Linnaeus (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/; 23
May[note 1] 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his
ennoblement as Carl von Linné (Swedish
pronunciation: [ˈkɑːɭ fɔn lɪˈneː] (listen)), was a
Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist who formalised binomial
nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as
the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were
in Latin, and his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus (after
1761 Carolus a Linné).
Linnaeus was born in the countryside of
Småland in southern Sweden.
He received most of his higher education at
Uppsala University and
began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between
1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published the first edition
Systema Naturae in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden
where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the
1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and
classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to
collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, while publishing
several volumes. He was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe
at the time of his death.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I
know no greater man on earth." Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one
among the no longer living who has influenced me more
strongly." Swedish author
August Strindberg wrote:
Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a
Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum
(Prince of Botanists) and "The Pliny of the North". He is
also considered as one of the founders of modern ecology.
In botany and zoology, the abbreviation L. is used to indicate
Linnaeus as the authority for a species' name. In older
publications, the abbreviation "Linn." is found. Linnaeus's remains
comprise the type specimen for the species
Homo sapiens following the
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since the sole specimen
that he is known to have examined was himself.[note 2]
1 Early life
1.2 Early education
2 University studies
3 Expedition to Lapland
5 Publishing of Systema Naturae
6 George Clifford, Philip Miller, and Johann Jacob Dillenius
7 Return to Sweden
Öland and Gotland
7.4 Rector of
7.5 Philosophia Botanica
7.6 Nutrix Noverca
7.7 Species Plantarum
8 Final years
9.1 Early expeditions
9.2 Cook expeditions and Japan
10 Major publications
10.1 Systema Naturae
10.2 Species Plantarum
10.2.1 Genera Plantarum
10.2.2 Philosophia Botanica
12 System of taxonomy
12.1 Human taxonomy
13 Influences and economic beliefs
16 Standard author abbreviation
17 Works by Linnaeus
18 See also
20 Further reading
21 External links
Birthplace at Råshult
Linnaeus was born in the village of
Råshult in Småland, Sweden, on
23 May 1707. He was the first child of Nicolaus (Nils) Ingemarsson
(who later adopted the family name Linnaeus) and Christina
Brodersonia. His siblings were Anna Maria Linnæa, Sofia Juliana
Linnæa, Samuel Linnæus (who would eventually succeed their father as
rector of Stenbrohult and write a manual on
beekeeping), and Emerentia
Linnæa. His father taught him Latin as a small
One of a long line of peasants and priests, Nils was an amateur
Lutheran minister, and the curate of the small village of
Stenbrohult in Småland. Christina was the daughter of the rector of
Stenbrohult, Samuel Brodersonius.:376
A year after Linnaeus's birth, his grandfather Samuel Brodersonius
died, and his father Nils became the rector of Stenbrohult. The family
moved into the rectory from the curate's
Even in his early years,
Linnaeus seemed to have a liking for plants,
flowers in particular. Whenever he was upset, he was given a flower,
which immediately calmed him. Nils spent much time in his garden and
often showed flowers to
Linnaeus and told him their names. Soon
Linnaeus was given his own patch of earth where he could grow
Carl's father was the first in his ancestry to adopt a permanent
surname. Before that, ancestors had used the patronymic naming system
of Scandinavian countries: his father was named Ingemarsson after his
father Ingemar Bengtsson. When Nils was admitted to the University of
Lund, he had to take on a family name. He adopted the Latinate name
Linnæus after a giant linden tree (or lime tree), lind in Swedish,
that grew on the family homestead. This name was spelled
with the æ ligature. When Carl was born, he was named Carl Linnæus,
with his father's family name. The son also always spelled it with the
æ ligature, both in handwritten documents and in
publications. Carl's patronymic would have been Nilsson,
as in Carl Nilsson Linnæus.
Linnaeus's father began teaching him basic Latin, religion, and
geography at an early age. When
Linnaeus was seven, Nils
decided to hire a tutor for him. The parents picked Johan Telander, a
son of a local yeoman.
Linnaeus did not like him, writing in his
autobiography that Telander "was better calculated to extinguish a
child's talents than develop them".
Two years after his tutoring had begun, he was sent to the Lower
Grammar School at
Växjö in 1717.
studied, often going to the countryside to look for plants. He reached
the last year of the Lower School when he was fifteen, which was
taught by the headmaster, Daniel Lannerus, who was interested in
botany. Lannerus noticed Linnaeus's interest in botany and gave him
the run of his garden.
He also introduced him to Johan Rothman, the state doctor of Småland
and a teacher at Katedralskolan (a gymnasium) in Växjö. Also a
botanist, Rothman broadened Linnaeus's interest in botany and helped
him develop an interest in medicine. By the
age of 17,
Linnaeus had become well acquainted with the existing
botanical literature. He remarks in his journal that he "read day and
night, knowing like the back of my hand, Arvidh Månsson's Rydaholm
Book of Herbs, Tillandz's
Flora Åboensis, Palmberg's Serta Florea
Suecana, Bromelii Chloros Gothica and Rudbeckii Hortus
Linnaeus entered the
Växjö Katedralskola in 1724, where he studied
mainly Greek, Hebrew, theology and mathematics, a curriculum designed
for boys preparing for the priesthood. In the
last year at the gymnasium, Linnaeus's father visited to ask the
professors how his son's studies were progressing; to his dismay, most
said that the boy would never become a scholar. Rothman believed
Linnaeus could have a future in medicine. The
doctor offered to have
Linnaeus live with his family in
Växjö and to
teach him physiology and botany. Nils accepted this
Statue as a university student in Lund
Linnaeus that botany was a serious subject. He taught
Linnaeus to classify plants according to Tournefort's system. Linnaeus
was also taught about the sexual reproduction of plants, according to
Sébastien Vaillant. In 1727, Linnaeus, age 21, enrolled
Lund University in Skåne. He was
registered as Carolus Linnæus, the Latin form of his full name, which
he also used later for his Latin publications.
Professor Kilian Stobæus, natural scientist, physician and historian,
Linnaeus tutoring and lodging, as well as the use of his
library, which included many books about botany. He also gave the
student free admission to his lectures. In his
Linnaeus explored the flora of Skåne, together with
students sharing the same interests.
Pollination depicted in Praeludia Sponsaliorum Plantarum (1729)
In August 1728,
Linnaeus decided to attend
Uppsala University on the
advice of Rothman, who believed it would be a better choice if
Linnaeus wanted to study both medicine and botany. Rothman based this
recommendation on the two professors who taught at the medical faculty
Olof Rudbeck the Younger
Olof Rudbeck the Younger and Lars Roberg. Although Rudbeck
and Roberg had undoubtedly been good professors, by then they were
older and not so interested in teaching. Rudbeck no longer gave public
lectures, and had others stand in for him. The botany, zoology,
pharmacology and anatomy lectures were not in their best
state. In Uppsala,
Linnaeus met a new benefactor, Olof
Celsius, who was a professor of theology and an amateur
botanist. He received
Linnaeus into his home and allowed
him use of his library, which was one of the richest botanical
libraries in Sweden.
Linnaeus wrote a thesis, Praeludia Sponsaliorum Plantarum on
plant sexual reproduction. This attracted the attention of Rudbeck; in
May 1730, he selected
Linnaeus to give lectures at the University
although the young man was only a second-year student. His lectures
were popular, and
Linnaeus often addressed an audience of 300
people. In June,
Linnaeus moved from Celsius's house to
Rudbeck's to become the tutor of the three youngest of his 24
children. His friendship with
Celsius did not wane and they continued
their botanical expeditions. Over that winter, Linnaeus
began to doubt Tournefort's system of classification and decided to
create one of his own. His plan was to divide the plants by the number
of stamens and pistils. He began writing several books, which would
later result in, for example,
Genera Plantarum and Critica Botanica.
He also produced a book on the plants grown in the
Garden, Adonis Uplandicus.
Rudbeck's former assistant, Nils Rosén, returned to the University in
March 1731 with a degree in medicine. Rosén started giving anatomy
lectures and tried to take over Linnaeus's botany lectures, but
Rudbeck prevented that. Until December, Rosén gave
tutoring in medicine. In December,
Linnaeus had a "disagreement" with
Rudbeck's wife and had to move out of his mentor's house; his
relationship with Rudbeck did not appear to suffer. That Christmas,
Linnaeus returned home to Stenbrohult to visit his parents for the
first time in about three years. His mother had disapproved of his
failing to become a priest, but she was pleased to learn he was
teaching at the University.
Expedition to Lapland
Expedition to Lapland
Expedition to Lapland and
During a visit with his parents,
Linnaeus told them about his plan to
travel to Lapland; Rudbeck had made the journey in 1695, but the
detailed results of his exploration were lost in a fire seven years
afterwards. Linnaeus's hope was to find new plants, animals and
possibly valuable minerals. He was also curious about the customs of
the native Sami people, reindeer-herding nomads who wandered
Scandinavia's vast tundras. In April 1732,
Linnaeus was awarded a
grant from the
Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala
Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala for his
Wearing the traditional dress of the
Sami people of Lapland, holding
the twinflower, later known as
Linnaea borealis, that became his
personal emblem. Martin Hoffman, 1737.
Linnaeus began his expedition from
Uppsala on 12 May 1732, just before
he turned 25. He travelled on foot and horse, bringing
with him his journal, botanical and ornithological manuscripts and
sheets of paper for pressing plants. Near
Gävle he found great
quantities of Campanula serpyllifolia, later known as Linnaea
borealis, the twinflower that would become his favourite.
He sometimes dismounted on the way to examine a flower or
rock and was particularly interested in mosses and
lichens, the latter a main part of the diet of the reindeer, a common
and economically important animal in Lapland.
Linnaeus travelled clockwise around the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia,
making major inland incursions from Umeå,
Luleå and Tornio. He
returned from his six-month-long, over 2,000 kilometres
(1,200 mi) expedition in October, having gathered and observed
many plants, birds and rocks.
Although Lapland was a region with limited biodiversity, Linnaeus
described about 100 previously unidentified plants. These became the
basis of his book
Flora Lapponica. However, on
the expedition to Lapland,
Linnaeus used Latin names to describe
organisms because he had not yet developed the binomial
Flora Lapponica Linnaeus's ideas about nomenclature and
classification were first used in a practical way, making this the
first proto-modern Flora. The account covered 534 species,
used the Linnaean classification system and included, for the
described species, geographical distribution and taxonomic notes. It
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle who attributed
Linnaeus with Flora
Lapponica as the first example in the botanical genre of Flora
writing. Botanical historian E. L. Greene described
Flora Lapponica as
"the most classic and delightful" of Linnaeus's works.
It was also during this expedition that
Linnaeus had a flash of
insight regarding the classification of mammals. Upon observing the
lower jawbone of a horse at the side of a road he was travelling,
Linnaeus remarked: "If I only knew how many teeth and of what kind
every animal had, how many teats and where they were placed, I should
perhaps be able to work out a perfectly natural system for the
arrangement of all quadrupeds."
Linnaeus led a small group of students to Dalarna. Funded by
the Governor of Dalarna, the expedition was to catalogue known natural
resources and discover new ones, but also to gather intelligence on
Norwegian mining activities at Røros.
Cities where he worked; those outside Sweden were only visited
His relations with Nils Rosén having worsened,
Linnaeus accepted an
invitation from Claes Sohlberg, son of a mining inspector, to spend
the Christmas holiday in Falun, where
Linnaeus was permitted to visit
In April 1735, at the suggestion of Sohlberg's father,
Sohlberg set out for the Dutch Republic, where
Linnaeus intended to
study medicine at the University of Harderwijk while
tutoring Sohlberg in exchange for an annual salary. At the time, it
was common for Swedes to pursue doctoral degrees in the Netherlands,
then a highly revered place to study natural history.
On the way, the pair stopped in Hamburg, where they met the mayor, who
proudly showed them a supposed wonder of nature in his possession: the
taxidermied remains of a seven-headed hydra.
discovered the specimen was a fake cobbled together from the jaws and
paws of weasels and the skins of snakes. The provenance of the hydra
Linnaeus that it had been manufactured by monks to
represent the Beast of Revelation. Even at the risk of incurring the
Linnaeus made his observations public, dashing the
mayor's dreams of selling the hydra for an enormous sum.
Sohlberg were forced to flee from Hamburg.
Hamburg Hydra, from the Thesaurus (1734) of Albertus Seba
Linnaeus began working towards his degree as soon as he reached
Harderwijk, a university known for awarding degrees in as little as a
week. He submitted a dissertation, written back in Sweden,
entitled Dissertatio medica inauguralis in qua exhibetur hypothesis
nova de febrium intermittentium causa,[note 3] in which he
laid out his hypothesis that malaria arose only in areas with
clay-rich soils. Although he failed to identify the true
source of disease transmission, (i.e., the Anopheles
mosquito), he did correctly predict that Artemisia annua
(wormwood) would become a source of antimalarial
Within two weeks he had completed his oral and practical examinations
and was awarded a doctoral degree.
Linnaeus reunited with Peter Artedi, a friend from Uppsala
with whom he had once made a pact that should either of the two
predecease the other, the survivor would finish the decedent's work.
Ten weeks later, Artedi drowned in the canals of Amsterdam, leaving
behind an unfinished manuscript on the classification of
Publishing of Systema Naturae
One of the first scientists
Linnaeus met in the
Netherlands was Johan
Frederik Gronovius to whom
Linnaeus showed one of the several
manuscripts he had brought with him from Sweden. The manuscript
described a new system for classifying plants. When Gronovius saw it,
he was very impressed, and offered to help pay for the printing. With
an additional monetary contribution by the Scottish doctor Isaac
Lawson, the manuscript was published as Systema Naturae
Linnaeus became acquainted with one of the most respected physicians
and botanists in the Netherlands, Herman Boerhaave, who tried to
Linnaeus to make a career there. Boerhaave offered him a
journey to South Africa and America, but
Linnaeus declined, stating he
would not stand the heat. Instead, Boerhaave convinced
he should visit the botanist Johannes Burman. After his visit, Burman,
impressed with his guest's knowledge, decided
Linnaeus should stay
with him during the winter. During his stay,
Linnaeus helped Burman
with his Thesaurus Zeylanicus. Burman also helped
Linnaeus with the
books on which he was working:
Fundamenta Botanica and Bibliotheca
George Clifford, Philip Miller, and Johann Jacob Dillenius
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Hortus Cliffortianus (1738)
In August 1735, during Linnaeus's stay with Burman, he met George
Clifford III, a director of the
Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company and the owner
of a rich botanical garden at the estate of
Hartekamp in Heemstede.
Clifford was very impressed with Linnaeus's ability to classify
plants, and invited him to become his physician and superintendent of
Linnaeus had already agreed to stay with Burman over the
winter, and could thus not accept immediately. However, Clifford
offered to compensate Burman by offering him a copy of Sir Hans
Sloane's Natural History of Jamaica, a rare book, if he let Linnaeus
stay with him, and Burman accepted. On 24
Linnaeus moved to
Hartekamp to become personal
physician to Clifford, and curator of Clifford's herbarium. He was
paid 1,000 florins a year, with free board and lodging. Though the
agreement was only for a winter of that year,
stayed there until 1738. It was here that he wrote a book
Hortus Cliffortianus, in the preface of which he described his
experience as "the happiest time of my life". (A portion of Hartekamp
was declared as public garden in April 1956 by the
authority, and was named "Linnaeushof". It eventually
became, as it is claimed, the biggest playground in
In July 1736,
Linnaeus travelled to England, at Clifford's
expense. He went to London to visit Sir Hans Sloane, a
collector of natural history, and to see his cabinet, as
well as to visit the
Chelsea Physic Garden
Chelsea Physic Garden and its keeper, Philip
Miller. He taught Miller about his new system of subdividing plants,
as described in Systema Naturae. Miller was in fact reluctant to use
the new binomial nomenclature, preferring the classifications of
Joseph Pitton de Tournefort
Joseph Pitton de Tournefort and
John Ray at first. Linnaeus,
nevertheless, applauded Miller's Gardeners Dictionary, The
conservative Scot actually retained in his dictionary a number of
pre-Linnaean binomial signifiers discarded by
Linnaeus but which have
been retained by modern botanists. He only fully changed to the
Linnaean system in the edition of
The Gardeners Dictionary of 1768.
Miller ultimately was impressed, and from then on started to arrange
the garden according to Linnaeus's system.
Linnaeus also travelled to Oxford University to visit the botanist
Johann Jacob Dillenius. He failed to make Dillenius publicly fully
accept his new classification system, though the two men remained in
correspondence for many years afterwards.
Linnaeus dedicated his
Critica botanica to him, as "opus botanicum quo absolutius mundus non
Linnaeus would later name a genus of tropical tree Dillenia in
his honour. He then returned to Hartekamp, bringing with him many
specimens of rare plants. The next year, he published
Genera Plantarum, in which he described 935 genera of plants, and
shortly thereafter he supplemented it with Corollarium Generum
Plantarum, with another sixty (sexaginta) genera.
His work at
Hartekamp led to another book, Hortus Cliffortianus, a
catalogue of the botanical holdings in the herbarium and botanical
garden of Hartekamp. He wrote it in nine months (completed in July
1737), but it was not published until 1738. It contains
the first use of the name Nepenthes, which
Linnaeus used to describe a
genus of pitcher plants.[note 4]
Linnaeus stayed with Clifford at
Hartekamp until 18 October 1737 (new
style), when he left the house to return to Sweden. Illness and the
kindness of Dutch friends obliged him to stay some months longer in
Holland. In May 1738, he set out for Sweden again. On the way home, he
stayed in Paris for about a month, visiting botanists such as Antoine
de Jussieu. After his return,
Linnaeus never left Sweden
Return to Sweden
Linnaeus returned to Sweden on 28 June 1738, he went to Falun,
where he entered into an engagement to Sara Elisabeth Moræa. Three
months later, he moved to
Stockholm to find employment as a physician,
and thus to make it possible to support a
family. Once again,
Linnaeus found a patron;
he became acquainted with Count Carl Gustav Tessin, who helped him get
work as a physician at the Admiralty. During
this time in Stockholm,
Linnaeus helped found the Royal Swedish
Academy of Science; he became the first
Praeses in the academy by
drawing of lots.
Because his finances had improved and were now sufficient to support a
family, he received permission to marry his fiancée, Sara Elisabeth
Moræa. Their wedding was held 26 June 1739. Seventeen months later,
Sara gave birth to their first son, Carl. Two years later, a daughter,
Elisabeth Christina, was born, and the subsequent year Sara gave birth
to Sara Magdalena, who died when 15 days old. Sara and
later have four other children: Lovisa, Sara Christina, Johannes and
House in Uppsala
In May 1741,
Linnaeus was appointed Professor of Medicine at Uppsala
University, first with responsibility for medicine-related matters.
Soon, he changed place with the other Professor of Medicine, Nils
Rosén, and thus was responsible for the Botanical Garden (which he
would thoroughly reconstruct and expand), botany and natural history,
instead. In October that same year, his wife and nine-month-old son
followed him to live in Uppsala.:49–50
Öland and Gotland
Ten days after he was appointed Professor, he undertook an expedition
to the island provinces of
Gotland with six students from
the university, to look for plants useful in medicine. First, they
Öland and stayed there until 21 June, when they sailed
Visby in Gotland.
Linnaeus and the students stayed on
about a month, and then returned to Uppsala. During this expedition,
they found 100 previously unrecorded plants. The observations from the
expedition were later published in Öländska och Gothländska Resa,
written in Swedish. Like
Flora Lapponica, it contained both zoological
and botanical observations, as well as observations concerning the
Öland and Gotland.
During the summer of 1745,
Linnaeus published two more books: Flora
Suecica and Fauna Suecica.
Flora Suecica was a strictly botanical
book, while Fauna Suecica was zoological.
Anders Celsius had created the temperature scale named after him in
1742. Celsius's scale was inverted compared to today, the boiling
point at 0 °C and freezing point at 100 °C. In 1745,
Linnaeus inverted the scale to its present standard.
In the summer of 1746,
Linnaeus was once again commissioned by the
Government to carry out an expedition, this time to the Swedish
province of Västergötland. He set out from
Uppsala on 12 June and
returned on 11 August. On the expedition his primary companion was
Erik Gustaf Lidbeck, a student who had accompanied him on his previous
Linnaeus described his findings from the expedition in the
book Wästgöta-Resa, published the next year.
After returning from the journey the Government decided Linnaeus
should take on another expedition to the southernmost province Scania.
This journey was postponed, as
Linnaeus felt too busy.
Linnaeus was given the title archiater, or chief physician,
by the Swedish king Adolf Frederick—a mark of great
respect. The same year he was elected member of the
Academy of Sciences in Berlin.
In the spring of 1749,
Linnaeus could finally journey to Scania, again
commissioned by the Government. With him he brought his student, Olof
Söderberg. On the way to Scania, he made his last visit to his
brothers and sisters in Stenbrohult since his father had died the
previous year. The expedition was similar to the previous journeys in
most aspects, but this time he was also ordered to find the best place
to grow walnut and Swedish whitebeam trees; these trees were used by
the military to make rifles. The journey was successful, and
Linnaeus's observations were published the next year in Skånska
Summer home at his Hammarby estate
Linnaean Garden in Uppsala
Linnaeus became rector of
Uppsala University, starting a
period where natural sciences were esteemed. Perhaps the
most important contribution he made during his time at
Uppsala was to
teach; many of his students travelled to various places in the world
to collect botanical samples.
Linnaeus called the best of these
students his "apostles".:56–57 His lectures were
normally very popular and were often held in the Botanical Garden. He
tried to teach the students to think for themselves and not trust
anybody, not even him. Even more popular than the lectures were the
botanical excursions made every Saturday during summer, where Linnaeus
and his students explored the flora and fauna in the vicinity of
Philosophia Botanica in 1751. The book
contained a complete survey of the taxonomy system he had been using
in his earlier works. It also contained information of how to keep a
journal on travels and how to maintain a botanical
Cover of Nutrix Noverca (1752)
During Linnaeus's time it was normal for upper class women to have wet
nurses for their babies.
Linnaeus joined an ongoing campaign to end
this practice in Sweden and promote breast-feeding by mothers. In 1752
Linnaeus published a thesis along with Frederick Lindberg, a physician
student, based on their experiences. In the
tradition of the period, this dissertation was essentially an idea of
the presiding reviewer (prases) expounded upon by the student.
Linnaeus's dissertation was translated into French by J.E. Gilibert in
1770 as La Nourrice marâtre, ou Dissertation sur les suites funestes
du nourrisage mercénaire.
Linnaeus suggested that children might
absorb the personality of their wet nurse through the milk. He admired
the child care practices of the Lapps and pointed out how
healthy their babies were compared to those of Europeans who employed
wet nurses. He compared the behaviour of wild animals and pointed out
how none of them denied their newborns their breastmilk.
It is thought that his activism played a role in his choice of the
term Mammalia for the class of organisms.
Main article: Species Plantarum
Linnaeus published Species Plantarum, the work which is now
internationally accepted as the starting point of modern botanical
nomenclature, in 1753. The first volume was issued on 24
May, the second volume followed on 16 August of the same
year.[note 5] The book contained 1,200 pages and
was published in two volumes; it described over 7,300
species.:47 The same year the king dubbed him
knight of the Order of the Polar Star, the first civilian in Sweden to
become a knight in this order. He was then seldom seen not wearing the
His coat of arms
Uppsala was too noisy and unhealthy, so he bought two
farms in 1758: Hammarby and Sävja. The next year, he bought a
neighbouring farm, Edeby. He spent the summers with his family at
Hammarby; initially it only had a small one-storey house, but in 1762
a new, larger main building was added. In
Linnaeus made a garden where he could grow plants that could
not be grown in the Botanical Garden in Uppsala. He began constructing
a museum on a hill behind Hammarby in 1766, where he moved his library
and collection of plants. A fire that destroyed about one third of
Uppsala and had threatened his residence there necessitated the
Since the initial release of
Systema Naturae in 1735, the book had
been expanded and reprinted several times; the tenth edition was
released in 1758. This edition established itself as the starting
point for zoological nomenclature, the equivalent of Species
The Swedish King Adolf Frederick granted
Linnaeus nobility in 1757,
but he was not ennobled until 1761. With his ennoblement, he took the
name Carl von Linné (Latinised as Carolus a Linné), 'Linné' being a
shortened and gallicised version of 'Linnæus', and the German
nobiliary particle 'von' signifying his ennoblement. The
noble family's coat of arms prominently features a twinflower, one of
Linnaeus's favourite plants; it was given the scientific name Linnaea
borealis in his honour by Gronovius. The shield in the coat of arms is
divided into thirds: red, black and green for the three kingdoms of
nature (animal, mineral and vegetable) in Linnaean classification; in
the centre is an egg "to denote Nature, which is continued and
perpetuated in ovo." At the bottom is a phrase in Latin, borrowed from
the Aeneid, which reads "Famam extendere factis": we extend our fame
by our deeds.:62 Linnaeus
inscribed this personal motto in books that were gifted to him by
After his ennoblement,
Linnaeus continued teaching and writing. His
reputation had spread over the world, and he corresponded with many
different people. For example,
Catherine II of Russia
Catherine II of Russia sent him seeds
from her country. He also corresponded with Giovanni
Antonio Scopoli, "the
Linnaeus of the Austrian Empire", who was a
doctor and a botanist in Idrija,
Duchy of Carniola
Duchy of Carniola (nowadays
Slovenia). Scopoli communicated all of his research,
findings, and descriptions (for example of the olm and the dormouse,
two little animals hitherto unknown to Linnaeus).
respected Scopoli and showed great interest in his work. He named a
solanaceous genus, Scopolia, the source of scopolamine, after him, but
because of the great distance between them, they never
Headstone of him and his son Carl
Linnaeus the Younger
Linnaeus was relieved of his duties in the Royal Swedish Academy of
Science in 1763, but continued his work there as usual for more than
ten years after. He stepped down as rector at Uppsala
University in December 1772, mostly due to his declining
Linnaeus's last years were troubled by illness. He had suffered from a
disease called the
Uppsala fever in 1764, but survived thanks to the
care of Rosén. He developed sciatica in 1773, and the next year, he
had a stroke which partially paralysed him. He suffered a
second stroke in 1776, losing the use of his right side and leaving
him bereft of his memory; while still able to admire his own writings,
he could not recognise himself as their
In December 1777, he had another stroke which greatly weakened him,
and eventually led to his death on 10 January 1778 in
Hammarby.:63 Despite his desire to be buried
in Hammarby, he was buried in
Uppsala Cathedral on 22
His library and collections were left to his widow Sara and their
children. Joseph Banks, an English botanist, wanted to buy the
collection, but his son Carl refused and moved the collection to
Uppsala. In 1783 Carl died and Sara inherited the collection, having
outlived both her husband and son. She tried to sell it to Banks, but
he was no longer interested; instead an acquaintance of his agreed to
buy the collection. The acquaintance was a 24-year-old medical
student, James Edward Smith, who bought the whole collection: 14,000
plants, 3,198 insects, 1,564 shells, about 3,000 letters and 1,600
books. Smith founded the
Linnean Society of London
Linnean Society of London five years
The von Linné name ended with his son Carl, who never
married. His other son, Johannes, had died aged
3. There are over two hundred descendants of Linnaeus
through two of his daughters.
Main article: Apostles of Linnaeus
Peter Forsskål was among the apostles who met a tragic fate abroad.
During Linnaeus's time as Professor and Rector of
he taught many devoted students, 17 of whom he called "apostles". They
were the most promising, most committed students, and all of them made
botanical expeditions to various places in the world, often with his
help. The amount of this help varied; sometimes he used his influence
as Rector to grant his apostles a scholarship or a place on an
expedition. To most of the apostles he gave instructions
of what to look for on their journeys. Abroad, the apostles collected
and organised new plants, animals and minerals according to Linnaeus's
system. Most of them also gave some of their collection to Linnaeus
when their journey was finished. Thanks to these
students, the Linnaean system of taxonomy spread through the world
Linnaeus ever having to travel outside Sweden after his return
from Holland. The British botanist William T. Stearn
notes without Linnaeus's new system, it would not have been possible
for the apostles to collect and organise so many new
specimens. Many of the apostles died during their
Christopher Tärnström, the first apostle and a 43-year-old pastor
with a wife and children, made his journey in 1746. He boarded a
Swedish East India Company
Swedish East India Company ship headed for China. Tärnström never
reached his destination, dying of a tropical fever on Côn Sơn Island
the same year. Tärnström's widow blamed
Linnaeus for making her
children fatherless, causing
Linnaeus to prefer sending out younger,
unmarried students after Tärnström. Six other apostles
later died on their expeditions, including
Pehr Forsskål and Pehr
Two years after Tärnström's expedition, Finnish-born
Pehr Kalm set
out as the second apostle to North America. There he spent
two-and-a-half years studying the flora and fauna of Pennsylvania, New
York, New Jersey and Canada.
Linnaeus was overjoyed when Kalm
returned, bringing back with him many pressed flowers and seeds. At
least 90 of the 700 North American species described in Species
Plantarum had been brought back by Kalm.
Cook expeditions and Japan
Daniel Solander (far left) with
Joseph Banks (left, sitting)
James Cook (centre) on his journey to Australia.
Daniel Solander was living in Linnaeus's house during his time as a
student in Uppsala.
Linnaeus was very fond of him, promising Solander
his oldest daughter's hand in marriage. On Linnaeus's recommendation,
Solander travelled to England in 1760, where he met the English
botanist Joseph Banks. With Banks, Solander joined
James Cook on his
expedition to Oceania on the Endeavour in
1768–71. Solander was not the only apostle
to journey with James Cook;
Anders Sparrman followed on the Resolution
in 1772–75 bound for, among other places, Oceania and South America.
Sparrman made many other expeditions, one of them to South
Perhaps the most famous and successful apostle was Carl Peter
Thunberg, who embarked on a nine-year expedition in 1770. He stayed in
South Africa for three years, then travelled to Japan. All foreigners
Japan were forced to stay on the island of
Dejima outside Nagasaki,
so it was thus hard for Thunberg to study the flora. He did, however,
manage to persuade some of the translators to bring him different
plants, and he also found plants in the gardens of Dejima. He returned
to Sweden in 1779, one year after Linnaeus's death.
Main article: Carl
Title page of the 10th edition of Systema Naturæ (1758)
Main article: Systema Naturae
The first edition of
Systema Naturae was printed in the
1735. It was a twelve-page work. By the time it reached
its 10th edition in 1758, it classified 4,400 species of animals and
7,700 species of plants. People from all over the world sent their
Linnaeus to be included. By the time he started work on
the 12th edition,
Linnaeus needed a new invention—the index
card—to track classifications.
In Systema Naturae, the unwieldy names mostly used at the time, such
as "Physalis annua ramosissima, ramis angulosis glabris, foliis
dentato-serratis", were supplemented with concise and now familiar
"binomials", composed of the generic name, followed by a specific
epithet—in the case given, Physalis angulata. These binomials could
serve as a label to refer to the species. Higher taxa were constructed
and arranged in a simple and orderly manner. Although the system, now
known as binomial nomenclature, was partially developed by the Bauhin
Gaspard Bauhin and Johann Bauhin) almost 200 years
Linnaeus was the first to use it consistently
throughout the work, including in monospecific genera, and may be said
to have popularised it within the scientific community.
After the decline in Linnaeus's health in the early 1770s, publication
of editions of
Systema Naturae went in two different directions.
Another Swedish scientist,
Johan Andreas Murray issued the Regnum
Vegetabile section separately in 1774 as the Systema Vegetabilium,
rather confusingly labelled the 13th edition. Meanwhile a
13th edition of the entire Systema appeared in parts between 1788 and
1793. It was through the
Systema Vegetabilium that Linnaeus's work
became widely known in England, following its translation from the
Latin by the
Lichfield Botanical Society
Lichfield Botanical Society as A System of Vegetables
Orbis eruditi judicium de Caroli Linnaei MD scriptis
('Opinion of the learned world on the writings of Carl Linnaeus,
Doctor') Published in 1740, this
small octavo-sized pamphlet was presented to the State Library of New
South Wales by the Linnean Society of NSW in 2018. This is considered
among the rarest of all the writings of Linnaeus, and crucial to his
career, securing him his appointment to a professorship of medicine at
Uppsala University. From this position he laid the groundwork for his
radical new theory of classifying and naming organisms for which he
was considered the founder of modern taxonomy.
Main article: Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum (or, more fully, Species Plantarum, exhibentes
plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis,
nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum
systema sexuale digestas) was first published in 1753, as a two-volume
work. Its prime importance is perhaps that it is the primary starting
point of plant nomenclature as it exists today.
Main article: Genera Plantarum
Genera plantarum: eorumque characteres naturales secundum numerum,
figuram, situm, et proportionem omnium fructificationis partium was
first published in 1737, delineating plant genera. Around 10 editions
were published, not all of them by
Linnaeus himself; the most
important is the 1754 fifth edition. In it Linnaeus
divided the plant Kingdom into 24 classes. One, Cryptogamia, included
all the plants with concealed reproductive parts (algae, fungi, mosses
and liverworts and ferns).
Main article: Philosophia Botanica
Philosophia Botanica (1751) was a summary of Linnaeus's
thinking on plant classification and nomenclature, and an elaboration
of the work he had previously published in
Fundamenta Botanica (1736)
Critica Botanica (1737). Other publications forming part of his
plan to reform the foundations of botany include his Classes Plantarum
and Bibliotheca Botanica: all were printed in Holland (as were Genera
Plantarum (1737) and
Systema Naturae (1735)), the Philosophia being
simultaneously released in Stockholm.
Linnaeus marble by
Léon-Joseph Chavalliaud (1899), outside the Palm
House at Sefton Park, Liverpool
At the end of his lifetime the Linnean collection in
considered one of the finest collections of natural history objects in
Sweden. Next to his own collection he had also built up a museum for
the university of Uppsala, which was supplied by material donated by
Carl Gyllenborg (in 1744–1745), crown-prince Adolf Fredrik (in
1745), Erik Petreus (in 1746), Claes Grill (in 1746), Magnus
Lagerström (in 1748 and 1750) and
Jonas Alströmer (in 1749). The
relation between the museum and the private collection was not
formalised and the steady flow of material from Linnean pupils were
incorporated to the private collection rather than to the
Linnaeus felt his work was reflecting the harmony
of nature and he said in 1754 "the earth is then nothing else but a
museum of the all-wise creator's masterpieces, divided into three
chambers". He had turned his own estate into a microcosm of that
In April 1766 parts of the town were destroyed by a fire and the
Linnean private collection was subsequently moved to a barn outside
the town, and shortly afterwards to a single-room stone building close
to his country house at Hammarby near Uppsala. This resulted in a
physical separation between the two collections; the museum collection
remained in the botanical garden of the university. Some material
which needed special care (alcohol specimens) or ample storage space
was moved from the private collection to the museum.
In Hammarby the Linnean private collections suffered seriously from
damp and the depredations by mice and insects. Carl von Linné's son
(Carl Linnaeus) inherited the collections in 1778 and retained them
until his own death in 1783. Shortly after Carl von Linné's death his
son confirmed that mice had caused "horrible damage" to the plants and
that also moths and mould had caused considerable damage.
He tried to rescue them from the neglect they had suffered during his
father's later years, and also added further specimens. This last
activity however reduced rather than augmented the scientific value of
the original material.
In 1784 the young medical student
James Edward Smith
James Edward Smith purchased the
entire specimen collection, library, manuscripts, and correspondence
Linnaeus from his widow and daughter and transferred the
collections to London.:342–357 Not all
material in Linné's private collection was transported to England.
Thirty-three fish specimens preserved in alcohol were not sent and
were later lost.
In London Smith tended to neglect the zoological parts of the
collection; he added some specimens and also gave some specimens
away. Over the following centuries the Linnean collection
in London suffered enormously at the hands of scientists who studied
the collection, and in the process disturbed the original arrangement
and labels, added specimens that did not belong to the original series
and withdrew precious original type material.
Much material which had been intensively studied by Linné in his
scientific career belonged to the collection of Queen Lovisa Ulrika
(1720–1782) (in the Linnean publications referred to as "Museum
Ludovicae Ulricae" or "M. L. U."). This collection was donated by his
grandson King Gustav IV Adolf (1778–1837) to the museum in Uppsala
in 1804. Another important collection in this respect was that of her
husband King Adolf Fredrik (1710–1771) (in the Linnean sources known
as "Museum Adolphi Friderici" or "Mus. Ad. Fr."), the wet parts
(alcohol collection) of which were later donated to the Royal Swedish
Academy of Sciences, and is today housed in the Swedish Museum of
Natural History at Stockholm. The dry material was transferred to
System of taxonomy
Table of the Animal Kingdom (Regnum Animale) from the 1st edition of
Systema Naturæ (1735)
Main article: Linnaean taxonomy
The establishment of universally accepted conventions for the naming
of organisms was Linnaeus's main contribution to taxonomy—his work
marks the starting point of consistent use of binomial
nomenclature. During the 18th century expansion of
natural history knowledge,
Linnaeus also developed what became known
as the Linnaean taxonomy; the system of scientific classification now
widely used in the biological sciences. A previous zoologist Rumphius
(1627–1702) had more or less approximated the Linnaean system and
his material contributed to the later development of the binomial
scientific classification by Linnaeus.
The Linnaean system classified nature within a nested hierarchy,
starting with three kingdoms. Kingdoms were divided into classes and
they, in turn, into orders, and thence into genera (singular: genus),
which were divided into species (singular: species).
Below the rank of species he sometimes recognised taxa of a lower
(unnamed) rank; these have since acquired standardised names such as
variety in botany and subspecies in zoology. Modern taxonomy includes
a rank of family between order and genus and a rank of phylum between
kingdom and class that were not present in Linnaeus's original
Linnaeus's groupings were based upon shared physical characteristics,
and not simply upon differences. Of his higher groupings,
only those for animals are still in use, and the groupings themselves
have been significantly changed since their conception, as have the
principles behind them. Nevertheless,
Linnaeus is credited with
establishing the idea of a hierarchical structure of classification
which is based upon observable characteristics and intended to reflect
natural relationships. While the underlying
details concerning what are considered to be scientifically valid
"observable characteristics" have changed with expanding knowledge
(for example, DNA sequencing, unavailable in Linnaeus's time, has
proven to be a tool of considerable utility for classifying living
organisms and establishing their evolutionary relationships), the
fundamental principle remains sound.
Main article: Human taxonomy § History
It has been suggested that this section be split out into another
article titled Anthropomorpha. (Discuss) (May 2018)
Linnaeus's system of taxonomy was especially noted as the first to
include humans (Homo) taxonomically grouped with apes (Simia), under
the header of Anthropomorpha.
Ernst Haeckel speaking in 1907 noted this as the
"most important sign of Linnaeus's genius".
Linnaeus classified humans among the primates beginning with the first
edition of Systema Naturae. During his time at Hartekamp,
he had the opportunity to examine several monkeys and noted
similarities between them and man.:173–174 He pointed
out both species basically have the same anatomy; except for speech,
he found no other differences.[note 6] Thus he
placed man and monkeys under the same category, Anthropomorpha,
meaning "manlike." This classification received criticism
from other biologists such as Johan Gottschalk Wallerius, Jacob
Theodor Klein and
Johann Georg Gmelin
Johann Georg Gmelin on the ground that it is
illogical to describe man as human-like. In a letter to
Gmelin from 1747,
Linnaeus replied:[note 7]
It does not please [you] that I've placed Man among the
Anthropomorpha, perhaps because of the term 'with human
form',[note 8] but man learns to know himself. Let's not
quibble over words. It will be the same to me whatever name we apply.
But I seek from you and from the whole world a generic difference
between man and simian that [follows] from the principles of Natural
History.[note 9] I absolutely know of none. If only someone
might tell me a single one! If I would have called man a simian or
vice versa, I would have brought together all the theologians against
me. Perhaps I ought to have by virtue of the law of the discipline.
Detail from the sixth edition of
Systema Naturae (1748) describing
Ant[h]ropomorpha with a division between
Homo and Simia
The theological concerns were twofold: first, putting man at the same
level as monkeys or apes would lower the spiritually higher position
that man was assumed to have in the great chain of being, and second,
because the Bible says man was created in the image of
God (theomorphism), if monkeys/apes and humans were not
distinctly and separately designed, that would mean monkeys and apes
were created in the image of God as well. This was something many
could not accept. The conflict between world views that
was caused by asserting man was a type of animal would simmer for a
century until the much greater, and still ongoing,
creation–evolution controversy began in earnest with the publication
On the Origin of Species
On the Origin of Species by
Charles Darwin in 1859.
After such criticism,
Linnaeus felt he needed to explain himself more
clearly. The 10th edition of
Systema Naturae introduced new terms,
including Mammalia and Primates, the latter of which would replace
Anthropomorpha as well as giving humans the full binomial
Homo sapiens. The new classification received less
criticism, but many natural historians still believed he had demoted
humans from their former place of ruling over nature and not being a
part of it.
Linnaeus believed that man biologically belongs to the
animal kingdom and had to be included in it. In his book
Dieta Naturalis, he said, "One should not vent one's wrath on animals,
Theology decree that man has a soul and that the animals are mere
'aoutomata mechanica,' but I believe they would be better advised that
animals have a soul and that the difference is of
Anthropomorpha, from the 1760 dissertation by C. E.
Hoppius1. Troglodyta Bontii, 2. Lucifer Aldrovandi, 3.
Satyrus Tulpii, 4. Pygmaeus Edwardi
Linnaeus added a second species to the genus
Homo in Systema Naturae
based on a figure and description by
Jacobus Bontius from a 1658
Homo troglodytes ("caveman")
and published a third in 1771:
Homo lar. Swedish
Gunnar Broberg states that the new human species Linnaeus
described were actually simians or native people clad in skins to
frighten colonial settlers, whose appearance had been exaggerated in
accounts to Linnaeus.
In early editions of Systema Naturae, many well-known legendary
creatures were included such as the phoenix, dragon, manticore, and
satyrus,[note 10] which
Linnaeus collected into
the catch-all category Paradoxa. Broberg thought
Linnaeus was trying
to offer a natural explanation and demystify the world of
Linnaeus tried to debunk some of these
creatures, as he had with the hydra; regarding the purported remains
Linnaeus wrote that they were either derived from lizards
or rays. For
Homo troglodytes he asked the Swedish East
India Company to search for one, but they did not find any signs of
Homo lar has since been reclassified as
Hylobates lar, the lar gibbon.
See also: Race (human categorisation)
In the first edition of Systema Naturae,
Linnaeus subdivided the human
species into four varieties based on continent and[dubious
– discuss] skin colour: "Europæus albus" (white European),
"Americanus rubescens" (red American), "Asiaticus fuscus" (brown
Asian) and "Africanus niger" (black African).
In the tenth edition of
Systema Naturae he further detailed
phenotypical characteristics for each variety, based on the concept of
the four temperaments from classical
antiquity,[dubious – discuss] and
changed the description of Asians' skin tone to "luridus"
Linnaeus created a wastebasket
taxon "monstrosus" for "wild and monstrous humans, unknown groups, and
more or less abnormal people".
W. T. Stearn
W. T. Stearn designated
Linnaeus to be the lectotype of H.
Influences and economic beliefs
Statue on University of Chicago campus
Linnaeus's applied science was inspired not only by the instrumental
utilitarianism general to the early Enlightenment, but also by his
adherence to the older economic doctrine of Cameralism.
Linnaeus was a state interventionist. He supported
tariffs, levies, export bounties, quotas, embargoes, navigation acts,
subsidised investment capital, ceilings on wages, cash grants,
state-licensed producer monopolies, and cartels.
1907 celebration in Råshult
Main article: Commemoration of Carl Linnaeus
Anniversaries of Linnaeus's birth, especially in centennial years,
have been marked by major celebrations.
appeared on numerous Swedish postage stamps and
banknotes. There are numerous statues of
countries around the world. The
Linnean Society of London
Linnean Society of London has awarded
Linnean Medal for excellence in botany or zoology since 1888.
Following approval by the Riksdag of Sweden,
Växjö University and
Kalmar College merged on 1 January 2010 to become Linnaeus
University. Other things named after
Linnaeus include the
twinflower genus Linnaea, the crater Linné on the Earth's moon, a
street in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the cobalt sulfide mineral
Andrew Dickson White
Andrew Dickson White wrote in A History of the Warfare of Science with
Theology in Christendom (1896):
Linnaeus ... was the most eminent naturalist of his time, a wide
observer, a close thinker; but the atmosphere in which he lived and
moved and had his being was saturated with biblical theology, and this
permeated all his thinking. ... Toward the end of his life he
timidly advanced the hypothesis that all the species of one genus
constituted at the creation one species; and from the last edition of
his Systema Naturæ he quietly left out the strongly orthodox
statement of the fixity of each species, which he had insisted upon in
his earlier works. ... warnings came speedily both from the
Catholic and Protestant sides.
PageRank algorithm, applied to 24 multilingual
editions in 2014, published in
PLOS ONE in 2015, placed Carl
Linnaeus at the top historical figure, above Jesus, Aristotle,
Adolf Hitler (in that order).
Standard author abbreviation
The standard author abbreviation L. is used to indicate this person as
the author when citing a botanical name.
Works by Linnaeus
Linnaeus, Carolus (1735). Systema naturae, sive regna tria naturae
systematice proposita per classes, ordines, genera, & species.
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Linnaeus, Carolus; Hendrik Engel; Maria Sara Johanna Engel-Ledeboer
Systema Naturae (facsimile of the 1st ed.). Nieuwkoop,
Netherlands: B. de Graaf. OCLC 460298195.
Linnaeus, Carl (1755) . Philosophia botanica: in qua explicantur
fundamenta botanica cum definitionibus partium, exemplis terminorum,
observationibus rariorum, adiectis figuris aeneis. originally
published simultaneously by R. Kiesewetter (Stockholm) and Z.
Chatelain (Amsterdam). Vienna: Joannis Thomae Trattner. Retrieved 13
Linnaeus, C. (1753).
Linnaeus, Carolus (1758). Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ,
secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus,
differentiis, synonymis, locis. 1 (10th ed.). Stockholm: Laurentius
Salvius. pp. [1–4], 1–824.
Linné, Carl von (1774). Murray, Johann Andreas (ed.). Systema
vegetabilium (13th edition of Systema Naturae) (2 vols.). Göttingen:
Typis et impensis Jo. Christ. Dieterich. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
Linné, Carl von (1785) . Systema vegetabilium (13th edition of
Systema Naturae) [A System of Vegetables 2 vols. 1783–1785].
Lichfield: Lichfield Botanical Society. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
Linnaeus, Carolus (1771). Mantissa plantarum altera generum editionis
VI et specierum editionis II. Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius.
pp. [1–7], 144–588.
Linnaean taxonomy (Linnaean system)
Linnaeus's flower clock
Johann Bartsch, colleague
History of botany
History of phycology
Index cards, which were invented by Linnaeus
^ a b Carl
Linnaeus was born in 1707 on 13 May (Swedish Style) or 23
May according to the modern calendar. According to the Julian calendar
he was born 12 May. (Blunt 2004, p. 12)
^ ICZN Chapter 16, Article 126.96.36.199 – "For a nominal species or
subspecies established before 2000, any evidence, published or
unpublished, may be taken into account to determine what specimens
constitute the type series." and Article 73.1.2 – "If the nominal
species-group taxon is based on a single specimen, either so stated or
implied in the original publication, that specimen is the holotype
fixed by monotypy (see Recommendation 73F). If the taxon was
established before 2000 evidence derived from outside the work itself
may be taken into account [Art. 188.8.131.52] to help identify the
^ That is, Inaugural thesis in medicine, in which a new hypothesis on
the cause of intermittent fevers is presented
^ "If this is not Helen's Nepenthes, it certainly will be for all
botanists. What botanist would not be filled with admiration if, after
a long journey, he should find this wonderful plant. In his
astonishment past ills would be forgotten when beholding this
admirable work of the Creator!" (translated from Latin by Harry
^ The date of issue of both volumes was later, for practical purposes,
arbitrarily set on 1 May, see Stearn, W. T. (1957), The preparation of
Species Plantarum and the introduction of binomial nomenclature,
in: Species Plantarum, A Facsimile of the first edition, London, Ray
Society: 72 and ICN (Melbourne Code) Art. 13.4 Note 1:
"The two volumes of Linnaeus' Species plantarum, ed. 1 (1753), which
appeared in May and August, 1753, respectively, are treated as having
been published simultaneously on 1 May 1753."
^ Frängsmyr et al. (1983), p. 167, quotes
Linnaeus explaining the
real difference would necessarily be absent from his classification
system, as it was not a morphological characteristic: "I well know
what a splendidly great difference there is [between] a man and a
bestia [literally, "beast"; that is, a non-human animal] when I look
at them from a point of view of morality. Man is the animal which the
Creator has seen fit to honor with such a magnificent mind and has
condescended to adopt as his favorite and for which he has prepared a
nobler life". See also books.google.com in which
Linnaeus cites the
significant capacity to reason as the distinguishing characteristic of
^ Discussion of translation was originally made in this thread on
talk.origins in 2005. For an alternative translation, see Gribbin
& Gribbin (2008), p. 56, or Slotkin (1965), p. 180.
^ "antropomorphon" [sic]
^ Others who followed were more inclined to give humans a special
place in classification;
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach in the first
edition of his Manual of Natural History (1779), proposed that the
primates be divided into the
Quadrumana (four-handed, i.e. apes and
Bimana (two-handed, i.e. humans). This distinction was
taken up by other naturalists, most notably Georges Cuvier. Some
elevated the distinction to the level of order. However, the many
affinities between humans and other primates—and especially the
great apes—made it clear that the distinction made no scientific
Charles Darwin wrote, in The Descent of Man in 1871:
The greater number of naturalists who have taken into consideration
the whole structure of man, including his mental faculties, have
followed Blumenbach and Cuvier, and have placed man in a separate
Order, under the title of the Bimana, and therefore on an equality
with the orders of the Quadrumana, Carnivora, etc. Recently many of
our best naturalists have recurred to the view first propounded by
Linnaeus, so remarkable for his sagacity, and have placed man in the
same Order with the Quadrumana, under the title of the Primates. The
justice of this conclusion will be admitted: for in the first place,
we must bear in mind the comparative insignificance for classification
of the great development of the brain in man, and that the strongly
marked differences between the skulls of man and the Quadrumana
(lately insisted upon by Bischoff, Aeby, and others) apparently follow
from their differently developed brains. In the second place, we must
remember that nearly all the other and more important differences
between man and the
Quadrumana are manifestly adaptive in their
nature, and relate chiefly to the erect position of man; such as the
structure of his hand, foot, and pelvis, the curvature of his spine,
and the position of his head.
Linnaeus is translated, writing that the satyrus is "hairy, bearded,
with a manlike body, gesticulating much, very fallacious, is a species
of monkey, if ever one has been seen."
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^ "Linnaeus, Carolus" in the Oxford Dictionaries Online.
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^ a b Blunt (2004), p. 13.
^ Quammen (2007), p. 1.
^ Blunt (2004), p. 15.
^ Gribbin, M., & Gribbin, J. (2008). Flower hunters. Oxford
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^ Stöver (1794), p. 5.
^ Blunt (2004), p. 16.
^ Stöver (1794), pp. 5–6.
^ Carl von Linnés betydelse såsom naturforskare och läkare :
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^ a b Black, David, ed. (1979). Carl
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^ Quammen (2007), p. 2.
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^ a b Frodin (2001), p. 27.
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^ Blunt (2004), p. 90.
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and mosquitoes: 2,000 years of changing perspectives on malaria".
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^ Blunt (2001), p. 98.
^ Anderson (1997), pp. 62–63.
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^ Non erit Lexicon Hortulanorum, sed etiam Botanicorum, that the book
will be, not just a lexicon of gardeners, but of botanists."; noted in
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^ a b
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^ Linnaeus, Carl (1752). Nutrix Noverca (in Latin).
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^ Schiebinger, Londa (1993). "Why Mammals are Called Mammals: Gender
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^ Examples are evident in the Portland catalogue p. 76 Lot 1715 and p.
188 Lot 3997. "A catalogue of the Portland Museum, lately the property
of the Duchess Dowager of Portland, deceased: Which will be sold by
auction by Mr. Skinner and Co. On Monday the 24th of April, 1786, and
the thirty-seven following days (...) at her late dwelling-house, in
Privy-Garden, Whitehall, by order of the Acting Executrix." – pp.
i–viii [= 1–8], 3–194, pl. . [London]. (Skinner).
^ a b Reveal & Pringle (1993), pp. 160–161.
^ Monk, K.A.; Fretes, Y.; Reksodiharjo-Lilley, G. (1996). The Ecology
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^ The Book of Popular Science. 1963.
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Linnaeus (1964) (1735), p. 30.
^ Frängsmyr et al. (1983), pp. 176–177.
^ Broberg (2008)
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^ Wilson & Reeder (2005), p. 179.
^ Braziel (2007), pp. 43–44.
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^ Keevak (2011), pp. 3–4.
^ Willoughby (2007), pp. 33–34, citing Broberg (1975), p. 291.
^ Stearn, W. T. (1959). "The Background of Linnaeus's Contributions to
Nomenclature and Methods of Systematic Biology". Systematic
Zoology. 8 (1): 4–22. doi:10.2307/sysbio/8.1.4. JSTOR 2411603.
^ Spamer, Earle E. (1999). "Know Thyself: Responsible Science and the
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of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 149: 109–114.
^ Notton, David; Stringer, Chris. "Who is the type of
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^ Koerner (1999), p. 97.
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^ Andrew Dickson White, History of the Warfare of Science with
Theology in Christendom (1922) Vol.1 pp. 59–61
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Linnaeus.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Carl Linnaeus
Wikisource has original works written by or about:Carl Linnaeus
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Carl
Biography at the Department of Systematic Botany, University of
Biography at The Linnean Society of London
Biography from the University of California Museum of Paleontology
A four-minute biographical video from the London Natural History
Museum on YouTube
Biography from Taxonomic Literature, 2nd Edition. 1976–2009.
Works by Carl von Linné at Project Gutenberg
Works by or about Carl
Linnaeus at Internet Archive
The Linnean Society of London
The Linnean Collections
The Linnean Correspondence
Linnaeus' Disciples and Apostles
The Linnaean Dissertations
Works by Carl von Linné at the
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Digital edition: "Critica botanica" by the University and State
Digital edition: "Classes plantarum seu systemata plantarum" by the
University and State Library Düsseldorf
Oratio de telluris habitabilis incremento (1744) – full digital
facsimile from Linda Hall Library
Linnaeus was depicted by
Jay Hosler in a parody of Peanuts titled
"Good ol' Charlie Darwin".
The 15 March 2007 issue of Nature featured a picture of
the cover with the heading "Linnaeus's Legacy" and devoted a
substantial portion to items related to
Linnaeus and Linnaean
A tattoo of Linnaeus's definition of the order Primates mentioned by
Ginkgo biloba tree at the University of Harderwijk, said to have been
Linnaeus in 1735
SL Magazine, Spring 2018 features an article by Nicholas Sparks,
Librarian, Collection Strategy and Development titled Origins of
Taxonomy, describing a generous donation from the Linnean Society of
NSW to supplement the State Library of New South Wales's collections
Linnaeus of documents, photographs, prints and drawings as
well as a fine portrait of
Linnaeus painted about 1800.
vteCarl LinnaeusPublished works
Systema Naturae (1735)
Fundamenta Botanica (1736)
Bibliotheca Botanica (1736)
Musa Cliffortiania (1736)
Critica Botanica (1737)
Flora Lapponica (1737)
Genera Plantarum (1737)
Hortus Cliffortianus (1737)
Classes Plantarum (1738)
Flora Svecica (1745)
Philosophia Botanica (1751)
Species Plantarum (1753)
Mantissa Plantarum Altera
Mantissa Plantarum Altera (1771)
Systema Vegetabilium (1774)
Linnaean taxonomy (Linnaean classification)
Taxa named by Linnaeus
History of biology
History of botany
Historical race concepts
Apostles of Linnaeus
Johan Peter Falk
Carl Peter Thunberg
Linnaeus the Younger
Elisabeth Christina von Linné
Students of Linnaeus
George Clifford III
Commemoration of Carl Linnaeus
Linnean Society of London
Linnean Society of New South Wales
Linnean Tercentenary Medal
Systema Naturae by Carl Linnaeus10th edition
vteNatural historyPioneeringnaturalistsClassical antiquity
Aristotle (History of Animals)
Theophrastus (Historia Plantarum)
Aelian (De Natura Animalium)
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder (Natural History)
Dioscorides (De Materia Medica)
Gaspard Bauhin (Pinax theatri botanici)
Conrad Gessner (Historia animalium)
William Turner (Avium Praecipuarum, New Herball)
John Gerard (Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes)
Robert Hooke (Micrographia)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Linnaeus (Systema Naturae)
Johan Christian Fabricius
John Ray (Historia Plantarum)
Comte de Buffon (Histoire Naturelle)
Bernard Germain de Lacépède
Gilbert White (The Natural History of Selborne)
Thomas Bewick (A History of British Birds)
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (Philosophie Zoologique)
George Montagu (
Georges Cuvier (Le Règne Animal)
Charles Darwin (On the Origin of Species)
Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace (The Malay Archipelago)
Henry Walter Bates
Henry Walter Bates (The Naturalist on the River Amazons)
Alexander von Humboldt
John James Audubon
John James Audubon (The Birds of America)
Philip Henry Gosse
William Jackson Hooker
Joseph Dalton Hooker
William Jardine (The Naturalist's Library)
Ernst Haeckel (Kunstformen der Natur)
Richard Lydekker (The Royal Natural History)
Abbott Thayer (Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom)
Hugh B. Cott
Hugh B. Cott (Adaptive Coloration in Animals)
Niko Tinbergen (The Study of Instinct)
Konrad Lorenz (On Aggression)
Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch (The Dancing Bees)
Ronald Lockley (Shearwaters)
Natural history museums (List)
Natural History Societies
List of natural history dealers
vteRace · historical racial categoriesAnthropological
Sinodonty and Sundadonty
Ancestral South Indian
Ancient North Eurasian
Early Modern European
Ancestral Native American
in Latin America
in the United States
Nazism and race
An Essay upon the Causes of the Different Colours of People in
Different Climates (1744)
The Outline of History of Mankind (1785)
Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question (1849)
An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races
An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1855)
The Races of Europe (Ripley, 1899)
The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899)
Race Life of the Aryan Peoples
Race Life of the Aryan Peoples (1907)
Heredity in Relation to Eugenics (1911)
Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development (1916)
The Passing of the Great Race
The Passing of the Great Race (1916)
The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy
The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy (1920)
The Myth of the Twentieth Century
The Myth of the Twentieth Century (1930)
Annihilation of Caste
Annihilation of Caste (1936)
The Races of Europe (Coon, 1939)
An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus
The Race Question
The Race Question (1950)
Great chain of being
History of anthropometry
Karl Ernst von Baer
Jakob von Uexküll
Alfred Russel Wallace
Timeline of zoology
BNF: cb130917536 (data)
ISNI: 0000 0001 2127 4957
WorldCat Identities (via