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Caryophyllineae Polygonineae

SYNONYMS

Centrospermae

CARYOPHYLLALES (/ˌkærioʊfiˈleɪliːz/ _kair-ee-uu-fil-LAY-leez_ ) is an order of flowering plants that includes the cacti , carnations , amaranths , ice plants , beets , and many carnivorous plants . Many members are succulent , having fleshy stems or leaves .

CONTENTS

* 1 Description

* 2 Circumscription

* 2.1 APG III * 2.2 APG II * 2.3 APG * 2.4 Cronquist * 2.5 Earlier circumscriptions

* 3 References * 4 External links

DESCRIPTION

The members of Caryophyllales include about 6% of eudicot species . This order is part of the core eudicots . Currently, the Caryophyllales contains 33 families, 692 genera and 11,155 species. The monophyly of the Caryophyllales has been supported by DNA sequences , cytochrome c sequence data and heritable characters such as anther wall development and vessel-elements with simple perforations.

CIRCUMSCRIPTION

As with all taxa , the circumscription of Caryophyllales has changed within various classification systems. All systems recognize a core of families with centrospermous ovules and seeds. More recent treatments have expanded the Caryophyllales to include many carnivorous plants .

Although the monophyly of the order has been strongly supported, their placement is still uncertain. Systematists are undecided on whether Caryophyllales should be placed within the rosid complex or sister to the asterid clade . The possible connection between sympetalous angiosperms and Caryophyllales was presaged by Bessey, Hutchinson, and others; as Lawrence relates: "The evidence is reasonably conclusive that the Primulaceae and the Caryophyllaceae have fundamentally the same type of gynecia, and as concluded by Douglas (1936)(and essentially Dickson, 1936) '...the vascular pattern and the presence of locules at the base of the ovary point to the fact that the present much reduced flower of the Primulaceae has descended from an ancestor which was characterized by a plurilocular ovary and axial placentation. This primitive flower might well be found in centrospermal stock as Wernham, Bessy, and Hutchinson have suggested.' "

Caryophyllales is separated into two suborders: Caryophyllineae and Polygonineae. These two suborders were formerly (and sometimes still are) recognized as two orders, Polygonales and Caryophyllales. Cactaceae native to the middle region of South America, at Marsh Botanical Garden. Cactaceae are a plant family, under the order Caryophyllales.

APG III

As circumscribed by the APG III system (2009), this order includes the same families as the APG II system (see below) plus the new families, Limeaceae, Lophiocarpaceae, Montiaceae, Talinaceae, and Anacampserotaceae. Kewaceae, Limeaceae, Macarthuriaceae, Microteaceae, and Petiveriaceae were added in APG IV.

* family Achatocarpaceae * family Aizoaceae * family Amaranthaceae * family Anacampserotaceae * family Ancistrocladaceae * family Asteropeiaceae * family Barbeuiaceae * family Basellaceae * family Cactaceae * family Caryophyllaceae * family Didiereaceae * family Dioncophyllaceae * family Droseraceae * family Drosophyllaceae * family Frankeniaceae * family Gisekiaceae * family Halophytaceae * family Kewaceae * family Limeaceae * family Lophiocarpaceae * family Macarthuriaceae * family Microteaceae * family Molluginaceae * family Montiaceae * family Nepenthaceae * family Nyctaginaceae * family Petiveriaceae * family Physenaceae * family Phytolaccaceae * family Plumbaginaceae * family Polygonaceae * family Portulacaceae * family Rhabdodendraceae * family Sarcobataceae * family Simmondsiaceae * family Stegnospermataceae * family Talinaceae * family Tamaricaceae

APG II

As circumscribed by the APG II system (2003), this order includes well-known plants like cacti , carnations , spinach , beet , rhubarb , sundews , venus fly traps , and bougainvillea . Recent molecular and biochemical evidence has resolved additional well-supported clades within the Caryophyllales.

* order Caryophyllales

* family Achatocarpaceae * family Aizoaceae * family Amaranthaceae _ Pupalia lappacea _ Forest Burr from family Amaranthaceae * family Anacampserotaceae (added in APG III) * family Ancistrocladaceae * family Asteropeiaceae * family Barbeuiaceae * family Basellaceae * family Cactaceae * family Caryophyllaceae * family Didiereaceae * family Dioncophyllaceae * family Droseraceae * family Drosophyllaceae * family Frankeniaceae * family Gisekiaceae * family Halophytaceae * family Limeaceae (added in APG III) * family Lophiocarpaceae (added in APG III) * family Molluginaceae _ Glinus oppositifolius _ from family Molluginaceae * family Montiaceae (added in APG III) * family Nepenthaceae * family Nyctaginaceae * family Physenaceae * family Phytolaccaceae * family Plumbaginaceae * family Polygonaceae * family Portulacaceae * family Rhabdodendraceae * family Sarcobataceae * family Simmondsiaceae * family Stegnospermataceae * family Talinaceae (added in APG III) * family Tamaricaceae

Cactaceaeː Gymnocalycium Matoensea at Yale's Marsh Botanical Garden.

APG

_ Carnegiea gigantea_ _ Sweet William Dwarf from the family Caryophyllaceae A flower of Dianthus_

This represents a slight change from the APG system , of 1998

* order Caryophyllales family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Ancistrocladaceae family Asteropeiaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Didiereaceae family Dioncophyllaceae family Droseraceae family Drosophyllaceae family Frankeniaceae family Molluginaceae family Nepenthaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Physenaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Plumbaginaceae family Polygonaceae family Portulacaceae family Rhabdodendraceae family Sarcobataceae family Simmondsiaceae family Stegnospermataceae family Tamaricaceae

CRONQUIST

_ Chenopodium album_

The Cronquist system (1981) also recognised the order, with this circumscription:

* order Caryophyllales family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Chenopodiaceae family Didiereaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Portulacaceae family Molluginaceae

The difference with the order as recognized by APG lies in the first place in the concept of "order". The APG favours much larger orders and families, and the order Caryophyllales _sensu_ APG should rather be compared to subclass Caryophyllidae _sensu_ Cronquist.

A part of the difference lies with what families are recognized. The plants in the Stegnospermataceae and Barbeuiaceae were included in Cronquist's Phytolaccaceae. The Chenopodiaceae (still recognized by Cronquist) are included in