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Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo
Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo
SDB, GCL (born 3 February 1948) is an East Timorese Roman Catholic bishop. Along with José Ramos-Horta, he received the 1996 Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
for work "towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor."

Contents

1 Early life and religious vocation 2 Pastoral leadership 3 Resignation as Apostolic Administrator
Apostolic Administrator
and new pastoral activity 4 References

4.1 Primary sources 4.2 Studies

Early life and religious vocation[edit] The fifth child of Domingos Vaz Filipe and Ermelinda Baptista Filipe, Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo
Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo
was born in the village of Wailakama, near Vemasse, on the north coast of East Timor. His father, a schoolteacher, died two years later. His childhood years were spent in Catholic schools at Baucau
Baucau
and Ossu, before he proceeded to the Dare minor seminary outside Dili, from which he graduated in 1968. From 1969 until 1981, apart from periods of practical training (1974–1976) in East Timor
East Timor
and in Macau, he was in Portugal
Portugal
and Rome where, having become a member of the Salesian Society, he studied philosophy and theology before being ordained a priest in 1980. Returning to East Timor
East Timor
in July 1981, he became a teacher for 20 months, then director for two months, at the Salesian College at Fatumaca. Pastoral leadership[edit] On the resignation of Martinho da Costa Lopes in 1983, Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo was appointed Apostolic Administrator
Apostolic Administrator
of the Dili diocese, becoming head of the East Timor
East Timor
church and directly responsible to the Pope. On 6 February 1989, he was consecrated titular Bishop of Lorium.[1] Father Belo was the choice of the Vatican's Pro Nuncio
Nuncio
in Jakarta
Jakarta
and the Indonesian leaders because of his supposed submissiveness, but he was not the choice of the Timorese priests who did not attend his inauguration. However within only five months of his assuming office, he protested vehemently, in a sermon in the cathedral, against the brutalities of the Kraras massacre (1983) and condemned the many Indonesian arrests. The church was the only institution capable of communicating with the outside world, so with this in mind the new Apostolic Administrator
Apostolic Administrator
started writing letters and building up overseas contacts, in spite of the isolation arising from the opposition of the Indonesians and the disinterest of most of the world. In February 1989 he wrote to the President of Portugal, the Pope, and the UN Secretary-General, calling for a UN referendum on the future of East Timor
East Timor
and for international help for the East Timorese, who were "dying as a people and a nation", but when the UN letter became public in April, he became even more of a target of the Indonesians. This precariousness increased when Bishop Belo gave sanctuary in his own home, as he did on various occasions, to youths escaping the Santa Cruz massacre (1991), and endeavoured to expose the numbers of victims killed. Bishop Belo's labours on behalf of the East Timorese and in pursuit of peace and reconciliation were internationally recognised when, along with José Ramos-Horta, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in December 1996. Bishop Belo capitalised upon this honour through meetings with Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
of the United States and Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
of South Africa. In 1995, he also won the John Humphrey Freedom Award from the Canadian human rights group Rights & Democracy.[2] Resignation as Apostolic Administrator
Apostolic Administrator
and new pastoral activity[edit] In the aftermath of East Timorese independence on 20 May 2002, the pressure of events and the ongoing stress he endured began to show their effects on Bishop Belo's health. Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
accepted his resignation as Apostolic Administrator
Apostolic Administrator
of Dili
Dili
on 26 November 2002. Following his resignation Bishop Belo travelled to Portugal
Portugal
for medical treatment. By the beginning of 2004, there were repeated calls for him to return to East Timor
East Timor
and to run for the office of president. However, in May 2004 he told Portuguese state-run television RTP, that he would not allow his name to be put up for nomination. "I have decided to leave politics to politicians," he stated. One month later, on 7 June 2004, Pascuál Chavez, rector major of the Salesian Society, announced from Rome
Rome
that Bishop Belo, returned to health, would take up a new assignment. In agreement with the Holy See, he would go to Mozambique
Mozambique
as a missionary, and live as a member of the Salesian Society
Salesian Society
in that country. In a statement released on 8 June, Bishop Belo said that, following two meetings in 2003 and in 2004 with the Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelisation of Peoples, he would go on a mission to the Diocese of Maputo, the capital of Mozambique, as he had wanted to since his youth.[citation needed] He started in July 2004; the same year he was awarded an Honorary Doctorate from CEU Cardinal Herrera University. In February 2011 Belo received the Prize for Lusophonic Personality of the Year, given by MIL: Movimento Internacional Lusófono in the Lisbon Academy of Sciences. References[edit]

^ Fernandes, C. The Independence of East Timor. Sussex Academic Press 2011. ^ " John Humphrey Freedom Award 2009". Rights & Democracy. 2010. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2011. 

Primary sources[edit]

Belo, Carlos Filipe Ximenes. “The Nobel Lecture,” given by The Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
Laureate 1996, Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo, Titular bishop of Lorium and Apostolic Administrator
Apostolic Administrator
of Dili
Dili
(East Timor): Oslo, 10 December 1996. ANS Mag: A Periodical for the Salesian Community, year 3, no. 25 (December 1996).

Studies[edit]

Colombo, Ferdinando. “Timor Anno Zero,” in Bollettino Salesiano 124.4 (April 2000): 18–20. Cristalis, Irena. Bitter Dawn: East Timor: A People’s Story. London: Zed Books, 2002. De Vanna, Umberto. “Il mondo ha scelto Timor,” in Bollettino Salesiano 121.2 (February 1997): 4–5. De Vanna, Umberto. “Il nobel per la pace: La forza della non-violenza a Timor Est,” in Bollettino Salesiano 120.11 (December 1997): 4–5. Garulo, Carlos. “The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Peace: who is Bishop Belo?” ANS Mag: A Periodical for the Salesian Community, year 3, no. 23 (November 1996): 6–8. English language edition. Hainsworth, Paul, and Stephen McCloskey, eds. The East Timor
East Timor
Question: The Struggle for Independence from Indonesia. Forward by John Pilger; Preface by José Ramos-Horta. London: I. B. Tauris, 2000. Jardine, Matthew. East Timor: Genocide in Paradise. Introduction by Noam Chomsky; Real Story Series, 2nd ed. Monroe, ME: Odonian Press, 1999. Kohen, Arnold. From the Place of the Dead: the epic struggles of Bishop Belo of East Timor. Introduction by the Dalai Lama. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999. Lennox, Rowena. Fighting Spirit of East Timor: The Life of Martinho da Costa Lopes. London: Zed Books, 2000. Marker, Jamsheed; East Timor: a Memoir of the Negotiations of Independence. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2003. Nicol, Bill. Timor, A Nation Reborn. Jakarta: Equinox, 2002. Orlando, Vito. “Timor… più che paura!” in Bollettino Salesiano 124.1 (January 2000): 18–20. Pinto, Constâncio, and Matthew Jardine. East Timor’s Unfinished Struggle: Inside the Timorese Resistance: A Testimony. Preface by José António Ramos-Horta. Forward by Allan Nairn. Boston: South End Press, 1996. Puthenkadam, Peter, ed. Iingreja iha Timor Loro Sa’e – Tinan. Dili: Kendiaman Uskup, 1997. Smith, Michael G. Peacekeeping in East Timor, The Path to Independence, by Michael G. Smith, with Moreen Dee. International Peace Academy: Occasional Paper Series. 1st US ed. Boulder, Col.: Lynne Rienner, 2003. Stracca, Silvano. “Un vescovo e il suo popolo,” in Bollettino Salesiano 120.1 (January 1996): 10–12 Subroto, Hendro. Eyewitness to Integration of East Timor. Jatkarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan, 1997. Taylor, John G. East Timor
East Timor
The Price of Freedom. London: Zed Books, 1999. Taylor, John G. Indonesia’s Forgotten War, The Hidden History of East Timor. London: Zed Books, 1991.

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
titles

Preceded by Martinho da Costa Lopes Apostolic Administrator
Apostolic Administrator
of Díli 1988–2002 Succeeded by Basílio do Nascimento

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize

1901–1925

1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes

1926–1950

1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche

1951–1975

1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov

1976–2000

1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung

2001–present

2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

v t e

1996 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureates

Chemistry

Robert F. Curl Jr. (United States) Harold W. Kroto (United Kingdom) Richard E. Smalley (United States)

Literature

Wisława Szymborska
Wisława Szymborska
(Poland)

Peace

Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo
Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo
(East Timor) José Ramos-Horta
José Ramos-Horta
(East Timor)

Physics

David Morris Lee (United States) Douglas D. Osheroff (United States) Robert Coleman Richardson
Robert Coleman Richardson
(United States)

Physiology or Medicine

Peter C. Doherty
Peter C. Doherty
(Australia) Rolf M. Zinkernagel
Rolf M. Zinkernagel
(Switzerland)

Economic Sciences

James Mirrlees (United Kingdom) William Vickrey
William Vickrey
(Canada/United States)

Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
recipients 1990 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 79009058 LCCN: nr97014813 ISNI: 0000 0001 1234 9443 GND: 119433087 SELIBR: 319807 SUDOC: 069349061 BNF:

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