronquist system
(1981) also recognised the order, with this circumscription:

order Caryophyllales

family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Chenopodiaceae family Didiereaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Portulacaceae family Molluginaceae

The difference with the order as recognized by APG lies in the first place in the concept of "order". The APG favours much larger orders and families, and the order Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales
sensu APG should rather be compared to subclass Caryophyllidae sensu Cronquist. A part of the difference lies with what families are recognized. The plants in the Stegnospermataceae
Stegnospermataceae
and Barbeuiaceae
Barbeuiaceae
were included in Cronquist's Phytolaccaceae. The Chenopodiaceae (still recognized by Cronquist) are included in Amaranthaceae
Amaranthaceae
by APG. New to the order (sensu APG) are the Asteropeiaceae and Physenaceae, each containing a single genus, and two genera from Cronquist's order Nepenthales. Earlier circumscriptions[edit] Earlier systems, such as the Wettstein system, last edition in 1935, and the Engler system, updated in 1964, had a similar order under the name Centrospermae. References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06.  ^ Ian Clarke; Helen Lee (2003). Name that Flower: The Identification of Flowering Plants. Melbourne Univ. Publishing. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-522-85060-4.  ^ Caryophyllales ^ Judd. W., Campbell, C., Kellog, E., Stevens, P. & M. Donoghue. (2008). Plant
Plant
Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, Third Edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland, MA ^ Stephens, P.F. (2001). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 8, June 2007.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/APweb/ ^ a b c d Juan et al. (2007). Electrophoretic characterization of Amaranthus L. seed proteins and its systematic implication. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 155: 57-63. ^ Lawernce, George. 1960.Taxonomy of Vascular Plants, p. 660. Macmillan, NY. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Caryophyllales.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Caryophyllales

Tree of Life Characteristics and Phylogenetic Relationships

Taxon
Taxon
identifiers

Wd: Q21808 EoL: 4223 EPPO: 1CAFO GBIF: 422 ITIS: 19520 NCBI: 3524 VASCAN

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