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The CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. It was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty
Carolingian dynasty
, which had ruled as kings of the Franks
Franks
since 751 and as kings of the Lombards
Lombards
of Italy
Italy
from 774. In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was crowned emperor in Rome
Rome
by Pope Leo III in an effort to revive the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the west during a vacancy in the throne of the eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. After a civil war (840–43) following the death of Emperor Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious
, the empire was divided into autonomous kingdoms, with one king still recognised as emperor, but with little authority outside his own kingdom. The unity of the empire and the hereditary right of the Carolingians continued to be acknowledged.

In 884, Charles the Fat reunited all the kingdoms for the last time, but he died in 888 and the empire immediately split up. With the only remaining legitimate male of the dynasty a child, the nobility elected regional kings from outside the dynasty or, in the case of the eastern kingdom , an illegitimate Carolingian. The illegitimate line continued to rule in the east until 911, while in the western kingdom the legitimate Carolingian dynasty
Carolingian dynasty
was restored in 898 and ruled until 987 with an interruption from 922 to 936.

The size of the empire at its inception was around 1,112,000 square kilometres (429,000 sq mi), with a population of between 10 and 20 million people. To the south it bordered the Emirate of Córdoba
Emirate of Córdoba
and, after 824, the Kingdom of Pamplona ; to the north it bordered the kingdom of the Danes ; to the west it had a short land border with Brittany , which was later reduced to a tributary; and to the east it had a long border with the Slavs
Slavs
and the Avars , who were defeated and their land incorporated into the empire. In southern Italy, the Carolingians' claims to authority were disputed by the Byzantines (eastern Romans) and the vestiges of the Lombard kingdom in the Principality of Benevento
Principality of Benevento
.

Use of the term "Carolingian Empire" is a modern convention. The language of official acts in the empire was Latin . The empire was referred to variously as universum regnum ("the whole kingdom", as opposed to the regional kingdoms), Romanorum sive Francorum imperium ("empire of the Romans and Franks"), Romanum imperium ("Roman empire") or even imperium christianum ("Christian empire").

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Rise of the Carolingians (c.732-768) * 1.2 During the reign of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(768–814) * 1.3 Reign of Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious
and the civil war(814–843) * 1.4 After the Treaty of Verdun (843–877) * 1.5 Decline (877–888) * 1.6 Divisions in 887–88

* 2 Demographics

* 3 Government

* 3.1 Military * 3.2 Capitals * 3.3 Household * 3.4 Officials * 3.5 Legal system * 3.6 Coinage * 3.7 Subdivision * 3.8 Placitum generalis * 3.9 Oaths * 3.10 Capitularies

* 4 List of emperors * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

HISTORY

RISE OF THE CAROLINGIANS (C.732-768)

Though Charles Martel chose not to take the title King, as his son Pepin III the Short would, or Emperor, as his grandson Charlemagne would become titled, he was absolute ruler of virtually all of today's continental Western Europe
Western Europe
north of the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
. Only the remaining Saxon realms, which he partly conquered, Lombardy
Lombardy
, and the Marca Hispanica south of the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
were significant additions to the Frankish realms after his death.

Martel was also the founder of all the feudal systems and merit system that marked the Carolingian Empire, and Europe in general during the Middle Ages, though his son and grandson would gain credit for his innovations. Further, Martel cemented his place in history with his defense of Christian Europe against a Muslim army at the Battle of Tours in 732. The Iberian Saracens had incorporated Berber lighthorse cavalry with the heavy Arab cavalry to create a formidable army that had almost never been defeated. Christian European forces, meanwhile, lacked the powerful tool of the stirrup . In this victory, Charles earned the surname Martel ("the Hammer"). Edward Gibbon , the historian of Rome
Rome
and its aftermath, called Charles Martel "the paramount prince of his age."

Pepin III accepted the nomination as king by Pope Zachary in about 751. Charlemagne's rule began in 768 at Pepin's death. He proceeded to take control over the kingdom following his brother Carloman's death, as the two brothers co-inherited their father's kingdom. Charlemagne was crowned Roman Emperor in the year 800.

DURING THE REIGN OF CHARLEMAGNE (768–814)

The Dorestad Brooch, Carolingian-style jewellery from c. 800

The Carolingian Empire
Empire
during the reign of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
covered most of Western Europe
Western Europe
, as the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
once had. Unlike the Romans, who ventured beyond the Rhine
Rhine
only for vengeance after the disaster at Teutoburg Forest (9 AD), Charlemagne
Charlemagne
decisively crushed all Germanic resistance and extended his realm to the Elbe
Elbe
, influencing events almost to the Russian Steppes.

Prior to the death of Charlemagne, the Empire
Empire
was divided among various members of the Carolingian dynasty
Carolingian dynasty
. These included King Charles the Younger, son of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
, who received Neustria ; King Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious
, who received Aquitaine
Aquitaine
; and King Pepin , who received Italy
Italy
. Pepin died with an illegitimate son, Bernard , in 810, and Charles died without heirs in 811. Although Bernard succeeded Pepin as King of Italy, Louis was made co-Emperor in 813, and the entire Empire
Empire
passed to him with Charlemagne's death in the winter of 814.

REIGN OF LOUIS THE PIOUS AND THE CIVIL WAR(814–843)

Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious
often had to struggle to maintain control of the Empire. King Bernard of Italy
Italy
died in 818 in imprisonment after rebelling a year earlier, and Italy
Italy
was brought back into Imperial control. Louis' show of penance for Bernard's death in 822 greatly reduced his prestige as Emperor to the nobility. Meanwhile, in 817 Louis had established three new Carolingian Kingships for his sons from his first marriage: Lothar was made King of Italy
Italy
and co-Emperor, Pepin was made King of Aquitaine, and Louis the German was made King of Bavaria
Bavaria
. His attempts in 823 to bring his fourth son (from his second marriage), Charles the Bald
Charles the Bald
into the will was marked by the resistance of his eldest sons, and the last years of his reign were plagued by civil war.

Lothar was stripped of his co-Emperorship in 829 and was banished to Italy, but the following year his sons attacked Louis' empire and dethroned him in favour of Lothar. The following year Louis attacked his sons' Kingdoms, stripped Lothar of his Imperial title and granted the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
to Charles. Pepin and Louis the German revolted in 832, followed by Lothar in 833, and together they imprisoned Louis the Pious and Charles. In 835, peace was made within the family, and Louis was restored to the Imperial throne. When Pepin died in 838, Louis crowned Charles king of Aquitaine, whilst the nobility elected Pepin's son Pepin II , a conflict which was not resolved until 860 with Pepin's death. When Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious
finally died in 840, Lothar claimed the entire empire irrespective of the partitions. The division of 843

As a result, Charles and Louis the German went to war against Lothar. After losing the Battle of Fontenay , Lothar fled to his capital at Aachen
Aachen
and raised a new army, which was inferior to that of the younger brothers. In the Oaths of Strasbourg , in 842, Charles and Louis agreed to declare Lothar unfit for the imperial throne. This marked the East-West division of the Empire
Empire
between Louis and Charles until the Verdun Treaty. Considered a milestone in European history, the Oaths of Strasbourg symbolize the birth of both France
France
and Germany. The partition of Carolingian Empire
Empire
was finally settled in 843 by and between Louis the Pious' three sons in the Treaty of Verdun .

AFTER THE TREATY OF VERDUN (843–877)

Main article: Treaty of Verdun

Lothar received the Imperial title, the Kingship of Italy, and the territory between the Rhine
Rhine
and Rhone Rivers, collectively called the Central Frankish Realm . Louis was guaranteed the Kingship of all lands to the east of the Rhine
Rhine
and to the north and east of Italy, which was called the Eastern Frankish Realm which was the precursor to modern Germany
Germany
. Charles received all lands west of the Rhone, which was called the Western Frankish Realm .

Lothar retired Italy
Italy
to his eldest son Louis II in 844, making him co-Emperor in 850. Lothar died in 855, dividing his kingdom into three parts: the territory already held by Louis remained his, the territory of the former Kingdom of Burgundy was granted to his third son Charles of Burgundy
Burgundy
, and the remaining territory for which there was no traditional name was granted to his second son Lothar II , whose realm was named Lotharingia
Lotharingia
.

Louis II, dissatisfied with having received no additional territory upon his father's death, allied with his uncle Louis the German against his brother Lothar and his uncle Charles the Bald
Charles the Bald
in 858. Lothar was reconciled with his brother and uncle shortly after. Charles was so unpopular that he could not raise an army to fight the invasion and instead fled to Burgundy. He was only saved when the bishops refused to crown Louis the German King. In 860, Charles the Bald invaded Charles of Burgundy's Kingdom but was repulsed. Lothar II ceded lands to Louis II in 862 for support of a divorce from his wife, which caused repeated conflicts with the Pope and his uncles. Charles of Burgundy
Burgundy
died in 863, and his Kingdom was inherited by Louis II.

Lothar II died in 869 with no legitimate heirs, and his Kingdom was divided between Charles the Bald
Charles the Bald
and Louis the German in 870 by the Treaty of Meerssen . Meanwhile, Louis the German was involved with disputes with his three sons. Louis II died in 875, and named Carloman , the eldest son of Louis the German, his heir. Charles the Bald, supported by the Pope, was crowned both King of Italy
Italy
and Holy Roman Emperor. The following year, Louis the German died. Charles tried to annex his realm too, but was defeated decisively at Andernach , and the Kingdom of the eastern Franks
Franks
was divided between Louis the Younger , Carloman of Bavaria
Bavaria
and Charles the Fat .

DECLINE (877–888)

Copy of the Ludwigslied
Ludwigslied
, an epic poem celebrating the victory of Louis III of West Francia over the Vikings

The Empire, after the death of Charles the Bald, was under attack in the north and west by the Vikings, and was facing internal struggles from Italy
Italy
to the Baltic, from Hungary in the east to Aquitaine
Aquitaine
in the west. Charles the Bald
Charles the Bald
died in 877 crossing the Pass of Mont Cenis
Mont Cenis
, and was succeeded by his son, Louis the Stammerer as King of the Western Franks, but the title of Holy Roman Emperor lapsed. Louis the Stammerer was physically weak and died two years later, his realm being divided between his eldest two sons: Louis III gaining Neustria and Francia
Francia
, and Carloman gaining Aquitaine
Aquitaine
and Burgundy
Burgundy
. The Kingdom of Italy
Italy
was finally granted to King Carloman of Bavaria, but a stroke forced him to abdicate Italy
Italy
to his brother Charles the Fat and Bavaria
Bavaria
to Louis of Saxony. Also in 879, Boso, Count of Arles founded the Kingdom of Lower Burgundy in Provence
Provence
.

In 881, Charles the Fat was crowned the Holy Roman Emperor while Louis III of Saxony and Louis III of Francia
Francia
died the following year. Saxony and Bavaria
Bavaria
were united with Charles the Fat's Kingdom, and Francia
Francia
and Neustria were granted to Carloman of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
who also conquered Lower Burgundy. Carloman died in a hunting accident in 884 after a tumultuous and ineffective reign, and his lands were inherited by Charles the Fat, effectively recreating the Empire
Empire
of Charlemagne.

Charles, suffering what is believed to be epilepsy, could not secure the kingdom against Viking
Viking
raiders, and after buying their withdrawal from Paris
Paris
in 886 was perceived by the court as being cowardly and incompetent. The following year his nephew Arnulf of Carinthia , the illegitimate son of King Carloman of Bavaria, raised the standard of rebellion. Instead of fighting the insurrection, Charles fled to Neidingen and died the following year in 888, leaving a divided entity and a succession mess.

DIVISIONS IN 887–88

The Empire
Empire
of the Carolingians was divided: Arnulf maintained Carinthia , Bavaria, Lorraine and modern Germany
Germany
; Count Odo of Paris was elected King of Western Francia
Francia
( France
France
), Ranulf II became King of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
, Italy
Italy
went to Count Berengar of Friuli , Upper Burgundy to Rudolph I , and Lower Burgundy to Louis the Blind , the son of Boso of Arles, King of Lower Burgundy and maternal grandson of Emperor Louis II . The other part of Lotharingia
Lotharingia
became the duchy of Burgundy.

DEMOGRAPHICS

The largest cities in the Carolingian Empire
Empire
around the year 800:

Rome
Rome
50,000. Paris
Paris
25,000. Regensburg
Regensburg
25,000. Metz
Metz
25,000. Mainz 20,000. Speyer
Speyer
20,000. Tours
Tours
20,000. Trier
Trier
15,000. Cologne
Cologne
15,000. Lyon
Lyon
12,000. Worms 10,000. Poitiers
Poitiers
10,000. Provins 10,000. Rennes 10,000. Rouen
Rouen
10,000.

GOVERNMENT

The government, administration, and organisation of the Carolingian Empire
Empire
were forged in the court of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in the decades around the year 800. In this year, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was crowned emperor and adapted his existing royal administration to live up to the expectations of his new title. The political reforms wrought in Aachen were to have an immense impact on the political definition of Western Europe for the rest of the Middle Ages. The Carolingian improvements on the old Merovingian
Merovingian
mechanisms of governance have been lauded by historians for the increased central control , efficient bureaucracy, accountability, and cultural renaissance .

The Carolingian Empire
Empire
was the largest western territory since the fall of Rome
Rome
, but historians have come to suspect the depth of the emperor's influence and control. Legally, the Carolingian emperor exercised the bannum , the right to rule and command, over all of his territories. Also, he had supreme jurisdiction in judicial matters, made legislation, led the army, and protected both the Church and the poor. His administration was an attempt to organise the kingdom, church and nobility around him, however, its efficacy was directly dependent upon the efficiency, loyalty and support of his subjects.

MILITARY

It has long been held that the dominance of the Carolingian military was based on a "cavalry revolution" led by Charles Martel in 730. However, the stirrup , which made the 'shock cavalry' lance charge possible, was not introduced to the Frankish kingdom until the late eighth century. Instead, the Carolingian military success rested primarily on novel siege technologies and excellent logistics. However, large numbers of horses were used by the Frankish military during the age of Charlemagne. This was because horses provided a quick, long-distance method of transporting troops , which was critical to building and maintaining such a large empire.

CAPITALS

Interior of the Palatine Chapel in Aachen
Aachen

No permanent capital city existed in the empire, the itinerant court being a typical characteristic of all Western European kingdoms at this time. Some "main residences" can, however be distinguished. In the first year of his reign, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
went to Aachen
Aachen
(French : Aix-la-Chapelle; Italian : Aquisgrana) for the first time. He began to build a palace twenty years later (788). The palace chapel, constructed in 796, later became Aachen
Aachen
Cathedral . Charlemagne
Charlemagne
spent most winters between 800 and his death (814) at Aachen, which he made the joint capital with Rome, in order to enjoy the hot springs. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
organised his empire into 350 counties, each led by an appointed count. Counts served as judges, administrators, and enforcers of capitularies. To enforce loyalty, he set up the system of missi dominici , meaning "envoys of the lord". In this system, one representative of the Church and one representative of the Emperor would head to the different counties every year and report back to Charlemagne
Charlemagne
on their status.

HOUSEHOLD

See also: Royal household under the Merovingians and Carolingians

The royal household was an itinerant body (until c. 802) which moved round the kingdom making sure good government was upheld in the localities. The most important positions were the chaplain (who was responsible for all ecclesiastical affairs in the kingdom), and the count of the palace ( Count palatine ) who had supreme control over the household. It also included more minor officials e.g. chamberlain, seneschal and marshal. The household sometimes led the army (e.g. Seneschal Andorf
Andorf
against the Bretons in 786).

Possibly associated with the chaplain and the royal chapel was the office of the chancellor, head of the chancery, a non-permanent writing office. The charters produced were rudimentary and mostly to do with land deeds. There are 262 surviving from Charles’ reign as opposed to 40 from Pepin ’s and 350 from Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious
.

OFFICIALS

There are 3 main offices which enforced Carolingian authority in the localities:

The Comes (Latin : count). Appointed by Charles to administer a county . The Carolingian Empire
Empire
(except Bavaria) was divided up into between 110 and 600 counties, each divided into centenae which were under the control of a vicar. At first they were royal agents sent out by Charles but after c. 802 they were important local magnates. They were responsible for justice, enforcing capitularies, levying soldiers, receiving tolls and dues and maintaining roads and bridges. They could technically be dismissed by the king but many offices became hereditary. They were also sometimes corrupt although many were exemplary e.g. Count Eric of Friuli. Provincial governors eventually evolved who supervised several counts.

The Missi Dominici (Latin : dominical emissaries). Originally appointed ad hoc, a reform in 802 led to the office of missus dominicus becoming a permanent one. The missi dominici were sent out in pairs. One was an ecclesiastic and one secular. Their status as high officials was thought to safeguard them from the temptation of taking bribes. They made four journeys a year in their local missaticum , each lasting a month, and were responsible for making the royal will and capitularies known, judging cases and occasionally raising armies.

The Vassi Dominici
Vassi Dominici
. These were the king’s vassals and were usually the sons of powerful men, holding ‘benefices’ and forming a contingent in the royal army. They also went on ad hoc missions.

LEGAL SYSTEM

Around 780 Charlemagne
Charlemagne
reformed the local system of administering justice and created the scabini , professional experts on law. Every count had the help of seven of these scabini, who were supposed to know every national law so that all men could be judged according to it.

Judges were also banned from taking bribes and were supposed to use sworn inquests to establish facts.

In 802, all law was written down and amended (the Salic law
Salic law
was also amended in both 798 and 802, although even Einhard admits in section 29 that this was imperfect). Judges were supposed to have a copy of both the Salic law
Salic law
code and the Ripuarian law code.

COINAGE

A denarius minted by Prince Adelchis of Benevento
Adelchis of Benevento
in the name of Emperor Louis II and Empress Engelberga, showing the expansion of Carolingian authority in southern Italy
Italy
which Louis achieved

Coinage had a strong association with the Roman Empire, and Charlemagne
Charlemagne
took up its regulation with his other imperial duties. The Carolingians exercised controls over the silver coinage of the realm, controlling its composition and value. The name of the emperor, not of the minter, appeared on the coins. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
worked to suppress mints in northern Germany
Germany
on the Baltic sea.

SUBDIVISION

The Frankish kingdom was subdivided by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
into three separate areas to make administration easier. These were the inner "core" of the kingdom (Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy) which were supervised directly by the missatica system and the itinerant household. Outside this was the regna where Frankish administration rested upon the counts, and outside this was the marcher areas where ruled powerful governors. These marcher lordships were present in Brittany, Spain and Avaria.

Charles also created two sub-kingdoms in Aquitaine
Aquitaine
and Italy, ruled by his sons Louis and Pepin respectively. Bavaria
Bavaria
was also under the command of an autonomous governor, Gerold , until his death in 796. While Charles still had overall authority in these areas they were fairly autonomous with their own chancery and minting facilities.

PLACITUM GENERALIS

Main article: Placitum

The annual meeting, the Placitum Generalis or Marchfield
Marchfield
, was held every year (between March and May) at a place appointed by the king. It was called for three reasons: to gather the Frankish host to go on campaign, to discuss political and ecclesiastical matters affecting the kingdom and to legislate for them, and to make judgements. All important men had to go the meeting and so it was an important way for Charles to make his will known. Originally the meeting worked effectively however later it merely became a forum for discussion and for nobles to express their dissatisfaction.

OATHS

Imperial seal of Charles the Bald
Charles the Bald

The oath of fidelity was a way for Charles to ensure loyalty from all his subjects. As early as 779 he banned sworn guilds between other men so that everyone took an oath of loyalty only to him. In 789 (in response to the 786 rebellion) he began legislating that everyone should swear fidelity to him as king, however in 802 he expanded the oath greatly and made it so that all men over age 12 swore it to him.

CAPITULARIES

The five greatest capitularies of Charlemagne’s reign are:

* The Capitulary of Herstal of 779. This is a short capitulary and launched according to Ganshof in response to a crisis in Aquitaine, Italy
Italy
and Spain. It is concerned a lot with ordo, making sure that the church is working correctly, also with reinforcing the wergild and Frankish ideals. Notably forced the usage of tithes . * Admonitio Generalis of 789. “Blueprint for a new society” mentioning social issues for the first time. The first 58 clauses (of 82) reiterate decisions made by previous church councils and much is also to do with ordo. * The Capitulary of Frankfurt of 794. This is mainly to do with theology and speaks out against adoptionism and iconoclasm. * The Programmatic Capitulary of 802. This shows an increasing sense of vision in society. * The Capitulary for the Jews of 814, delineating the prohibitions of Jews engaging in commerce or money-lending.

LIST OF EMPERORS

This table shows only those Carolingians who were crowned as emperor by the pope in Rome. For other Carolingian kings, see King of the Franks
Franks
. For the later emperors, see Holy Roman Emperor .

LATER IMAGE NAME IMPERIAL CORONATION DEATH CONTEMPORARY COIN

CHARLES I (Charlemagne) 25 December 800 28 January 814

LOUIS I (Louis the Pious) 1st: 11 September 813 2nd: 5 October 816 20 June 840

LOTHAIR I 5 April 823 29 September 855

LOUIS II 1st: Easter
Easter
850 2nd: 18 May 872 12 August 875

CHARLES II (Charles the Bald) 29 December 875 6 October 877

CHARLES III (Charles the Fat) 12 February 881 13 January 888

SEE ALSO

Wikimedia Commons has media related to CAROLINGIAN PERIOD .

* Carolingian Renaissance

* Carolingian architecture * Carolingian art

* List of Carolingian monasteries

REFERENCES

* ^ Post-Roman towns, trade and settlement in Europe and Byzantium – Joachim Henning – Google Břger. Books.google.dk. Retrieved 24 December 2014. The size of the Carolingian empire can be roughly estimated at 1,112,000 km² * ^ Ildar H. Garipzanov, The Symbolic Language of Authority in the Carolingian World (c.751–877) (Leiden: Brill, 2008). * ^ Rosamond McKitterick, Charlemagne: The Formation of a European Identity, Cambridge University Press, 2008 ISBN 978-0-521-88672-7 * ^ Joanna Story, Charlemagne: Empire
Empire
and Society, Manchester University Press, 2005 ISBN 978-0-7190-7089-1 * ^ "Die Geburt zweier Staaten – Die Straßburger Eide vom 14. Februar 842 Wir Europäer DW.DE 21.07.2009". Dw-world.de. 2009-07-21. Retrieved 2013-03-26. * ^ Eric Joseph Goldberg, Struggle for Empire: Kingship and Conflict Under Louis the German, 817–876, Cornell University Press, 2006 ISBN 978-0-8014-3890-5 * ^ Simon MacLean, Kingship and Politics in the Late Ninth Century: Charles the Fat and the End of the Carolingian Empire, Cambridge University Press, 2003 ISBN 978-0-521-81945-9 * ^ Bachrach, B. (2013). Charlemagne\'s Early Campaigns (768-777): A Diplomatic and Military Analysis. Brill. p. 67. ISBN 9789004244771 . Retrieved 2014-10-06. * ^ Dudley, L. (2008). Information Revolutions in the History of the West. Edward Elgar. p. 26. ISBN 9781848442801 . Retrieved 2014-10-06. * ^ Claus, Edda (June 1997). "The Rebirth of a Communications Network: Europe at the Time of the Carolingians (thesis)" (PDF). papyrus.bib.umontreal.ca. Retrieved 2014-10-06. * ^ A B Hooper, Nicholas / Bennett, Matthew. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 12–13 ISBN 0-521-44049-1 , ISBN 978-0-521-44049-3 * ^ Bowlus, Charles R. The Battle of Lechfeld and its Aftermath, August 955: The End of the Age of Migrations in the Latin West Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2006, pg. 49 ISBN 0-7546-5470-2 , ISBN 978-0-7546-5470-4 * ^ Egon Boshof: Ludwig der Fromme. Darmstadt 1996, p. 89

EXTERNAL LINKS

* The Making of Charlemagne\'s Europe

.