A CARTOON is a type of two-dimensional illustration , possibly animated. While the specific definition has changed over time, modern usage refers to (a) a typically non-realistic or semi-realistic artistic style of drawing or painting , (b) an image or series of images intended for satire , caricature , or humor , or (c) a motion picture that relies on a sequence of illustrations for its animation. An artist who creates cartoons is called a cartoonist .
The concept originated in the
* 1 Fine art
* 2 Print media
* 2.1 Political cartoons * 2.2 Scientific cartoons * 2.3 Books
* 5 References
* 5.1 Bibliography
* 6 External links
Main article: Modello
A cartoon (from Italian : cartone and Dutch : karton—words describing strong, heavy paper or pasteboard) is a full-size drawing made on sturdy paper as a study or modello for a painting , stained glass or tapestry . Cartoons were typically used in the production of frescoes , to accurately link the component parts of the composition when painted on damp plaster over a series of days (giornate).
Such cartoons often have pinpricks along the outlines of the design
so that a bag of soot patted or "pounced" over the cartoon, held
against the wall, would leave black dots on the plaster ("pouncing").
Cartoons by painters , such as the
Raphael Cartoons in London, and
Leonardo da Vinci
John Leech ,
In modern print media, a cartoon is an illustration or series of
illustrations, usually humorous in intent. This usage dates from 1843,
Punch magazine applied the term to satirical drawings in its
pages, particularly sketches by John Leech . The first of these
parodied the preparatory cartoons for grand historical frescoes in the
Palace of Westminster
Cartoons can be divided into gag cartoons, which include editorial cartoons, and comic strips.
Modern single-panel gag cartoons , found in magazines, generally
consist of a single drawing with a typeset caption positioned beneath,
or—much less often—a speech balloon . Newspaper syndicates have
also distributed single-panel gag cartoons by
Mel Calman , Bill Holman
Bill Hoest , Jerry Marcus and Virgil Partch began as magazine gag cartoonists and moved to syndicated comic strips . Richard Thompson is noteworthy in the area of newspaper cartoon illustration; he illustrated numerous feature articles in The Washington Post before creating his Cul de Sac comic strip. The sports section of newspapers usually featured cartoons, sometimes including syndicated features such as Chester "Chet" Brown's All in Sport .
Editorial cartoons are found almost exclusively in news publications and news websites. Although they also employ humor, they are more serious in tone, commonly using irony or satire . The art usually acts as a visual metaphor to illustrate a point of view on current social and/or political topics. Editorial cartoons often include speech balloons and sometimes use multiple panels. Editorial cartoonists of note include Herblock , David Low , Jeff MacNelly , Mike Peters and Gerald Scarfe .
Comic strips, also known as cartoon strips in the United Kingdom, are found daily in newspapers worldwide, and are usually a short series of cartoon illustrations in sequence. In the United States, they are not commonly called "cartoons" themselves, but rather "comics" or "funnies ". Nonetheless, the creators of comic strips—as well as comic books and graphic novels —are usually referred to as "cartoonists ". Although humor is the most prevalent subject matter, adventure and drama are also represented in this medium. Some noteworthy cartoonists of humorous comic strips are Scott Adams , Steve Bell , Charles Schulz , E. C. Segar , Mort Walker and Bill Watterson .
Main article: Editorial cartoon
Political cartoons are like illustrated editorial that serve visual commentaries on political events. They offer subtle criticism which are cleverly quoted with humour and satire to the extent that the criticized does not get embitered.
The pictorial satire of
By the mid 19th century, major political newspapers in many other
countries featured cartoons commenting on the politics of the day.
Political cartoons can be humorous or satirical, sometimes with piercing effect. The target of the humor may complain, but they can seldom fight back. Lawsuits have been very rare; the first successful lawsuit against a cartoonist in over a century in Britain came in 1921, when J. H. Thomas , the leader of the National Union of Railwaymen (NUR), initiated libel proceedings against the magazine of the British Communist Party . Thomas claimed defamation in the form of cartoons and words depicting the events of "Black Friday", when he allegedly betrayed the locked-out Miners\' Federation . To Thomas, the framing of his image by the far left threatened to grievously degrade his character in the popular imagination. Soviet-inspired communism was a new element in European politics, and cartoonists unrestrained by tradition tested the boundaries of libel law. Thomas won the lawsuit and restored his reputation.
Cartoons have also found their place in the world of science ,
mathematics and technology . Cartoons related to chemistry are, for
example, xkcd , which varies its subject matter, and the Wonderlab,
which looks at daily life in the lab. In the U.S., one well-known
cartoonist for these fields is Sidney Harris . Not all, but many of
Books with cartoons are usually reprints of newspaper cartoons .
On some occasions, new gag cartoons have been created for book
publication, as was the case with
Think Small , a 1967 promotional
book distributed as a giveaway by
An animated cartoon horse, drawn by rotoscoping from Eadweard
Muybridge 's 19th-century photos Main article:
Because of the stylistic similarities between comic strips and early animated movies, cartoon came to refer to animation , and the word "cartoon" is currently used in reference to both animated cartoons and gag cartoons. While animation designates any style of illustrated images seen in rapid succession to give the impression of movement, the word "cartoon" is most often used as a descriptor for television programs and short films aimed at children, possibly featuring anthropomorphized animals, superheroes , the adventures of child protagonists and/or related themes.
At the end of the 1980s, "cartoon" was shortened in some cases to create the word "toon", which came into use with the combined live-action/animated film Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988). Two years later, the animated TV series Tiny Toon Adventures (1990) demonstrated the use of the term.
* Billy Ireland
* ^ Merriam-Webster\'s Dictionary .
* ^ A B C D Becker 1959
* ^ Constable 1954 , p. 115.
* ^ Adelson 1994 , p. 330.
* ^ Punch.co.uk. "History of the Cartoon".
* ^ Adler & Hill 2008 , p. 30.
* ^ Bishop 2009 , p. 92.
* ^ A B Press 1981 , p. 34.
* ^ Chris Upton. "Birth of England\'s pocket cartoon".
* ^ A B Rowson 2015 .
* ^ Adler & Hill 2008 , p. 24.
* ^ Adler & Hill 2008 , pp. 49–50.
* ^ Morris & Tenniel 2005 , p. 344.
* ^ Samuel S. Hyde, "'Please, Sir, he called me “Jimmy!'
Political Cartooning before the Law: 'Black Friday,' J.H. Thomas, and
the Communist Libel Trial of 1921," Contemporary British History
(2011) 25#4 pp 521-550
* ^ "xkcd".
* ^ "Wonderlab Comic".
* ^ "The Cartoons of Sidney Harris".
* Adelson, Candace (1994). European tapestry in the Minneapolis
Institute of Arts. Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Arts.
* Adler, John; Hill, Draper (2008). Doomed by Cartoon: How