Caryophyllales (/ˌkærioʊfɪˈleɪliːz/ KARR-ee-oh-fil-AY-leez)
is an order of flowering plants that includes the cacti, carnations,
amaranths, ice plants, beets, and many carnivorous plants. Many
members are succulent, having fleshy stems or leaves.
2.1 APG IV
2.2 APG III
2.3 APG II
2.6 Earlier circumscriptions
4 External links
The members of
Caryophyllales include about 6% of eudicot species.
This order is part of the core eudicots. Currently, the
Caryophyllales contains 33 families, 692 genera and 11,155 species.
The monophyly of the
Caryophyllales has been supported by DNA
sequences, cytochrome c sequence data and heritable characters such as
anther wall development and vessel-elements with simple
As with all taxa, the circumscription of
Caryophyllales has changed
within various classification systems. All systems recognize a core of
families with centrospermous ovules and seeds. More recent treatments
have expanded the
Caryophyllales to include many carnivorous plants.
Although the monophyly of the order has been strongly supported, their
placement is still uncertain. Systematists are undecided on whether
Caryophyllales should be placed within the rosid complex or sister to
the asterid clade. The possible connection between sympetalous
Caryophyllales was presaged by Bessey, Hutchinson, and
others; as Lawrence relates: "The evidence is reasonably conclusive
that the Primulaceae and the
Caryophyllaceae have fundamentally the
same type of gynecia, and as concluded by Douglas (1936)(and
essentially Dickson, 1936) '...the vascular pattern and the presence
of locules at the base of the ovary point to the fact that the present
much reduced flower of the Primulaceae has descended from an ancestor
which was characterized by a plurilocular ovary and axial
placentation. This primitive flower might well be found in
centrospermal stock as Wernham, Bessy, and Hutchinson have suggested.'
Caryophyllales is separated into two suborders:
Polygonineae. These two suborders were formerly (and sometimes
still are) recognized as two orders,
Cactaceae native to the middle region of South America, at Marsh
Cactaceae are a plant family, under the order
Kewaceae, Macarthuriaceae, Microteaceae, and
Petiveriaceae were added
in APG IV. 
As circumscribed by the
APG III system (2009), this order includes the
same families as the
APG II system
APG II system (see below) plus the new families,
Limeaceae, Lophiocarpaceae, Montiaceae, Talinaceae, and
As circumscribed by the
APG II system
APG II system (2003), this order includes
well-known plants like cacti, carnations, spinach, beet, rhubarb,
sundews, venus fly traps, and bougainvillea. Recent molecular and
biochemical evidence has resolved additional well-supported clades
within the Caryophyllales.
Pupalia lappacea Forest Burr from family Amaranthaceae
Anacampserotaceae (added in APG III)
Limeaceae (added in APG III)
Lophiocarpaceae (added in APG III)
Glinus oppositifolius from family Molluginaceae
Montiaceae (added in APG III)
Talinaceae (added in APG III)
Cactaceaeː Gymnocalycium Matoensea at Yale's Marsh Botanical Garden.
Sweet William Dwarf from the family Caryophyllaceae
A flower of Dianthus
This represents a slight change from the APG system, of 1998
Cronquist system (1981) also recognised the order, with this
The difference with the order as recognized by APG lies in the first
place in the concept of "order". The APG favours much larger orders
and families, and the order
Caryophyllales sensu APG should rather be
compared to subclass
Caryophyllidae sensu Cronquist.
A part of the difference lies with what families are recognized. The
plants in the
Barbeuiaceae were included in
Cronquist's Phytolaccaceae. The Chenopodiaceae (still recognized by
Cronquist) are included in
Amaranthaceae by APG.
New to the order (sensu APG) are the
Asteropeiaceae and Physenaceae,
each containing a single genus, and two genera from Cronquist's order
Earlier systems, such as the Wettstein system, last edition in 1935,
and the Engler system, updated in 1964, had a similar order under the
^ a b c d e f g Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families
of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean
Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.
^ Ian Clarke; Helen Lee (2003). Name that Flower: The Identification
of Flowering Plants. Melbourne Univ. Publishing. p. 56.
^ Judd. W., Campbell, C., Kellog, E., Stevens, P. & M. Donoghue.
Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, Third Edition.
Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland, MA
^ Stephens, P.F. (2001). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 8, June
^ a b c d Juan et al. (2007). Electrophoretic characterization of
Amaranthus L. seed proteins and its systematic implication. Botanical
Journal of the Linnean Society 155: 57-63.
^ Lawernce, George. 1960.Taxonomy of Vascular Plants, p. 660.
^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm
Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of
flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society.
181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Caryophyllales.
Wikispecies has information related to Caryophyllales
Tree of Life Characteristics and Phylogenetic Relationships