HOME
The Info List - Carl Maria Von Weber


--- Advertisement ---



Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber (18 or 19 November 1786 – 5 June 1826)[1][2] was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist[3] and critic, and was one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school. Weber's operas Der Freischütz, Euryanthe
Euryanthe
and Oberon greatly influenced the development of the Romantische Oper (Romantic opera) in Germany. Der Freischütz
Der Freischütz
came to be regarded as the first German "nationalist" opera, Euryanthe
Euryanthe
developed the Leitmotif
Leitmotif
technique to an unprecedented degree, while Oberon may have influenced Mendelssohn's music for A Midsummer Night's Dream and, at the same time, revealed Weber's lifelong interest in the music of non-Western cultures. This interest was first manifested in Weber's incidental music for Schiller's translation of Gozzi's Turandot, for which he used a Chinese melody, making him the first Western composer to use an Asian tune that was not of the pseudo-Turkish kind popularized by Mozart and others. A brilliant pianist himself, Weber composed four sonatas, two concertos and the Konzertstück in F minor (concert piece), which influenced composers such as Chopin, Liszt and Mendelssohn. The Konzertstück provided a new model for the one-movement concerto in several contrasting sections (such as Liszt's, who often played the work), and was acknowledged by Stravinsky as the model for his Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra. Weber's shorter piano pieces, such as the Invitation to the Dance, were later orchestrated by Berlioz, while his Polacca Brillante was later set for piano and orchestra by Liszt. Weber's compositions for clarinet, bassoon, and horn occupy an important place in the musical repertoire. His compositions for the clarinet, which include two concertos, a concertino, a quintet, a duo concertante, and variations on a theme from his opera Silvana, are regularly performed today. His Concertino for Horn and Orchestra requires the performer to simultaneously produce two notes by humming while playing—a technique known as "multiphonics". His bassoon concerto and the Andante e Rondo ungarese (a reworking of a piece originally for viola and orchestra) are also popular with bassoonists. Weber's contribution to vocal and choral music is also significant. His body of Catholic religious music was highly popular in 19th-century Germany, and he composed one of the earliest song cycles, Die Temperamente beim Verluste der Geliebten ([Four] Temperaments on the Loss of a Lover). Weber was also notable as one of the first conductors to conduct without a piano or violin. Weber's orchestration has also been highly praised and emulated by later generations of composers – Berlioz referred to him several times in his Treatise on Instrumentation while Debussy remarked that the sound of the Weber orchestra was obtained through the scrutiny of the soul of each instrument. His operas influenced the work of later opera composers, especially in Germany, such as Marschner, Meyerbeer and Wagner, as well as several nationalist 19th-century composers such as Glinka. Homage has been paid to Weber by 20th-century composers such as Debussy, Stravinsky, Mahler (who completed Weber's unfinished comic opera Die drei Pintos and made revisions of Euryanthe
Euryanthe
and Oberon) and Hindemith (composer of the popular Symphonic Metamorphosis of Themes by Carl Maria von Weber). Weber also wrote music journalism and was interested in folksong, and learned lithography to engrave his own works.

Contents

1 Life

1.1 Childhood 1.2 Education 1.3 Early career 1803–1810 1.4 Later career 1810–1826

2 Legacy 3 Works

3.1 Operas 3.2 Church music 3.3 Symphonies 3.4 Vocal works with orchestra 3.5 Concertos 3.6 Solo instruments

4 References 5 External links

Life[edit] Childhood[edit] Weber was born in Eutin, Bishopric of Lübeck, the eldest of the three children of Franz Anton von Weber (de) and his second wife, Genovefa Weber, a Viennese singer. The "von" was an affectation; Franz Anton von Weber was not actually an aristocrat. Both his parents were Catholic and originally came from the far south of Germany. Franz Anton began his career as a military officer in the service of the Duchy of Holstein, and after being fired, went on to hold a number of musical directorships. In 1787 Franz Anton went on to Hamburg where he founded a theatrical company. Franz Anton's half-brother, Fridolin, married Cäcilia Stamm and had four musical daughters, Josepha, Aloysia, Constanze and Sophie, all of whom became notable singers. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
attempted to woo Aloysia, composing several pieces for her. But after she rejected his advances, Mozart went on to marry Constanze. A gifted violinist, Franz Anton had ambitions of turning Carl into a child prodigy like Franz's nephew-by-marriage, Mozart. Carl was born with a congenital hip disease and did not begin to walk until he was four. But by then, he was already a capable singer and pianist. Education[edit] Weber's father gave him a comprehensive education, which was however interrupted by the family's constant moves. In 1796, Weber continued his musical education in Hildburghausen, where he was instructed by the oboist Johann Peter Heuschkel. On 13 March 1798, Weber's mother died of tuberculosis. That same year, Weber went to Salzburg to study with Michael Haydn, the younger brother of Joseph Haydn, who agreed to teach Carl free of charge. Later that year, Weber traveled to Munich to study with the singer Johann Evangelist Wallishauser and organist Johann Nepomuk Kalcher. 1798 also saw the twelve-year-old Weber's first published work, six fughettas for piano, published in Leipzig. Other compositions of that period, among them a mass, and his first opera, Die Macht der Liebe und des Weins (The Power of Love and Wine), are lost; but a set of Variations for the Pianoforte was later lithographed by Weber himself, under the guidance of Alois Senefelder, the inventor of the process. In 1800, the family moved to Freiberg
Freiberg
in Saxony, where Weber, then 14 years old, wrote an opera called Das stumme Waldmädchen (The Silent Forest Maiden), which was produced at the Freiberg
Freiberg
theatre. It was later performed in Vienna, Prague, and Saint Petersburg. The young Weber also began to publish articles as a music critic, for example in the Leipziger Neue Zeitung in 1801. In 1801, the family returned to Salzburg, where Weber resumed his studies with Michael Haydn. He later continued studying in Vienna with Georg Joseph Vogler, known as Abbé Vogler, founder of three important music schools (in Mannheim, Stockholm, and Darmstadt); another famous pupil of Vogler was Giacomo Meyerbeer, who became a close friend of Weber. Early career 1803–1810[edit] In 1803, Weber's opera, Peter Schmoll und seine Nachbarn
Peter Schmoll und seine Nachbarn
(Peter Schmoll and his Neighbors) was produced in Augsburg, and gave Weber his first success as a popular composer. Vogler, impressed by his pupil's talent, recommended him to the post of Director at the Breslau Opera
Opera
in 1804. Weber sought to reform the Opera
Opera
by pensioning off older singers, expanding the orchestra, and tackling a more challenging repertoire. His attempts at reform were met with strong resistance from the musicians and the Breslau public. He left his post in Breslau in a fit of frustration and from 1807 to 1810, Weber served as private secretary to Duke Ludwig, brother of King Frederick I of Württemberg. Weber's time in Württemberg
Württemberg
was plagued with troubles. He fell deeply into debt and had an ill-fated affair with Margarethe Lang, a singer at the opera. Furthermore, Weber's father Franz Anton misappropriated a vast quantity of Duke Ludwig's money. Franz Anton and Carl were charged with embezzlement and arrested on 9 February 1810. Carl was in the middle of a rehearsal for his opera Silvana when he was arrested and thrown in prison by order of the king. Though no one doubted Carl's innocence, King Frederick I had grown tired of the composer's pranks. After a summary trial, Carl and his father were banished from Württemberg. Nevertheless, Carl remained prolific as a composer during this period, writing a quantity of religious music, mainly for the Catholic mass. This however earned him the hostility of reformers working for the re-establishment of traditional chant in liturgy. Later career 1810–1826[edit] In 1810, Weber visited several cities throughout Germany; 1811 was a pivotal year in his career when he met and worked with the Munich court clarinetist Heinrich Baermann
Heinrich Baermann
and composed the Concertino in E♭ Major, Op. 26, J. 109, and the two concerti J. 114 and J. 118 for him; from December 1811 through March 1812, Weber went on tour with Baermann playing the clarinet works, and it was some of the final concerts on this tour that changed public, critical and royal opinions of Weber's work, and helped him to mount a successful performance of Silvana in Berlin later that year;[4][5] from 1813 to 1816 he was director of the Opera
Opera
in Prague; from 1816 to 1817 he worked in Berlin, and from 1817 onwards he was director of the prestigious Opera in Dresden, working hard to establish a German opera, in reaction to the Italian opera
Italian opera
which had dominated the European music scene since the 18th century. On 4 November 1817, he married Caroline Brandt, a singer who created the title role of Silvana.[6] In 1819, he wrote perhaps his most famous piano piece, Invitation to the Dance. The successful premiere of Der Freischütz
Der Freischütz
on 18 June 1821 in Berlin led to performances all over Europe. On the very morning of the premiere, Weber finished his Konzertstück in F minor for Piano and Orchestra, and he premiered it a week later.

The grave of Carl Maria von Weber, Old Catholic Cemetery, Dresden

In 1823, Weber composed the opera Euryanthe
Euryanthe
to a mediocre libretto, but containing much rich music, the overture of which in particular anticipates Richard Wagner. In 1824, Weber received an invitation from The Royal Opera, London, to compose and produce Oberon, based on Christoph Martin Wieland's poem of the same name. Weber accepted the invitation, and in 1826 he travelled to England, to finish the work and conduct the premiere on 12 April. Weber was already suffering from tuberculosis when he visited London. He conducted the premiere and twelve sold-out performances of Oberon in London during April and in May, and despite his rapidly worsening health, he continued to fulfill commitments for private concerts and benefits. He died during the night of 4/5 June 1826 at the home of his good friend Sir George Smart where he was staying while in London.[6][7] Weber was 39 years old. He was initially buried in London, but 18 years later his remains were transferred to the family burial plot in the Old Catholic Cemetery (Alten Katholischen Friedhof) in west Dresden. The simple gravestone was designed by Gottfried Semper and lies against the northern boundary wall. The eulogy at the reburial was performed by Richard Wagner. His unfinished opera Die drei Pintos
Die drei Pintos
(The Three Pintos) was originally given by Weber's widow to Giacomo Meyerbeer
Giacomo Meyerbeer
for completion; it was eventually completed by Gustav Mahler, who conducted the first performance in this form in Leipzig on 20 January 1888. Legacy[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Weber's piano music all but disappeared from the repertoire. One possible reason for this is that Weber had very large hands and delighted in writing music that suited them.[8] There are several recordings of the major works for the solo piano, including complete recordings of the piano sonatas and the shorter piano pieces, and there are recordings of the individual sonatas by Claudio Arrau
Claudio Arrau
(1st sonata), Alfred Cortot
Alfred Cortot
and Emil Gilels
Emil Gilels
(2nd sonata), Sviatoslav Richter (3rd sonata) and Leon Fleisher
Leon Fleisher
(4th sonata). The Invitation to the Dance, although better known in Berlioz's orchestration (as part of the ballet music for a Paris production of Der Freischütz), has long been played and recorded by pianists (e.g., Benno Moiseiwitsch [in Carl Tausig's arrangement]). Invitation to the Dance also served as the thematic basis for Benny Goodman's swing theme song for the radio program Let's Dance. Works[edit]

Der Freischütz
Der Freischütz
– Overture

Skidmore College Orchestra; courtesy of Musopen

Concerto
Concerto
for Bassoon
Bassoon
in F Major, 1st movement (piano transcription)

Kat Walsh (bassoon) and Amy Crane (piano)

Problems playing these files? See media help.

Grand Duo Concertant for clarinet and piano

1. Allegro con fuoco

2. Andante con moto

3. Allegro

Performed by William McColl (clarinet) and Joeseph Levine (piano)

Further information on Weber's compositions, including complete lists of his works in order of opus number and Jähns catalogue number: List of compositions by Carl Maria von Weber Operas[edit] Main article: List of operas by Weber Church music[edit]

Missa sancta No. 1 in E-flat, J. 224 (1818) Missa sancta No. 2 in G, Op. 76, J. 251 (1818–19)

Symphonies[edit]

Symphony No. 1 in C, Op. 19. J. 50 (1812) Symphony No. 2 in C. J. 51 (1813)

Vocal works with orchestra[edit]

Cantata Der erste Ton for chorus and orchestra, Op. 14, J. 58 (1808 / revised 1810) Recitative and rondo Il momento s'avvicina for soprano and orchestra, Op. 16, J. 93 (1810) Hymn In seiner Ordnung schafft der Herr for soloists, chorus and orchestra, Op. 36, J. 154 (1812) Cantata Kampf und Sieg for soloists, chorus and orchestra, Op. 44, J. 190 (1815) Scene and Aria of Atalia Misera me! for soprano and orchestra, Op. 50, J. 121 (1811) Jubel-Cantata for the 50th royal jubilee of King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony for soloist, chorus and orchestra, Op. 58, J. 244 (1818)

Concertos[edit]

Piano

Piano Concerto
Concerto
No. 1 in C major, Op. 11, J. 98 (1810) Piano Concerto
Concerto
No. 2 in E-flat major, Op. 32, J. 155 (1812) Konzertstück in F minor for Piano and Orchestra, Op. 79, J. 282 (1821)

Bassoon

Bassoon
Bassoon
Concerto
Concerto
in F major, Op. 75, J. 127 (1811 / revised 1822) Andante and Rondo Hungarian (Andante e Rondo Ongarese) for Bassoon
Bassoon
and Orchestra in C minor, Op. 35, J. 158 (1813), revised from J. 79 (1809) for viola

Clarinet

Clarinet
Clarinet
Concerto
Concerto
No. 1 in F minor, Op. 73, J. 114 (1811) Clarinet
Clarinet
Concerto
Concerto
No. 2 in E-flat major, Op. 74, J. 118 (1811) Concertino for Clarinet
Clarinet
in E-flat major, Op. 26, J. 109 (1811)

Flute

Romanza Siciliana for Flute and Orchestra, J. 47 (1805)

Horn

Concertino for Horn and Orchestra in E minor, Op. 45, J. 188 (1815)

Cello

Grand Potpourri for Cello and Orchestra in D major, Op. 20, J. 64 (1808) Variations for Cello and Orchestra in D minor, J. 94 (1810)

Viola

Six Variations on the theme A Schüsserl und a Reind'rl for Viola
Viola
and Orchestra, J. 49 (1800 / revised 1806) Andante and Hungarian Rondo for Viola
Viola
and Orchestra, J. 79 (1809)

Harmonichord

Adagio and Rondo for Harmonichord
Harmonichord
and Orchestra in F major, J. 115 (1811)

Solo instruments[edit]

Piano

Piano Sonata No. 1 Piano Sonata No. 2 Piano Sonata No. 3 Piano Sonata No. 4 Waltz
Waltz
in A for solo piano, J. 146

References[edit] Notes

^ Tusa n.d. ^ von Weber, Max Maria (1864). Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria von Weber
– Ein Lebensbild (in German). Leipzig: Ernst Keil. pp. 19–20. ) ^ Max Maria von Weber, Carl Maria von Weber: The Life of an Artist, translated by John Palgrave Simpson, two volumes (London: Chapman and Hall, 1865), 1:52, 62, 94, 137, 143, 152, 177, 211, 244, 271, 278; John Warrack, Carl Maria von Weber, second edition (Cambridge, New York, and Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 1976), 67, 94, 107, 141. ^ Weston, Pamela (1971). Clarinet
Clarinet
Virtuosi of the past. Great Britain: Emerson Edition. p. 124. ISBN 0-9506209-8-X.  ^ Warrack, John (1976). Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria von Weber
(2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 138–139. ISBN 978-0-521-29121-7.  ^ a b Masters Of Music – Carl Maria Von
Von
Weber ^ Warrack, John (1976). Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria von Weber
(2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 356–362. ISBN 978-0-521-29121-7.  ^ Andrew Fraser, Limelight magazine, June 2009, p. 60

Sources

Friese-Greene, Anthony (1993) Weber, The Illustrated Lives of the Great Composers, new ed., London: Omnibus, ISBN 0-7119-2081-8 Henderson, Donald G., and Alice H. Henderson (1990) Carl Maria von Weber: A Guide to Research, Garland Composer
Composer
Resource Manuals 24, New York; London: Garland, ISBN 0-8240-4118-6. Meyer, Stephen C. (2003) Carl Maria Von
Von
Weber and the Search for a German Opera, Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-34185-X. Reynolds, David (ed.) (1976) Weber in London, 1826, London: Wolff, ISBN 0-85496-403-7. Tusa, Michael C. (n.d.) "Weber (9): Carl Maria (Friedrich Ernst) von Weber." Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Warrack, John. (1976) Carl Maria Von
Von
Weber, Cambridge, New York, and Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-21354-1 (cloth); ISBN 0-521-29121-6 (pbk). Warrack, John H., Hugh Macdonald, and Karl-Heinz Köhler (1985) The New Grove Early Romantic Masters 2: Weber, Berlioz, Mendelssohn, The Composer
Composer
Biography Series, London: Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-39014-8. von Weber, Max Maria (1865). Carl Maria von Weber: The Life of an Artist, translated by John Palgrave Simpson. Two volumes. London: Chapman and Hall.

Further reading

Morgan, Joseph E. (2014). "Nature, Weber and a Revision of the French Sublime" (PDF). Síneris. Revista de musicología. 15 (January). ISSN 2254-3643. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Carl Maria von Weber.

Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria von Weber
at Encyclopædia Britannica Information about the new Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria von Weber
Edition The works of Carl Maria von Weber Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria von Weber
cylinder recordings, from the Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Project at the University of California, Santa Barbara Library. Free scores by Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria von Weber
at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) Free scores by Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria von Weber
in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki) Der Freischütz
Der Freischütz
Soprano (free MP3) Texts on Wikisource:

"Weber, Karl Maria von". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.  "Weber, Carl Maria Friedrich Ernest von". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.  "Weber, Karl Maria von". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.  Karl Maria von Weber in the University Musical Encyclopedia

v t e

Carl Maria von Weber

Operas

Peter Schmoll und seine Nachbarn
Peter Schmoll und seine Nachbarn
(1802) Silvana (1810) Abu Hassan
Abu Hassan
(1811) Der Freischütz
Der Freischütz
(1821) Euryanthe
Euryanthe
(1823) Oberon (1826) Die drei Pintos
Die drei Pintos
(completed by Gustav Mahler, 1888)

Orchestral works

Symphony No. 1 (1812)

Concertante

Bassoon
Bassoon
Concerto
Concerto
(1811) Clarinet
Clarinet
Concerto
Concerto
No. 1 (1811) Clarinet
Clarinet
Concerto
Concerto
No. 2 (1811) Concertino for Clarinet
Clarinet
(1811) Concertino for Horn and Orchestra (1815) Konzertstück (1821)

Chamber music

Clarinet
Clarinet
Quintet (1811) Grand Duo Concertant (1816) Trio in G minor (1818-1819)

Piano music

Invitation to the Dance (1819)

Related articles

Romantische Oper Hochschule für Musik Carl Maria von Weber

List of compositions by Carl Maria von Weber

v t e

Romanticism

Countries

Denmark England (literature) France (literature) Germany Norway Poland Russia (literature) Scotland

Movements

Bohemianism Counter-Enlightenment Dark romanticism Düsseldorf School Gesamtkunstwerk Gothic fiction Gothic Revival (architecture) Hudson River School Indianism Nazarene movement Ossian Romantic hero Romanticism
Romanticism
in science Romantic nationalism Opium and Romanticism Transcendentalism Ultra-Romanticism Wallenrodism

Writers

Abovian Alencar Alfieri Andersen A. v. Arnim B. v. Arnim Azevedo Baratashvili Baratynsky Barbauld (Aikin) Batyushkov Baudelaire Beer Bertrand Blake Botev Brentano Bryant Burns Byron Castelo Branco Castilho Cazotte Chateaubriand Chavchavadze Clare Coleridge Cooper De Quincey Dias Dumas Eichendorff Emerson Eminescu Espronceda Fouqué Foscolo Garrett Gautier Goethe Grimm Brothers Gutzkow Hauff Hawthorne Heine Heliade Herculano Hoffmann Hölderlin Hugo Ilić Irving Jakšić Jean Paul Karamzin Keats Kleist Krasiński Lamartine Larra Leopardi Lermontov Lowell Macedonski Mácha Magalhães Malczewski Manzoni Maturin Mérimée Mickiewicz Musset Nalbandian Nerval Nodier Norwid Novalis Oehlenschläger Orbeliani Poe Polidori Potocki Prešeren Pushkin Raffi Schiller Schwab Scott Seward M. Shelley P. B. Shelley Shevchenko Słowacki De Staël Stendhal Tieck Tyutchev Uhland Vörösmarty Vyazemsky Wordsworth Zhukovsky Zorrilla

Music

Adam Alkan Auber Beethoven Bellini Bennett Berlioz Bertin Berwald Brahms Bruckner Cherubini Chopin Dargomyzhsky Félicien David Ferdinand David Donizetti Fauré Field Franck Franz Glinka Gomis Halévy Kalkbrenner Liszt Loewe Marschner Masarnau Méhul Fanny Mendelssohn Felix Mendelssohn Méreaux Meyerbeer Moniuszko Moscheles Mussorgsky Niedermeyer Onslow Paganini Prudent Reicha Rimsky-Korsakov Rossini Rubinstein Schubert Clara Schumann Robert Schumann Smetana Sor Spohr Spontini Thalberg Verdi Voříšek Wagner Weber

Theologians and philosophers

Chaadayev Coleridge Feuerbach Fichte Goethe Hegel Khomyakov Müller Ritschl Rousseau Schiller A. Schlegel F. Schlegel Schopenhauer Schleiermacher Tieck Wackenroder

Visual artists

Aivazovsky Bierstadt Blake Bonington Bryullov Chassériau Church Constable Cole Corot Dahl David d'Angers Delacroix Friedrich Fuseli Géricault Girodet Głowacki Goya Gude Hayez Janmot Jones Kiprensky Koch Lampi Leutze Loutherbourg Maison Martin Michałowski Palmer Porto-Alegre Préault Révoil Richard Rude Runge Saleh Scheffer Stattler Stroj Tidemand Tropinin Turner Veit Ward Wiertz

 « Age of Enlightenment Realism » 

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 14959938 LCCN: n79110317 ISNI: 0000 0001 2319 9065 GND: 118629662 SELIBR: 209005 SUDOC: 027698467 BNF: cb13901052m (data) BIBSYS: 90109222 MusicBrainz: c2d17829-1424-435b-9386-c77d3a920abe NLA: 36176767 NDL: 00621634 NKC: jn19990008955 RLS: 000004332 BNE: XX1094089 SN

.