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CARYOPHYLLACEAE, commonly called the PINK FAMILY or CARNATION FAMILY,
is a family of flowering plants . It is included in the dicotyledon
Caryophyllales in the
APG III system , alongside 33 other
This cosmopolitan family of mostly herbaceous plants is best
represented in temperate climates, with a few species growing on
tropical mountains. Some of the more commonly known members include
pinks and carnations (
Dianthus ), and firepink and campions (Lychnis
Silene ). Many species are grown as ornamental plants , and some
species are widespread weeds . Most species grow in the Mediterranean
and bordering regions of
* 1 Description
* 2 Systematics
* 3 References * 4 External links
Despite its size and the somewhat doubtful mutual relationships, this family is rather uniform and easily recognizable.
Most are herbaceous annuals or perennials , dying off above ground each year. A few species are shrubs or small trees, such as some Acanthophyllum species. Most plants are non-succulent ; i.e. having no fleshy stems or leaves. The nodes on the stem are swollen. The leaves are almost always opposite, rarely whorled . The blades are entire, petiolate, and often stipulate. These stipules are not sheath-forming.
The hermaphroditic flowers are terminal, blooming singly or branched or forked in cymes . The inflorescence is usually dichasial at least in the lower parts, which means that in the axil of each peduncle (primary flower stalk) of the terminal flower in the cyme, two new single-flower branches sprout up on each side of and below the first flower. If the terminal flowers are absent, then this can lead to monochasia , i.e. a monoparous cyme with a single flower on each axis of the inflorescence . In the extreme, this leads to a single flower, such as in Githago or Arenaria . The flowers are regular and mostly with five petals and five sepals , but sometimes with four petals. The sepals may be free from one another or united. The petals may be entire, fringed or deeply cleft. The calyx may be cylindrically inflated, as in Silene. The stamens number five or 10 (or more rarely four or eight), and are mostly isomerous with the perianth. The superior gynoecium has two to five carpels (members of a compound pistil) and is syncarpous; i.e. with these carpels united in a compound ovary. This ovary has one chamber inside the ovary. The fruit may be a utricle with a single seed or a capsule containing several seeds.
The "maiden pink", Dianthus deltoides , belongs to the core group of Silenoideae. Minuartia gerardii belongs to a clade traditionally included in the Alsinoideae. Paronychia argentea from the primitive Paronychioideae assemblage Stellaria ruscifolia is traditionally placed in the Alsinoideae, but may not be a close relative of Minuartia .
This family is traditionally divided in three subfamilies:
* Alsinoideae : no stipules, petals not united * Silenoideae : no stipules, petals united * Paronychioideae : fleshy stipules, petals separate or united
The last, however, are a basal grade of rather primitive members of this family, not closely related, but simply retaining many plesiomorphic traits. Instead of a subfamily, most ought to be treated as genera incertae sedis , but Corrigiola and Telephium might warrant recognition as Corrigioleae . The Alsinoideae, on the other hand, seem to form two distinct clades , perhaps less some misplaced genera. Finally, the Silenoideae appear monophyletic at least for the most part, if some of the taxa misplaced in Alsinoideae are moved there; it may be that the name Caryophylloideae would apply for the revised delimitation.
However, hybridization between many members of this family is rampant—particularly in the Silenoideae/Caryophylloideae—and some of the lineages of descent have been found to be highly complicated and do not readily yield to cladistic analysis.
Achyronychia – onyxflower, frost-mat
Agrostemma – corncockles
* Arenaria – sandworts
Cerastium – mouse-ear chickweeds
Colobanthus – pearlworts
* Corrigiola – strapworts
Dianthus – carnations and pinks
Gypsophila – gypsophilas, baby's-breath
Herniaria – ruptureworts
Holosteum – jagged chickweeds
Lychnis – campions, catchflies
Minuartia – sandworts, stitchworts
Moehringia – sandworts
Moenchia – upright chickweeds
* Paronychia – chickweeds
Petrorhagia (previously known as Tunica)
Sagina – pearlworts
* ^ A B
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families
of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean
Society . 161 (2): 105–121. doi :10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x .
* ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of
known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa.
Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi :10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1 .
* ^ E. D. Rudolph (1965). "Antarctic lichens and vascular plants:
their significance". BioScience. 15 (4): 285–287.
JSTOR 1293425 .
doi :10.2307/1293425 .
* ^ A B C A. V. S. S. Sambamurty (2005). "
* ^ Walter S. Judd; Christopher S. Campbell; Elizabeth A. Kellogg;
Peter F. Stevens; Michael J. Donoghue (2008).
* Media related to