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Carl Linnaeus
Linnaeus
(/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/;[1][2] 23 May[note 1] 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné[3] (Swedish pronunciation: [kɑːɭ fɔn lɪˈneː] ( listen)), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist, who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature. He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy".[4] Many of his writings were in Latin
Latin
and his name is rendered in Latin
Latin
as Carolus Linnæus (after 1761 Carolus a Linné). Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was born in the countryside of Småland, in southern Sweden. He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University
Uppsala University
and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden
Sweden
to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants and minerals, while publishing several volumes. At the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe. The philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth."[5] The German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly."[5] Swedish author August Strindberg
August Strindberg
wrote: " Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist".[6] Among other compliments, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
has been called Princeps botanicorum (Prince of Botanists), "The Pliny of the North", and "The Second Adam".[7] He is also considered as one of the founders of modern ecology.[8] In botany, the author abbreviation used to indicate Linnaeus
Linnaeus
as the authority for species' names is L.[9] In older publications, sometimes the abbreviation "Linn." is found (for instance in: Cheeseman, T. F. (1906). Manual of the New Zealand Flora.). Linnaeus' remains comprise the type specimen for the species Homo sapiens, following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since the sole specimen he is known to have examined when writing the species description was himself.[note 2]

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Childhood 1.2 Early education

2 University studies

2.1 Lund 2.2 Uppsala

3 Expedition to Lapland 4 Doctorate 5 Publishing of Systema Naturae 6 George Clifford, Philip Miller, and Johann Jacob Dillenius 7 Return to Sweden

7.1 Öland
Öland
and Gotland 7.2 Västergötland 7.3 Scania 7.4 Rector of Uppsala
Uppsala
University 7.5 Philosophia Botanica 7.6 Nutrix Noverca 7.7 Species Plantarum 7.8 Ennoblement

8 Final years 9 Apostles

9.1 Early expeditions 9.2 Cook expeditions and Japan

10 Major publications

10.1 Systema Naturae 10.2 Species Plantarum

10.2.1 Genera Plantarum 10.2.2 Philosophia Botanica

11 Collections 12 System of taxonomy 13 Influences and economic beliefs 14 Views on mankind

14.1 Anthropomorpha 14.2 Strange people in distant lands 14.3 Four races

15 Commemoration 16 Commentary 17 Works by Linnaeus 18 See also 19 References

19.1 Notes 19.2 Citations 19.3 Sources

20 Further reading 21 Standard author abbreviation 22 External links

Early life Childhood

Birthplace at Råshult

Linnæus was born in the village of Råshult
Råshult
in Småland, Sweden, on 23 May 1707. He was the first child of Nicolaus (Nils) Ingemarsson (who later adopted the family name Linnæus) and Christina Brodersonia. His siblings were Anna Maria Linnæa, Sofia Juliana Linnæa, Samuel Linnæus (who would eventually succeed their father as rector of Stenbrohult and write a manual on beekeeping),[10][11][12] and Emerentia Linnæa.[13] One of a long line of peasants and priests, Nils was an amateur botanist, a Lutheran
Lutheran
minister, and the curate of the small village of Stenbrohult in Småland. Christina was the daughter of the rector of Stenbrohult, Samuel Brodersonius.[14]:376 A year after Linnæus' birth, his grandfather Samuel Brodersonius died, and his father Nils became the rector of Stenbrohult. The family moved into the rectory from the curate's house.[15][16] Even in his early years, Linnæus seemed to have a liking for plants, flowers in particular. Whenever he was upset, he was given a flower, which immediately calmed him. Nils spent much time in his garden and often showed flowers to Linnaeus
Linnaeus
and told him their names. Soon Linnæus was given his own patch of earth where he could grow plants.[17] Carl's father was the first in his ancestry to adopt a permanent surname. Before that, ancestors had used the patronymic naming system of Scandinavian countries: his father was named Ingemarsson after his father Ingemar Bengtsson. When Nils was admitted to the University of Lund, he had to take on a family name. He adopted the Latinate name Linnæus after a giant linden tree (or lime tree), lind in Swedish, that grew on the family homestead.[10] This name was spelled with the æ ligature. When Carl was born, he was named Carl Linnæus, with his father's family name. The son also always spelled it with the æ ligature, both in handwritten documents and in publications.[15] Carl's patronymic would have been Nilsson, as in Carl Nilsson Linnæus.[citation needed] Early education Linnaeus' father began teaching him basic Latin, religion, and geography at an early age.[18] When Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was seven, Nils decided to hire a tutor for him. The parents picked Johan Telander, a son of a local yeoman. Linnaeus
Linnaeus
did not like him, writing in his autobiography that Telander "was better calculated to extinguish a child's talents than develop them."[19] Two years after his tutoring had begun, he was sent to the Lower Grammar School
Grammar School
at Växjö
Växjö
in 1717.[20] Linnaeus
Linnaeus
rarely studied, often going to the countryside to look for plants. He reached the last year of the Lower School when he was fifteen, which was taught by the headmaster, Daniel Lannerus, who was interested in botany. Lannerus noticed Linnaeus' interest in botany and gave him the run of his garden. He also introduced him to Johan Rothman, the state doctor of Småland and a teacher at Katedralskolan (a gymnasium) in Växjö. Also a botanist, Rothman broadened Linnaeus' interest in botany and helped him develop an interest in medicine.[21][22] By the age of 17, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
had become well acquainted with the existing botanical literature. He remarks in his journal that he "read day and night, knowing like the back of my hand, Arvidh Månsson's Rydaholm Book of Herbs, Tillandz's Flora
Flora
Åboensis, Palmberg's Serta Florea Suecana, Bromelii Chloros Gothica and Rudbeckii Hortus Upsaliensis...."[23] Linnaeus
Linnaeus
entered the Växjö
Växjö
Katedralskola in 1724, where he studied mainly Greek, Hebrew, theology and mathematics, a curriculum designed for boys preparing for the priesthood.[24][25] In the last year at the gymnasium, Linnaeus' father visited to ask the professors how his son's studies were progressing; to his dismay, most said that the boy would never become a scholar. Rothman believed otherwise, suggesting Linnaeus
Linnaeus
could have a future in medicine. The doctor offered to have Linnaeus
Linnaeus
live with his family in Växjö
Växjö
and to teach him physiology and botany. Nils accepted this offer.[26][27] University studies Lund

Statue as a university student in Lund

Rothman showed Linnaeus
Linnaeus
that botany was a serious subject. He taught Linnaeus
Linnaeus
to classify plants according to Tournefort's system. Linnaeus was also taught about the sexual reproduction of plants, according to Sébastien Vaillant.[26] In 1727, Linnaeus, age 21, enrolled in Lund University in Skåne.[28][29] He was registered as Carolus Linnæus, the Latin
Latin
form of his full name, which he also used later for his Latin
Latin
publications.[3] Professor Kilian Stobæus, natural scientist, physician and historian, offered Linnaeus
Linnaeus
tutoring and lodging, as well as the use of his library, which included many books about botany. He also gave the student free admission to his lectures.[30][31] In his spare time, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
explored the flora of Skåne, together with students sharing the same interests.[32] Uppsala

Pollination
Pollination
depicted in Praeludia Sponsaliorum Plantarum (1729)

In August 1728, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
decided to attend Uppsala University
Uppsala University
on the advice of Rothman, who believed it would be a better choice if Linnaeus
Linnaeus
wanted to study both medicine and botany. Rothman based this recommendation on the two professors who taught at the medical faculty at Uppsala: Olof Rudbeck the Younger
Olof Rudbeck the Younger
and Lars Roberg. Although Rudbeck and Roberg had undoubtedly been good professors, by then they were older and not so interested in teaching. Rudbeck no longer gave public lectures, and had others stand in for him. The botany, zoology, pharmacology and anatomy lectures were not in their best state.[33] In Uppsala, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
met a new benefactor, Olof Celsius, who was a professor of theology and an amateur botanist.[34] He received Linnaeus
Linnaeus
into his home and allowed him use of his library, which was one of the richest botanical libraries in Sweden.[35] In 1729, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
wrote a thesis, Praeludia Sponsaliorum Plantarum on plant sexual reproduction. This attracted the attention of Rudbeck; in May 1730, he selected Linnaeus
Linnaeus
to give lectures at the University although the young man was only a second-year student. His lectures were popular, and Linnaeus
Linnaeus
often addressed an audience of 300 people.[36] In June, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
moved from Celsius' house to Rudbeck's to become the tutor of the three youngest of his 24 children. His friendship with Celsius
Celsius
did not wane and they continued their botanical expeditions.[37] Over that winter, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
began to doubt Tournefort's system of classification and decided to create one of his own. His plan was to divide the plants by the number of stamens and pistils. He began writing several books, which would later result in, for example, Genera Plantarum
Genera Plantarum
and Critica Botanica. He also produced a book on the plants grown in the Uppsala
Uppsala
Botanical Garden, Adonis Uplandicus.[38] Rudbeck's former assistant, Nils Rosén, returned to the University in March 1731 with a degree in medicine. Rosén started giving anatomy lectures and tried to take over Linnaeus' botany lectures, but Rudbeck prevented that. Until December, Rosén gave Linnaeus
Linnaeus
private tutoring in medicine. In December, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
had a "disagreement" with Rudbeck's wife and had to move out of his mentor's house; his relationship with Rudbeck did not appear to suffer. That Christmas, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
returned home to Stenbrohult to visit his parents for the first time in about three years. His mother had disapproved of his failing to become a priest, but she was pleased to learn he was teaching at the University.[38][39] Expedition to Lapland Main articles: Expedition to Lapland
Expedition to Lapland
and Flora
Flora
Lapponica

Wearing the traditional dress of the Sami people
Sami people
of Lapland, holding the twinflower, later known as Linnaea
Linnaea
borealis, that became his personal emblem. Martin Hoffman, 1737.

During a visit with his parents, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
told them about his plan to travel to Lapland; Rudbeck had made the journey in 1695, but the detailed results of his exploration were lost in a fire seven years afterwards. Linnaeus' hope was to find new plants, animals and possibly valuable minerals. He was also curious about the customs of the native Sami people, reindeer-herding nomads who wandered Scandinavia's vast tundras. In April 1732, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was awarded a grant from the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala
Uppsala
for his journey.[40][41] Linnaeus
Linnaeus
began his expedition from Uppsala
Uppsala
on May 12, 1732, just before he turned 25.[42] He travelled on foot and horse, bringing with him his journal, botanical and ornithological manuscripts and sheets of paper for pressing plants. Near Gävle
Gävle
he found great quantities of Campanula serpyllifolia, later known as Linnaea
Linnaea
borealis, the twinflower that would become his favourite.[43] He sometimes dismounted on the way to examine a flower or rock[44] and was particularly interested in mosses and lichens, the latter a main part of the diet of the reindeer, a common and economically important animal in Lapland.[45] Linnaeus
Linnaeus
travelled clockwise around the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia, making major inland incursions from Umeå, Luleå
Luleå
and Tornio. He returned from his six-month-long, over 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) expedition in October, having gathered and observed many plants, birds and rocks.[46][47][48] Although Lapland was a region with limited biodiversity, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
described about 100 previously unidentified plants. These became the basis of his book Flora
Flora
Lapponica.[49][50] However, on the expedition to Lapland, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
used Latin
Latin
names to describe organisms because he had not yet developed the binomial system.[42] In Flora Lapponica
Flora Lapponica
Linnaeus' ideas about nomenclature and classification were first used in a practical way, making this the first proto-modern Flora.[51] The account covered 534 species, used the Linnaean classification
Linnaean classification
system and included, for the described species, geographical distribution and taxonomic notes. It was Augustin Pyramus de Candolle
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle
who attributed Linnaeus
Linnaeus
with Flora Lapponica as the first example in the botanical genre of Flora writing. Botanical historian E. L. Greene described Flora Lapponica
Flora Lapponica
as "the most classic and delightful" of Linnaeus's works.[51] It was also during this expedition that Linnaeus
Linnaeus
had a flash of insight regarding the classification of mammals. Upon observing the lower jawbone of a horse at the side of a road he was travelling, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
remarked: "If I only knew how many teeth and of what kind every animal had, how many teats and where they were placed, I should perhaps be able to work out a perfectly natural system for the arrangement of all quadrupeds."[52] In 1734, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
led a small group of students to Dalarna. Funded by the Governor of Dalarna, the expedition was to catalogue known natural resources and discover new ones, but also to gather intelligence on Norwegian mining activities at Røros.[48] Doctorate

Cities where he worked; those outside Sweden
Sweden
were only visited during 1735–1738.

Back in Uppsala, Linnaeus' relations with Nils Rosén worsened, and thus he gladly accepted an invitation from the student Claes Sohlberg to spend the Christmas holiday in Falun
Falun
with Sohlberg's family. Sohlberg's father was a mining inspector, and let Linnaeus
Linnaeus
visit the mines near Falun.[53] Sohlberg's father suggested to Linnaeus
Linnaeus
he should bring Sohlberg to the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
and continue to tutor him there for an annual salary. At that time, the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
was one of the most revered places to study natural history and a common place for Swedes to take their doctoral degree; Linnaeus, who was interested in both of these, accepted.[54] In April 1735, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
and Sohlberg set out for the Netherlands, with Linnaeus
Linnaeus
to take a doctoral degree in medicine at the University of Harderwijk.[55] On the way, they stopped in Hamburg, where they met the mayor, who proudly showed them a wonder of nature which he possessed: the taxidermied remains of a seven-headed hydra. Linnaeus quickly discovered it was a fake: jaws and clawed feet from weasels and skins from snakes had been glued together. The provenance of the hydra suggested to Linnaeus
Linnaeus
it had been manufactured by monks to represent the Beast of Revelation. As much as this may have upset the mayor, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
made his observations public and the mayor's dreams of selling the hydra for an enormous sum were ruined. Fearing his wrath, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
and Sohlberg had to leave Hamburg
Hamburg
quickly.[56][57]

The Hamburg
Hamburg
Hydra, from the Thesaurus (1734) of Albertus Seba

When Linnaeus
Linnaeus
reached Harderwijk, he began working towards a degree immediately; at the time, Harderwijk
Harderwijk
was known for awarding "instant" degrees after as little as a week.[58] First he handed in a thesis on the cause of malaria he had written in Sweden, which he then defended in a public debate. His dissertation, submitted on 23 June, was titled Dissertatio medica inauguralis in qua exhibetur hypothesis nova de febrium intermittentium causa ("Inaugural thesis in medicine, in which a new hypothesis on the cause of intermittent fevers is presented"). He concluded that malaria arose only in places with clay-rich soil.[59] He is now known to have been wrong about the cause, not having a microscope good enough to see malarial parasites, which were spread by mosquitoes breeding in the water that collected in ruts and puddles.[60] But he was right in predicting that traditional Chinese medicine, including the use of wormwood (Artemisia), is a potential source of antimalarial drugs;[59] Artemisinins, derived from wormwood, are now the principal antimalarial drugs.[61] The next step was to take an oral examination and to diagnose a patient. After less than two weeks, he took his degree and became a doctor, at the age of 28.[56][58] During the summer, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
met a friend from Uppsala, Peter Artedi. Before their departure from Uppsala, Artedi and Linnaeus
Linnaeus
had decided should one of them die, the survivor would finish the other's work. Ten weeks later, Artedi drowned in one of the canals of Amsterdam, and his unfinished manuscript on the classification of fish was left to Linnaeus
Linnaeus
to complete.[62][63] Publishing of Systema Naturae One of the first scientists Linnaeus
Linnaeus
met in the Netherlands
Netherlands
was Johan Frederik Gronovius to whom Linnaeus
Linnaeus
showed one of the several manuscripts he had brought with him from Sweden. The manuscript described a new system for classifying plants. When Gronovius saw it, he was very impressed, and offered to help pay for the printing. With an additional monetary contribution by the Scottish doctor Isaac Lawson, the manuscript was published as Systema Naturae (1735).[64][65] Linnaeus
Linnaeus
became acquainted with one of the most respected physicians and botanists in the Netherlands, Herman Boerhaave, who tried to convince Linnaeus
Linnaeus
to make a career there. Boerhaave offered him a journey to South Africa and America, but Linnaeus
Linnaeus
declined, stating he would not stand the heat. Instead, Boerhaave convinced Linnaeus
Linnaeus
that he should visit the botanist Johannes Burman. After his visit, Burman, impressed with his guest's knowledge, decided Linnaeus
Linnaeus
should stay with him during the winter. During his stay, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
helped Burman with his Thesaurus Zeylanicus. Burman also helped Linnaeus
Linnaeus
with the books on which he was working: Fundamenta Botanica
Fundamenta Botanica
and Bibliotheca Botanica.[66] George Clifford, Philip Miller, and Johann Jacob Dillenius

Leaf
Leaf
forms from Hortus Cliffortianus
Hortus Cliffortianus
(1738)

In August 1735, during Linnaeus' stay with Burman, he met George Clifford III, a director of the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
and the owner of a rich botanical garden at the estate of Hartekamp
Hartekamp
in Heemstede. Clifford was very impressed with Linnaeus' ability to classify plants, and invited him to become his physician and superintendent of his garden. Linnaeus
Linnaeus
had already agreed to stay with Burman over the winter, and could thus not accept immediately. However, Clifford offered to compensate Burman by offering him a copy of Sir Hans Sloane's Natural History of Jamaica, a rare book, if he let Linnaeus stay with him, and Burman accepted.[67][68] On 24 September 1735, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
moved to Hartekamp
Hartekamp
to become personal physician to Clifford, and curator of Clifford's herbarium. He was paid 1,000 florins a year, with free board and lodging. Though the agreement was only for a winter of that year, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
practically stayed there till 1738.[69] It was here that he wrote a book Hortus Cliffortianus, in the preface of which he described his experience as "the happiest time of my life." (A portion of Hartekamp
Hartekamp
was declared as public garden in April 1956 by the Heemstede
Heemstede
local authority, and was named "Linnaeushof".[70] It eventually became, as it is claimed, the biggest playground in Europe.[71]) In July 1736, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
travelled to England, at Clifford's expense.[72] He went to London to visit Sir Hans Sloane, a collector of natural history, and to see his cabinet,[73] as well as to visit the Chelsea Physic Garden
Chelsea Physic Garden
and its keeper, Philip Miller. He taught Miller about his new system of subdividing plants, as described in Systema Naturae. Miller was in fact reluctant to use the new binomial nomenclature, preferring the classifications of Joseph Pitton de Tournefort and John Ray
John Ray
at first. Linnaeus, nevertheless, applauded Miller's Gardeners Dictionary,[74] The conservative Scot actually retained in his dictionary a number of pre-Linnaean binomial signifiers discarded by Linnaeus
Linnaeus
but which have been retained by modern botanists. He only fully changed to the Linnaean system in the edition of The Gardeners Dictionary of 1768. Miller ultimately was impressed, and from then on started to arrange the garden according to Linnaeus' system.[75] Linnaeus
Linnaeus
also travelled to Oxford University to visit the botanist Johann Jacob Dillenius. He failed to make Dillenius publicly fully accept his new classification system, though the two men remained in correspondence for many years afterwards. Linnaeus
Linnaeus
dedicated his Critica botanica to him, as "opus botanicum quo absolutius mundus non vidit". Linnaeus
Linnaeus
would later name a genus of tropical tree Dillenia in his honour. He then returned to Hartekamp, bringing with him many specimens of rare plants.[76] The next year, he published Genera Plantarum, in which he described 935 genera of plants, and shortly thereafter he supplemented it with Corollarium Generum Plantarum, with another sixty (sexaginta) genera.[77] His work at Hartekamp
Hartekamp
led to another book, Hortus Cliffortianus, a catalogue of the botanical holdings in the herbarium and botanical garden of Hartekamp. He wrote it in nine months (completed in July 1737), but it was not published until 1738.[66] It contains the first use of the name Nepenthes, which Linnaeus
Linnaeus
used to describe a genus of pitcher plants.[78][note 3] Linnaeus
Linnaeus
stayed with Clifford at Hartekamp
Hartekamp
until 18 October 1737 (new style), when he left the house to return to Sweden. Illness and the kindness of Dutch friends obliged him to stay some months longer in Holland. In May 1738, he set out for Sweden
Sweden
again. On the way home, he stayed in Paris for about a month, visiting botanists such as Antoine de Jussieu. After his return, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
never left Sweden again.[79][80] Return to Sweden

Wedding portrait

When Linnaeus
Linnaeus
returned to Sweden
Sweden
on 28 June 1738, he went to Falun, where he entered into an engagement to Sara Elisabeth Moræa. Three months later, he moved to Stockholm
Stockholm
to find employment as a physician, and thus to make it possible to support a family.[81][82] Once again, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
found a patron; he became acquainted with Count Carl Gustav Tessin, who helped him get work as a physician at the Admiralty.[83][84] During this time in Stockholm, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
helped found the Royal Swedish Academy of Science; he became the first Praeses
Praeses
in the academy by drawing of lots.[85] Because his finances had improved and were now sufficient to support a family, he received permission to marry his fiancée, Sara Elisabeth Moræa. Their wedding was held 26 June 1739. Seven months later, Sara gave birth to their first son, Carl. Two years later, a daughter, Elisabeth Christina, was born, and the subsequent year Sara gave birth to Sara Magdalena, who died when 15 days old. Sara and Linnaeus
Linnaeus
would later have four other children: Lovisa, Sara Christina, Johannes and Sophia.[81][86]

House in Uppsala

In May 1741, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was appointed Professor of Medicine at Uppsala University, first with responsibility for medicine-related matters. Soon, he changed place with the other Professor of Medicine, Nils Rosén, and thus was responsible for the Botanical Garden (which he would thoroughly reconstruct and expand), botany and natural history, instead. In October that same year, his wife and nine-year-old son followed him to live in Uppsala.[87]:49–50 Öland
Öland
and Gotland Ten days after he was appointed Professor, he undertook an expedition to the island provinces of Öland
Öland
and Gotland
Gotland
with six students from the university, to look for plants useful in medicine. First, they travelled to Öland
Öland
and stayed there until 21 June, when they sailed to Visby
Visby
in Gotland. Linnaeus
Linnaeus
and the students stayed on Gotland
Gotland
for about a month, and then returned to Uppsala. During this expedition, they found 100 previously unrecorded plants. The observations from the expedition were later published in Öländska och Gothländska Resa, written in Swedish. Like Flora
Flora
Lapponica, it contained both zoological and botanical observations, as well as observations concerning the culture in Öland
Öland
and Gotland.[88][89] During the summer of 1745, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
published two more books: Flora Suecica and Fauna Suecica. Flora
Flora
Suecica was a strictly botanical book, while Fauna Suecica was zoological.[81][90] Anders Celsius
Anders Celsius
had created the temperature scale named after him in 1742. Celsius' scale was inverted compared to today, the boiling point at 0 °C and freezing point at 100 °C. In 1745, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
inverted the scale to its present standard.[91] Västergötland In the summer of 1746, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was once again commissioned by the Government to carry out an expedition, this time to the Swedish province of Västergötland. He set out from Uppsala
Uppsala
on 12 June and returned on 11 August. On the expedition his primary companion was Erik Gustaf Lidbeck, a student who had accompanied him on his previous journey. Linnaeus
Linnaeus
described his findings from the expedition in the book Wästgöta-Resa, published the next year.[88][92] After returning from the journey the Government decided Linnaeus
Linnaeus
should take on another expedition to the southernmost province Scania. This journey was postponed, as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
felt too busy.[81] In 1747, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was given the title archiater, or chief physician, by the Swedish king Adolf Frederick—a mark of great respect.[93] The same year he was elected member of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin.[94] Scania In the spring of 1749, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
could finally journey to Scania, again commissioned by the Government. With him he brought his student, Olof Söderberg. On the way to Scania, he made his last visit to his brothers and sisters in Stenbrohult since his father had died the previous year. The expedition was similar to the previous journeys in most aspects, but this time he was also ordered to find the best place to grow walnut and Swedish whitebeam trees; these trees were used by the military to make rifles. The journey was successful, and Linnaeus' observations were published the next year in Skånska Resa.[95][96] Rector of Uppsala
Uppsala
University

Summer home at his Hammarby estate

The Linnaean Garden
Linnaean Garden
in Uppsala

In 1750, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
became rector of Uppsala
Uppsala
University, starting a period where natural sciences were esteemed.[81] Perhaps the most important contribution he made during his time at Uppsala
Uppsala
was to teach; many of his students travelled to various places in the world to collect botanical samples. Linnaeus
Linnaeus
called the best of these students his "apostles".[87]:56–57 His lectures were normally very popular and were often held in the Botanical Garden. He tried to teach the students to think for themselves and not trust anybody, not even him. Even more popular than the lectures were the botanical excursions made every Saturday during summer, where Linnaeus
Linnaeus
and his students explored the flora and fauna in the vicinity of Uppsala.[97] Philosophia Botanica Linnaeus
Linnaeus
published Philosophia Botanica
Philosophia Botanica
in 1751.[98] The book contained a complete survey of the taxonomy system he had been using in his earlier works. It also contained information of how to keep a journal on travels and how to maintain a botanical garden.[99] Nutrix Noverca

Cover of Nutrix Noverca (1752)

During Linnaeus' time it was normal for upper class women to have wet nurses for their babies. Linnaeus
Linnaeus
joined an ongoing campaign to end this practice in Sweden
Sweden
and promote breast-feeding by mothers. In 1752 Linnaeus
Linnaeus
published a thesis along with Frederick Lindberg, a physician student,[100] based on their experiences.[101] In the tradition of the period, this dissertation was essentially an idea of the presiding reviewer (prases) expounded upon by the student. Linnaeus' dissertation was translated into French by J.E. Gilibert in 1770 as La Nourrice marâtre, ou Dissertation sur les suites funestes du nourrisage mercénaire. Linnaeus
Linnaeus
suggested that children might absorb the personality of their wet nurse through the milk. He admired the child care practices of the Lapps[102] and pointed out how healthy their babies were compared to those of Europeans who employed wet nurses. He compared the behaviour of wild animals and pointed out how none of them denied their newborns their breastmilk.[102] It is thought that his activism played a role in his choice of the term Mammalia for the class of organisms.[103] Species Plantarum Main article: Species Plantarum Linnaeus
Linnaeus
published Species Plantarum, the work which is now internationally accepted as the starting point of modern botanical nomenclature, in 1753.[104] The first volume was issued on 24 May, the second volume followed on 16 August of the same year.[note 4][106] The book contained 1,200 pages and was published in two volumes; it described over 7,300 species.[87]:47[107] The same year the king dubbed him knight of the Order of the Polar Star, the first civilian in Sweden
Sweden
to become a knight in this order. He was then seldom seen not wearing the order's insignia.[108] Ennoblement

His coat of arms

Linnaeus
Linnaeus
felt Uppsala
Uppsala
was too noisy and unhealthy, so he bought two farms in 1758: Hammarby and Sävja. The next year, he bought a neighbouring farm, Edeby. He spent the summers with his family at Hammarby; initially it only had a small one-storey house, but in 1762 a new, larger main building was added.[96][109] In Hammarby, Linnaeus made a garden where he could grow plants that could not be grown in the Botanical Garden in Uppsala. He began constructing a museum on a hill behind Hammarby in 1766, where he moved his library and collection of plants. A fire that destroyed about one third of Uppsala and had threatened his residence there necessitated the move.[110] Since the initial release of Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
in 1735, the book had been expanded and reprinted several times; the tenth edition was released in 1758. This edition established itself as the starting point for zoological nomenclature, the equivalent of Species Plantarum.[87]:47[111] The Swedish king Adolf Frederick granted Linnaeus
Linnaeus
nobility in 1757, but he was not ennobled until 1761. With his ennoblement, he took the name Carl von Linné (Latinised as Carolus a Linné), 'Linné' being a shortened and gallicised version of 'Linnæus', and the German nobiliary particle 'von' signifying his ennoblement.[3] The noble family's coat of arms prominently features a twinflower, one of Linnaeus' favourite plants; it was given the scientific name Linnaea borealis in his honour by Gronovius. The shield in the coat of arms is divided into thirds: red, black and green for the three kingdoms of nature (animal, mineral and vegetable) in Linnaean classification; in the centre is an egg "to denote Nature, which is continued and perpetuated in ovo." At the bottom is a phrase in Latin, borrowed from the Aeneid, which reads "Famam extendere factis": we extend our fame by our deeds.[87]:62[112][113] Linnaeus
Linnaeus
inscribed this personal motto in books that were gifted to him by friends.[114] After his ennoblement, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
continued teaching and writing. His reputation had spread over the world, and he corresponded with many different people. For example, Catherine II of Russia
Catherine II of Russia
sent him seeds from her country.[115] He also corresponded with Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, "the Linnaeus
Linnaeus
of the Austrian Empire", who was a doctor and a botanist in Idrija, Duchy of Carniola
Duchy of Carniola
(nowadays Slovenia).[116] Scopoli communicated all of his research, findings, and descriptions (for example of the olm and the dormouse, two little animals hitherto unknown to Linnaeus). Linnaeus
Linnaeus
greatly respected Scopoli and showed great interest in his work. He named a solanaceous genus, Scopolia, the source of scopolamine, after him, but because of the great distance between them, they never met.[117][118] Final years

Headstone
Headstone
of him and his son Carl Linnaeus
Linnaeus
the Younger

Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was relieved of his duties in the Royal Swedish Academy of Science in 1763, but continued his work there as usual for more than ten years after.[81] He stepped down as rector at Uppsala
Uppsala
University in December 1772, mostly due to his declining health.[80][119] Linnaeus' last years were troubled by illness. He had suffered from a disease called the Uppsala
Uppsala
fever in 1764, but survived thanks to the care of Rosén. He developed sciatica in 1773, and the next year, he had a stroke which partially paralysed him.[120] He suffered a second stroke in 1776, losing the use of his right side and leaving him bereft of his memory; while still able to admire his own writings, he could not recognise himself as their author.[121][122] In December 1777, he had another stroke which greatly weakened him, and eventually led to his death on 10 January 1778 in Hammarby.[87]:63[119] Despite his desire to be buried in Hammarby, he was buried in Uppsala Cathedral
Uppsala Cathedral
on 22 January.[123][124] His library and collections were left to his widow Sara and their children. Joseph Banks, an English botanist, wanted to buy the collection, but his son Carl refused and moved the collection to Uppsala. In 1783 Carl died and Sara inherited the collection, having outlived both her husband and son. She tried to sell it to Banks, but he was no longer interested; instead an acquaintance of his agreed to buy the collection. The acquaintance was a 24-year-old medical student, James Edward Smith, who bought the whole collection: 14,000 plants, 3,198 insects, 1,564 shells, about 3,000 letters and 1,600 books. Smith founded the Linnean Society of London
Linnean Society of London
five years later.[124][125] The von Linné name ended with his son Carl, who never married.[6] His other son, Johannes, had died aged 3.[126] There are over two hundred descendants of Linnaeus
Linnaeus
through two of his daughters.[6] Apostles Main article: Apostles of Linnaeus

Peter Forsskål
Peter Forsskål
was among the apostles who met a tragic fate abroad.

During Linnaeus' time as Professor and Rector of Uppsala
Uppsala
University, he taught many devoted students, 17 of whom he called "apostles". They were the most promising, most committed students, and all of them made botanical expeditions to various places in the world, often with his help. The amount of this help varied; sometimes he used his influence as Rector to grant his apostles a scholarship or a place on an expedition.[127] To most of the apostles he gave instructions of what to look for on their journeys. Abroad, the apostles collected and organised new plants, animals and minerals according to Linnaeus' system. Most of them also gave some of their collection to Linnaeus when their journey was finished.[128] Thanks to these students, the Linnaean system of taxonomy spread through the world without Linnaeus ever having to travel outside Sweden
Sweden
after his return from Holland.[129] The British botanist William T. Stearn
William T. Stearn
notes without Linnaeus' new system, it would not have been possible for the apostles to collect and organise so many new specimens.[130] Many of the apostles died during their expeditions. Early expeditions Christopher Tärnström, the first apostle and a 43-year-old pastor with a wife and children, made his journey in 1746. He boarded a Swedish East India Company
Swedish East India Company
ship headed for China. Tärnström never reached his destination, dying of a tropical fever on Côn Sơn Island the same year. Tärnström's widow blamed Linnaeus
Linnaeus
for making her children fatherless, causing Linnaeus
Linnaeus
to prefer sending out younger, unmarried students after Tärnström.[131] Six other apostles later died on their expeditions, including Pehr Forsskål
Pehr Forsskål
and Pehr Löfling.[130] Two years after Tärnström's expedition, Finnish-born Pehr Kalm
Pehr Kalm
set out as the second apostle to North America. There he spent two-and-a-half years studying the flora and fauna of Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey and Canada. Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was overjoyed when Kalm returned, bringing back with him many pressed flowers and seeds. At least 90 of the 700 North American species described in Species Plantarum had been brought back by Kalm.[132] Cook expeditions and Japan

Apostle Daniel Solander
Daniel Solander
(far left) with Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
(left, sitting) accompanied James Cook
James Cook
(centre) on his journey to Australia.

Daniel Solander
Daniel Solander
was living in Linnaeus' house during his time as a student in Uppsala. Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was very fond of him, promising Solander his oldest daughter's hand in marriage. On Linnaeus' recommendation, Solander travelled to England in 1760, where he met the English botanist Joseph Banks. With Banks, Solander joined James Cook
James Cook
on his expedition to Oceania on the Endeavour in 1768–71.[133][134] Solander was not the only apostle to journey with James Cook; Anders Sparrman followed on the Resolution in 1772–75 bound for, among other places, Oceania and South America. Sparrman made many other expeditions, one of them to South Africa.[135] Perhaps the most famous and successful apostle was Carl Peter Thunberg, who embarked on a nine-year expedition in 1770. He stayed in South Africa for three years, then travelled to Japan. All foreigners in Japan
Japan
were forced to stay on the island of Dejima
Dejima
outside Nagasaki, so it was thus hard for Thunberg to study the flora. He did, however, manage to persuade some of the translators to bring him different plants, and he also found plants in the gardens of Dejima. He returned to Sweden
Sweden
in 1779, one year after Linnaeus' death.[136] Major publications Main article: Carl Linnaeus
Linnaeus
bibliography Systema Naturae

Title page of the 10th edition of Systema Naturæ (1758)

Main article: Systema Naturae The first edition of Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
was printed in the Netherlands
Netherlands
in 1735. It was a twelve-page work.[137] By the time it reached its 10th edition in 1758, it classified 4,400 species of animals and 7,700 species of plants. People from all over the world sent their specimens to Linnaeus
Linnaeus
to be included. By the time he started work on the 12th edition, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
needed a new invention - the index card - to track classifications.[138] In Systema Naturae, the unwieldy names mostly used at the time, such as "Physalis annua ramosissima, ramis angulosis glabris, foliis dentato-serratis", were supplemented with concise and now familiar "binomials", composed of the generic name, followed by a specific epithet – in the case given, Physalis angulata. These binomials could serve as a label to refer to the species. Higher taxa were constructed and arranged in a simple and orderly manner. Although the system, now known as binomial nomenclature, was partially developed by the Bauhin brothers (see Gaspard Bauhin
Gaspard Bauhin
and Johann Bauhin) almost 200 years earlier,[139] Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was the first to use it consistently throughout the work, including in monospecific genera, and may be said to have popularised it within the scientific community. After the decline in Linnaeus' health in the early 1770s, publication of editions of Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
went in two different directions. Another Swedish scientist, Johan Andreas Murray issued the Regnum Vegetabile section separately in 1774 as the Systema Vegetabilium, rather confusingly labelled the 13th edition.[140] Meanwhile a 13th edition of the entire Systema appeared in parts between 1788 and 1793. It was through the Systema Vegetabilium that Linnaeus' work became widely known in England, following its translation from the Latin
Latin
by the Lichfield Botanical Society
Lichfield Botanical Society
as A System of Vegetables (1783–1785).[141] Species Plantarum Main article: Species Plantarum Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum
(or, more fully, Species Plantarum, exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas) was first published in 1753, as a two-volume work. Its prime importance is perhaps that it is the primary starting point of plant nomenclature as it exists today.[104] Genera Plantarum Main article: Genera Plantarum Genera plantarum: eorumque characteres naturales secundum numerum, figuram, situm, et proportionem omnium fructificationis partium was first published in 1737, delineating plant genera. Around 10 editions were published, not all of them by Linnaeus
Linnaeus
himself; the most important is the 1754 fifth edition.[142] In it Linnaeus
Linnaeus
divided the plant Kingdom into 24 classes. One, Cryptogamia, included all the plants with concealed reproductive parts (algae, fungi, mosses and liverworts and ferns).[143] Philosophia Botanica Main article: Philosophia Botanica Philosophia Botanica
Philosophia Botanica
(1751)[98] was a summary of Linnaeus' thinking on plant classification and nomenclature, and an elaboration of the work he had previously published in Fundamenta Botanica
Fundamenta Botanica
(1736) and Critica Botanica (1737). Other publications forming part of his plan to reform the foundations of botany include his Classes Plantarum
Classes Plantarum
and Bibliotheca Botanica: all were printed in Holland (as were Genera Plantarum (1737) and Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
(1735)), the Philosophia being simultaneously released in Stockholm.[144] Collections

Linnaeus
Linnaeus
marble by Léon-Joseph Chavalliaud
Léon-Joseph Chavalliaud
(1899), outside the Palm House at Sefton Park, Liverpool

At the end of his lifetime the Linnean collection in Uppsala
Uppsala
was considered one of the finest collections of natural history objects in Sweden. Next to his own collection he had also built up a museum for the university of Uppsala, which was supplied by material donated by Carl Gyllenborg
Carl Gyllenborg
(in 1744–1745), crown-prince Adolf Fredrik (in 1745), Erik Petreus (in 1746), Claes Grill (in 1746), Magnus Lagerström (in 1748 and 1750) and Jonas Alströmer
Jonas Alströmer
(in 1749). The relation between the museum and the private collection was not formalised and the steady flow of material from Linnean pupils were incorporated to the private collection rather than to the museum.[145] Linnaeus
Linnaeus
felt his work was reflecting the harmony of nature and he said in 1754 'the earth is then nothing else but a museum of the all-wise creator's masterpieces, divided into three chambers'. He had turned his own estate into a microcosm of that 'world museum'.[146] In April 1766 parts of the town were destroyed by a fire and the Linnean private collection was subsequently moved to a barn outside the town, and shortly afterwards to a single-room stone building close to his country house at Hammarby near Uppsala. This resulted in a physical separation between the two collections, the museum collection remained in the botanical garden of the university. Some material which needed special care (alcohol specimens) or ample storage space was moved from the private collection to the museum. In Hammarby the Linnean private collections suffered seriously from damp and the depredations by mice and insects. Carl von Linné's son (Carl Linnaeus) inherited the collections in 1778 and retained them until his own death in 1783. Shortly after Carl von Linné's death his son confirmed that mice had caused "horrible damage" to the plants and that also moths and mould had caused considerable damage.[147] He tried to rescue them from the neglect they had suffered during his father's later years, and also added further specimens. This last activity however reduced rather than augmented the scientific value of the original material. In 1784 the young medical student James Edward Smith
James Edward Smith
purchased the entire specimen collection, library, manuscripts, and correspondence of Carl Linnaeus
Linnaeus
from his widow and daughter and transferred the collections to London.[148][14]:342-357 Not all material in Linné's private collection was transported to England. Thirty-three fish specimens preserved in alcohol were not sent and were later lost.[citation needed] In London Smith tended to neglect the zoological parts of the collection, he added some specimens and also gave some specimens away.[149] Over the following centuries the Linnean collection in London suffered enormously at the hands of scientists who studied the collection, and in the process disturbed the original arrangement and labels, added specimens that did not belong to the original series and withdrew precious original type material.[147] Much material which had been intensively studied by Linné in his scientific career belonged to the collection of Queen Lovisa Ulrika (1720–1782) (in the Linnean publications referred to as "Museum Ludovicae Ulricae" or "M. L. U."). This collection was donated by his grandson King Gustav IV Adolf (1778–1837) to the museum in Uppsala in 1804. Another important collection in this respect was that of her husband King Adolf Fredrik (1710–1771) (in the Linnean sources known as "Museum Adolphi Friderici" or "Mus. Ad. Fr."), the wet parts (alcohol collection) of which were later donated to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and is today housed in the Swedish Museum of Natural History at Stockholm. The dry material was transferred to Uppsala.[145] System of taxonomy

Table of the Animal Kingdom (Regnum Animale) from the 1st edition of Systema Naturæ (1735)

Main article: Linnaean taxonomy The establishment of universally accepted conventions for the naming of organisms was Linnaeus' main contribution to taxonomy—his work marks the starting point of consistent use of binomial nomenclature.[150] During the 18th century expansion of natural history knowledge, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
also developed what became known as the Linnaean taxonomy; the system of scientific classification now widely used in the biological sciences. A previous zoologist Rumphius (1627–1702) had more or less approximated the Linnaean system and his material contributed to the later development of the binomial scientific classification by Linnaeus.[151] The Linnaean system classified nature within a nested hierarchy, starting with three kingdoms. Kingdoms were divided into classes and they, in turn, into orders, and thence into genera (singular: genus), which were divided into Species (singular: species).[152] Below the rank of species he sometimes recognised taxa of a lower (unnamed) rank; these have since acquired standardised names such as variety in botany and subspecies in zoology. Modern taxonomy includes a rank of family between order and genus and a rank of phylum between kingdom and class that were not present in Linnaeus' original system.[153] Linnaeus' groupings were based upon shared physical characteristics, and not simply upon differences.[153] Of his higher groupings, only those for animals are still in use, and the groupings themselves have been significantly changed since their conception, as have the principles behind them. Nevertheless, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
is credited with establishing the idea of a hierarchical structure of classification which is based upon observable characteristics and intended to reflect natural relationships.[150][154] While the underlying details concerning what are considered to be scientifically valid "observable characteristics" have changed with expanding knowledge (for example, DNA sequencing, unavailable in Linnaeus' time, has proven to be a tool of considerable utility for classifying living organisms and establishing their evolutionary relationships), the fundamental principle remains sound. Influences and economic beliefs

Statue on University of Chicago campus

Linnaeus' applied science was inspired not only by the instrumental utilitarianism general to the early Enlightenment, but also by his adherence to the older economic doctrine of Cameralism.[155] Additionally, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was a state interventionist. He supported tariffs, levies, export bounties, quotas, embargoes, navigation acts, subsidised investment capital, ceilings on wages, cash grants, state-licensed producer monopolies, and cartels.[156] Views on mankind According to German biologist Ernst Haeckel, the question of man's origin began with Linnaeus. He helped future research in the natural history of man by describing humans just as he described any other plant or animal.[157] Anthropomorpha Linnaeus
Linnaeus
classified humans among the primates (as they were later called) beginning with the first edition of Systema Naturae. During his time at Hartekamp, he had the opportunity to examine several monkeys and noted similarities between them and man.[87]:173–174 He pointed out both species basically have the same anatomy; except for speech, he found no other differences.[158][note 5] Thus he placed man and monkeys under the same category, Anthropomorpha, meaning "manlike."[159] This classification received criticism from other biologists such as Johan Gottschalk Wallerius, Jacob Theodor Klein
Jacob Theodor Klein
and Johann Georg Gmelin
Johann Georg Gmelin
on the ground that it is illogical to describe a human as 'like a man'.[160] In a letter to Gmelin from 1747, Linnaeus replied:[161][note 6]

It does not please [you] that I've placed Man among the Anthropomorpha, perhaps because of the term 'with human form',[note 7] but man learns to know himself. Let's not quibble over words. It will be the same to me whatever name we apply. But I seek from you and from the whole world a generic difference between man and simian that [follows] from the principles of Natural History.[note 8] I absolutely know of none. If only someone might tell me a single one! If I would have called man a simian or vice versa, I would have brought together all the theologians against me. Perhaps I ought to have by virtue of the law of the discipline.

Detail from the sixth edition of Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
(1748) describing Ant[h]ropomorpha with a division between Homo and Simia

The theological concerns were twofold: first, putting man at the same level as monkeys or apes would lower the spiritually higher position that man was assumed to have in the great chain of being, and second, because the Bible says man was created in the image of God[162] (theomorphism), if monkeys/apes and humans were not distinctly and separately designed, that would mean monkeys and apes were created in the image of God as well. This was something many could not accept.[163] The conflict between world views that was caused by asserting man was a type of animal would simmer for a century until the much greater, and still ongoing, creation–evolution controversy began in earnest with the publication of On the Origin of Species
On the Origin of Species
by Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
in 1859. After such criticism, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
felt he needed to explain himself more clearly. The 10th edition of Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
introduced new terms, including Mammalia and Primates, the latter of which would replace Anthropomorpha[164] as well as giving humans the full binomial Homo sapiens.[165] The new classification received less criticism, but many natural historians still believed he had demoted humans from their former place of ruling over nature and not being a part of it. Linnaeus
Linnaeus
believed that man biologically belongs to the animal kingdom and had to be included in it.[166] In his book Dieta Naturalis, he said, "One should not vent one's wrath on animals, Theology
Theology
decree that man has a soul and that the animals are mere 'aoutomata mechanica,' but I believe they would be better advised that animals have a soul and that the difference is of nobility."[167] Strange people in distant lands

Anthropomorpha depicted in Hoppius' Amoenitates Academicae (1763) 1. Troglodyta Bontii, 2. Lucifer Aldrovandi, 3. Satyrus Tulpii, 4. Pygmaeus Edwardi

Linnaeus
Linnaeus
added a second species to the genus Homo in Systema Naturae based on a figure and description by Jacobus Bontius
Jacobus Bontius
from a 1658 publication: Homo troglodytes ("caveman")[168][169] and published a third in 1771: Homo lar.[170] Swedish historian Gunnar Broberg states that the new human species Linnaeus
Linnaeus
described were actually simians or native people clad in skins to frighten colonial settlers, whose appearance had been exaggerated in accounts to Linnaeus.[171] In early editions of Systema Naturae, many well-known legendary creatures were included such as the phoenix, dragon and manticore as well as cryptids like the satyrus,[172][note 9] which Linnaeus collected into the catch-all category Paradoxa. Broberg thought Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was trying to offer a natural explanation and demystify the world of superstition.[173] Linnaeus
Linnaeus
tried to debunk some of these creatures, as he had with the hydra; regarding the purported remains of dragons, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
wrote that they were either derived from lizards or rays.[174] For Homo troglodytes he asked the Swedish East India Company to search for one, but they did not find any signs of its existence.[175] Homo lar has since been reclassified as Hylobates lar, the lar gibbon.[176] Four races See also: Race (human categorisation) In the first edition of Systema Naturae, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
subdivided the human species into four varieties based on continent and skin colour: "Europæus albus" (white European), "Americanus rubescens" (red American), "Asiaticus fuscus" (brown Asian) and "Africanus Niger" (black African). In the tenth edition of Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
he further detailed stereotypical characteristics for each variety, based on the concept of the four temperaments from classical antiquity, and changed the description of Asians' skin tone to "luridus" (yellow).[177][178][179][180][181] Additionally, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
created a wastebasket taxon "monstrosus" for "wild and monstrous humans, unknown groups, and more or less abnormal people".[182] Commemoration

1907 celebration in Råshult

Main article: Commemoration of Carl Linnaeus Anniversaries of Linnaeus' birth, especially in centennial years, have been marked by major celebrations.[183] Linnaeus
Linnaeus
has appeared on numerous Swedish postage stamps and banknotes.[183] There are numerous statues of Linnaeus
Linnaeus
in countries around the world. The Linnean Society of London has awarded the Linnean Medal
Linnean Medal
for excellence in botany or zoology since 1888. Following approval by the Riksdag of Sweden, Växjö
Växjö
University and Kalmar College
Kalmar College
merged on 1 January 2010 to become Linnaeus
Linnaeus
University.[184] Other things named after Linnaeus include the twinflower genus Linnaea, the crater Linné on the Earth's moon, a street in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the cobalt sulfide mineral Linnaeite. Commentary Andrew Dickson White
Andrew Dickson White
wrote in A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology
Theology
in Christendom (1896):

Linnaeus ... was the most eminent naturalist of his time, a wide observer, a close thinker; but the atmosphere in which he lived and moved and had his being was saturated with biblical theology, and this permeated all his thinking. ... Toward the end of his life he timidly advanced the hypothesis that all the species of one genus constituted at the creation one species; and from the last edition of his Systema Naturæ he quietly left out the strongly orthodox statement of the fixity of each species, which he had insisted upon in his earlier works. ... warnings came speedily both from the Catholic and Protestant sides.[185]

The mathematical PageRank
PageRank
algorithm, applied to 24 multilingual editions in 2014, published in PLOS ONE
PLOS ONE
in 2015, placed Carl Linnaeus
Linnaeus
at the top historical figure, above Jesus, Aristotle, Napoleon, and Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(in that order).[186][187] Works by Linnaeus

Linnaeus, Carolus (1735). Systema naturae, sive regna tria naturae systematice proposita per classes, ordines, genera, & species. Leiden: Haak. pp. 1–12.  Linnaeus, Carolus; Hendrik Engel; Maria Sara Johanna Engel-Ledeboer (1964) [1735]. Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
(facsimile of the 1st ed.). Nieuwkoop, Netherlands: B. de Graaf. OCLC 460298195.  Linnaeus, Carl (1755) [1751]. Philosophia botanica: in qua explicantur fundamenta botanica cum definitionibus partium, exemplis terminorum, observationibus rariorum, adiectis figuris aeneis. originally published simultaneously by R. Kiesewetter (Stockholm) and Z. Chatelain (Amsterdam). Vienna: Joannis Thomae Trattner. Retrieved 13 December 2015.  Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species Plantarum Linnaeus, Carolus (1758). Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 1 (10th ed.). Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius. pp. [1–4], 1–824.  Linné, Carl von (1774). Murray, Johann Andreas, ed. Systema vegetabilium (13th edition of Systema Naturae) (2 vols.). Gottingen: Typis et impensis Jo. Christ. Dieterich. Retrieved 24 February 2015. 

Linné, Carl von (1785) [1774]. Systema vegetabilium (13th edition of Systema Naturae) [A System of Vegetables 2 vols. 1783–1785]. Lichfield: Lichfield Botanical Society. Retrieved 24 February 2015. 

Linnaeus, Carolus (1771). Mantissa plantarum altera generum editionis VI et specierum editionis II. Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius. pp. [1–7], 144–588. 

See also

Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
(Linnaean system) Linnaeus' flower clock Johann Bartsch, colleague Centuria Insectorum History of botany History of phycology Index cards, which were invented by Linnaeus Scientific revolution

References Notes

^ a b Carl Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was born in 1707 on 13 May (Swedish Style) or 23 May according to the modern calendar. According to the Julian calendar he was born 12 May. (Blunt 2004, p. 12) ^ ICZN Chapter 16, Article 72.4.1.1 – "For a nominal species or subspecies established before 2000, any evidence, published or unpublished, may be taken into account to determine what specimens constitute the type series." and Article 73.1.2 – "If the nominal species-group taxon is based on a single specimen, either so stated or implied in the original publication, that specimen is the holotype fixed by monotypy (see Recommendation 73F). If the taxon was established before 2000 evidence derived from outside the work itself may be taken into account [Art. 72.4.1.1] to help identify the specimen." ^ "If this is not Helen's Nepenthes, it certainly will be for all botanists. What botanist would not be filled with admiration if, after a long journey, he should find this wonderful plant. In his astonishment past ills would be forgotten when beholding this admirable work of the Creator!" (translated from Latin
Latin
by Harry Veitch) ^ The date of issue of both volumes was later, for practical purposes, arbitrarily set on 1 May, see Stearn, W.T. (1957), The preparation of the Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum
and the introduction of binomial nomenclature, in: Species Plantarum, A Facsimile of the first edition, London, Ray Society: 72 and ICN (Melbourne Code)[105] Art. 13.4 Note 1: "The two volumes of Linnaeus' Species plantarum, ed. 1 (1753), which appeared in May and August, 1753, respectively, are treated as having been published simultaneously on 1 May 1753." ^ Frängsmyr et al. (1983), p. 167, quotes Linnaeus
Linnaeus
explaining the real difference would necessarily be absent from his classification system, as it was not a morphological characteristic: "I well know what a splendidly great difference there is [between] a man and a bestia [literally, "beast"; that is, a non-human animal] when I look at them from a point of view of morality. Man is the animal which the Creator has seen fit to honor with such a magnificent mind and has condescended to adopt as his favorite and for which he has prepared a nobler life". See also books.google.com in which Linnaeus
Linnaeus
cites the significant capacity to reason as the distinguishing characteristic of humans. ^ Discussion of translation was originally made in this thread on talk.origins in 2005. For an alternative translation, see Gribbin & Gribbin (2008), p. 56, or Slotkin (1965), p. 180. ^ "antropomorphon" [sic] ^ Others who followed were more inclined to give humans a special place in classification; Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
in the first edition of his Manual of Natural History (1779), proposed that the primates be divided into the Quadrumana (four-handed, i.e. apes and monkeys) and Bimana (two-handed, i.e. humans). This distinction was taken up by other naturalists, most notably Georges Cuvier. Some elevated the distinction to the level of order. However, the many affinities between humans and other primates – and especially the great apes – made it clear that the distinction made no scientific sense. Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
wrote, in The Descent of Man in 1871:

The greater number of naturalists who have taken into consideration the whole structure of man, including his mental faculties, have followed Blumenbach and Cuvier, and have placed man in a separate Order, under the title of the Bimana, and therefore on an equality with the orders of the Quadrumana, Carnivora, etc. Recently many of our best naturalists have recurred to the view first propounded by Linnaeus, so remarkable for his sagacity, and have placed man in the same Order with the Quadrumana, under the title of the Primates. The justice of this conclusion will be admitted: for in the first place, we must bear in mind the comparative insignificance for classification of the great development of the brain in man, and that the strongly marked differences between the skulls of man and the Quadrumana (lately insisted upon by Bischoff, Aeby, and others) apparently follow from their differently developed brains. In the second place, we must remember that nearly all the other and more important differences between man and the Quadrumana are manifestly adaptive in their nature, and relate chiefly to the erect position of man; such as the structure of his hand, foot, and pelvis, the curvature of his spine, and the position of his head.

^ Linnaeus
Linnaeus
is translated, writing that the satyrus is "hairy, bearded, with a manlike body, gesticulating much, very fallacious, is a species of monkey, if ever one has been seen."

Citations

^ "Linnaeus" entry in Collins English Dictionary. ^ "Linnaeus, Carolus" in the Oxford Dictionaries Online. ^ a b c Blunt (2004), p. 171. ^ Calisher, CH (2007). "Taxonomy: what's in a name? Doesn't a rose by any other name smell as sweet?". Croatian Medical Journal. 48 (2): 268–270. PMC 2080517 . PMID 17436393.  ^ a b "What people have said about Linnaeus". Linné on line. Uppsala University. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2011.  ^ a b c " Linnaeus
Linnaeus
deceased". Linné on line. Uppsala
Uppsala
University. Retrieved 3 October 2011.  ^ Broberg (2006), p. 7. ^ Egerton, Frank N. (2007). "A History of the Ecological Sciences, Part 23: Linnaeus
Linnaeus
and the Economy of Nature". Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America. 88 (1): 72–88. doi:10.1890/0012-9623(2007)88[72:AHOTES]2.0.CO;2.  ^ "Linnaeus, Carl (1707–1778)". Author Details. International Plant Names Index. Retrieved 1 October 2011.  ^ a b Blunt (2004), p. 12. ^ Stöver (1794), p. 8. ^ Broberg (2006), p. 10. ^ "Nicolaus Linnæus". Geni. Retrieved 27 January 2016.  ^ a b Fries, Theodor Magnus (2011) [1923]. Jackson, Benjamin Daydon, ed. Linnaeus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-03723-5.  ^ a b Blunt (2004), p. 13. ^ Quammen (2007), p. 1. ^ Blunt (2004), p. 15. ^ Thomson, Thomas (2011) [1812]. History of the Royal Society From Its Institution to the End of the Eighteenth Century. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-108-02815-8.  ^ Blunt (2004), pp. 15–16. ^ Stöver (1794), p. 5. ^ Blunt (2004), p. 16. ^ Stöver (1794), pp. 5–6. ^ Carl von Linnés betydelse såsom naturforskare och läkare : skildringar utgifna af Kungl. Vetenskapsakademien i anledning af tvåhundraårsdagen af Linnés födelse (source) ^ Stöver (1794), p. 6. ^ Blunt (2004), pp. 16–17. ^ a b Blunt (2004), pp. 17–18. ^ Stöver (1794), pp. 8–11. ^ Blunt (2004), p. 18. ^ Stöver (1794), p. 13. ^ Blunt (2004), pp. 21–22. ^ Stöver (1794), p. 15. ^ Stöver (1794), pp. 14–15. ^ Blunt (2004), pp. 23–25. ^ Blunt (2004), pp. 31–32. ^ Stöver (1794), pp. 19–20. ^ Blunt (2004), pp. 32–34. ^ Blunt (2004), p. 34–37. ^ a b Blunt (2001), pp. 36–37. ^ Anderson (1997), p. 40. ^ Anderson (1997), pp. 42–43. ^ Blunt (2001), p. 38. ^ a b Black, David, ed. (1979). Carl Linnaeus
Linnaeus
Travels. Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 8. ISBN 0684159767.  ^ Blunt (2001), pp. 42–43. ^ Anderson (1997), pp. 43–44. ^ Anderson (1997), p. 46. ^ Blunt (2001), pp. 63–65. ^ Blunt (2004), pp. 39–42. ^ a b Broberg (2006), p. 29. ^ Quammen (2007), p. 2. ^ Stöver (1794), pp. 38–39. ^ a b Frodin (2001), p. 27. ^ Blunt (2001), p. 54. ^ Blunt (2001), p. 74. ^ Blunt (2001), pp. 78–79. ^ Stöver (1794), p. 71. ^ a b Anderson (1997), pp. 60–61. ^ Blunt (2004), p. 90. ^ a b Blunt (2001), p. 94. ^ a b Hempelmann, Ernst; Krafts, Kristine (2013). "Bad air, amulets and mosquitoes: 2,000 years of changing perspectives on malaria". Malaria
Malaria
Journal. 12 (1): 232. doi:10.1186/1475-2875-12-232. PMC 3723432 . PMID 23835014.  ^ Linnaeus’ thesis on the ague (malaria), ©-2008, Uppsala University. ^ Tu, Youyou (2011). "The discovery of artemisinin (qinghaosu) and gifts from Chinese medicine". Nature Medicine. 17 (10): 1217–1220. doi:10.1038/nm.2471. PMID 21989013.  ^ Anderson (1997), p. 66. ^ Blunt (2004), pp. 98–100. ^ Blunt (2001), p. 98. ^ Anderson (1997), pp. 62–63. ^ a b Blunt (2004), pp. 100–102. ^ Anderson (1997), p. 64. ^ Stöver (1794), pp. 81–82. ^ Shurtleff, William; Aoyagi, Akiko (2015). History of Soybeans and Soyfoods in Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Finland (1735-2015): Extensively Annotated Bibliography and Sourcebook. California (US): Soyinfo Center. p. 222. ISBN 978-1-928914-80-8.  ^ Tanner, Vasco M. (1959). "Carl Linnaeus
Linnaeus
contributions and collections". The Great Basin Naturalist. 19 (1): 27–34.  ^ "Linnaeushof". Hollan.com. Retrieved 17 February 2016.  ^ Blunt (2001), pp. 106–107. ^ Stöver (1794), p. 89. ^ Non erit Lexicon Hortulanorum, sed etiam Botanicorum, that the book will be, not just a lexicon of gardeners, but of botanists."; noted in Paterson 1986:40-41. ^ Stöver (1794), pp. 89–90. ^ Stöver (1794), pp. 90–93. ^ Stöver (1794), p. 95. ^ Veitch (1897) ^ Blunt (2001), p. 123. ^ a b Koerner (1999), p. 56. ^ a b c d e f Louise Petrusson. "Carl Linnaeus". Swedish Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 3 April 2010.  ^ Stöver (1794), p. 141. ^ Stöver (1794), pp. 146–147. ^ Koerner (1999), p. 16. ^ Koerner (1999), pp. 103–105. ^ Stöver (1794), p. 382. ^ a b c d e f g Gribbin & Gribbin (2008) ^ a b Koerner (1999), p. 115. ^ Blunt (2004), pp. 137–142. ^ Stöver (1794), pp. 117–118. ^ Koerner (1999), p. 204. ^ Blunt (2004), p. 159. ^ Blunt (2004), p. 165. ^ Stöver (1794), p. 167. ^ Blunt (2004), pp. 198–205. ^ a b Koerner (1999), p. 116. ^ Blunt (2004), pp. 173–174. ^ a b Linnaeus
Linnaeus
1751. ^ Blunt (2004), p. 221. ^ Tönz, Otmar (2006). "Breastfeeding in modern and ancient times: Facts, ideas and beliefs". In Koletzko, Berthold; Michaelsen, K.F.; Hernell, Olle. Short and Long Term Effects of Breast Feeding on Child Health. Springer. p. 12.  ^ Linnaeus, Carl (1752). Nutrix Noverca (in Latin).  ^ a b Koerner, Lisbet (2009). Linnaeus: Nature and Nation. pp. 69–70.  ^ Schiebinger, Londa (1993). "Why Mammals are Called Mammals: Gender Politics in Eighteenth-Century Natural History". The American Historical Review. 98 (2): 382–411. doi:10.2307/2166840. JSTOR 2166840.  ^ a b Stace (1991), p. 24. ^ McNeill, J.; Barrie, F.R.; Buck, W.R.; Demoulin, V.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Herendeen, P.S.; Knapp, S.; Marhold, K.; Prado, J.; Prud'homme Van Reine, W.F.; Smith, G.F.; Wiersema, J.H.; Turland, N.J. (2012). International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. Regnum Vegetabile 154. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG. ISBN 978-3-87429-425-6.  ^ Sprague (1953) ^ Stöver (1794), pp. 198–199. ^ Blunt (2004), p. 166. ^ Blunt (2004), p. 219. ^ Blunt (2004), pp. 220–224. ^ Blunt (2004), p. 6. ^ Blunt (2004), p. 199. ^ Blunt (2004), pp. 229–230. ^ Jardine, William, ed. (1865). "Anecdotes of Linnaeus". The Naturalist's Library. Volume VI. Ornithology. Humming birds, Part I. London: Chatto & Windus. p. v.  ^ Uppsala
Uppsala
University, Linné Online, English language version ^ Soban, Branko. "A Living Bond between Idrija
Idrija
and Uppsala". The Slovenian. Retrieved 4 April 2012.  ^ Soban, Branko (January 2005). "A Living Bond between Idrija
Idrija
and Uppsala". Slovenija.svet. Slovene Emigrant Association. Retrieved 2007-12-01.  ^ Scopoli, Giovanni Antonio. Joannes A. Scopoli-Carl Linnaeus. Dopisovanje/Correspondence 1760–1775, ed. Darinka Soban. Ljubljana, 2004: Slovenian Natural history
Natural history
society.  ^ a b Blunt (2004), p. 245. ^ Blunt (2004), p. 232. ^ Stöver (1794), pp. 243–245. ^ Broberg (2006), p. 42. ^ Quammen (2007), p. 4. ^ a b Anderson (1997), pp. 104–106. ^ Blunt (2001), pp. 238–240. ^ "Linnaeus, Johannes (1754–1757). Swedish. Son of Carl Linnaeus
Linnaeus
and Sara Elisabet Linnaea". The Linnaeus
Linnaeus
Correspondence. Centre international d'étude du XVIIIe siècle. Retrieved 4 October 2011.  ^ Blunt (2004), pp. 189–190. ^ Broberg (2006), pp. 37–39. ^ Anderson (1997), pp. 92–93. ^ a b Blunt (2004), pp. 184–185. ^ Blunt (2004), pp. 185–186. ^ Anderson (1997), pp. 93–94. ^ Anderson (1997), p. 96. ^ Blunt (2004), pp. 191–192. ^ Blunt (2004), pp. 192–193. ^ Blunt (2004), pp. 193–194. ^ Linnaeus
Linnaeus
(1735) ^ Everts, Sarah (2016). "Information Overload". Distillations. 2 (2): 26–33. Retrieved 20 March 2018.  ^ Windelspecht (2002), p. 28. ^ Linné 1774. ^ Linné 1785. ^ Stace (1991), p. 22. ^ Van den Hoek et al. (2005). ^ Stafleu (1971), p. 157. ^ a b Wallin, L. 2001. Catalogue of type specimens. 4. Linnaean specimens. – pp. [1], 1–128. Uppsala. ( Uppsala
Uppsala
University, Museum of Evolution, Zoology
Zoology
Section). ^ Lisbet Koerner, "Carl Linnaeus
Linnaeus
in his Time and Place," in Cultures of Natural History, ed. Nicholas Jardine, James A. Secord, and Emma C. Spary (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 145–162. ^ a b Dance, S.P. 1967. Report on the Linnaean shell collection. – Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London
Linnean Society of London
178 (1): 1–24, Pl. 1-10. ^ White, Paul (1999). "The purchase of knowledge: James Edward Smith and the Linnean collections" (PDF). Endeavour. 23 (3): 126. doi:10.1016/S0160-9327(99)01212-0. Retrieved 28 January 2018.  ^ Examples are evident in the Portland catalogue p. 76 Lot 1715 and p. 188 Lot 3997. "A catalogue of the Portland Museum, lately the property of the Duchess Dowager of Portland, deceased: Which will be sold by auction by Mr. Skinner and Co. On Monday the 24th of April, 1786, and the thirty-seven following days (...) at her late dwelling-house, in Privy-Garden, Whitehall, by order of the Acting Executrix." – pp. i–viii [= 1–8], 3-194, pl. [1]. [London]. (Skinner). ^ a b Reveal & Pringle (1993), p. 160–161. ^ Monk,, K.A.; Fretes, Y.; Reksodiharjo-Lilley, G. (1996). The Ecology of Nusa Tenggara and Maluku. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. p. 4. ISBN 962-593-076-0.  ^ Simpson (1961), p. 16–19. ^ a b Davis & Heywood (1973), p. 17. ^ Simpson (1961), p. 56–57. ^ Koerner (1999), p. 95-96. ^ Koerner (1999), p. 97. ^ Frängsmyr et al. (1983), pp. 156–157. ^ Frängsmyr et al. (1983), p. 170. ^ Frängsmyr et al. (1983), p. 167. ^ Johann Georg Gmelin
Johann Georg Gmelin
(30 December 1746). "Letter to Carl Linnaeus". The Linnean Correspondence. St. Petersburg, Russia. L0759. Retrieved 4 October 2011.  ^ Carl Linnaeus
Linnaeus
(25 February 1747). "Letter to Johann Georg Gmelin". The Linnean Correspondence. Uppsala, Sweden. L0783. Retrieved 4 October 2011.  Also available as JPG. ^ Genesis 1:26–1:27 ^ Frängsmyr et al. (1983), pp. 171–172. ^ Frängsmyr et al. (1983), p. 175. ^ Blunt (2004), p. 8. ^ Frängsmyr et al. (1983), pp. 191–192. ^ Frängsmyr et al. (1983), p. 166. ^ Linnaeus
Linnaeus
(1758), p. 24. ^ Bontius (1658), p. 84. ^ Linnaeus
Linnaeus
(1771), p. 521. ^ Frängsmyr et al. (1983), p. 187. ^ Linnaeus
Linnaeus
(1964) (1735), p. 30. ^ Frängsmyr et al. (1983), pp. 176–177. ^ Broberg (2008) ^ Frängsmyr et al. (1983), p. 186. ^ Wilson & Reeder (2005), p. 179. ^ Loring Brace (2005), p. 27. ^ Slotkin (1965), pp. 176–178. ^ Marks (2010), p. 265. ^ Keevak (2011), pp. 3–4. ^ Braziel (2007), pp. 43–44. ^ Willoughby (2007), pp. 33–34, citing Broberg (1975), p. 291. ^ a b Östholm (2007) ^ "A modern, international university in the Småland
Småland
region of Sweden". Linnaeus
Linnaeus
University. Retrieved 3 October 2011.  ^ Andrew Dickson White, History of the Warfare of Science with Theology
Theology
in Christendom (1922) Vol.1 pp. 59–61 ^ Eom, Young-Ho; Aragón, Pablo; Laniado, David; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas; Vigna, Sebastiano; Shepelyansky, Dima L.; Gao, Zhong-Ke (2015). "Interactions of Cultures and Top People of from Ranking of 24 Language Editions". PLOS ONE. 10 (3): e0114825. arXiv:1405.7183 . Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1014825E. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0114825. PMC 4349893 . PMID 25738291.  ^ Tamblyn, Thomas (12 June 2014). "Reveals Most Influential Person In History, No It's Not Jesus". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 28 January 2016. 

Sources

Anderson, Margaret J. (1997). Carl Linnaeus: Father of Classification. United States: Enslow Publishers. ISBN 978-0-89490-786-9.  Blunt, Wilfrid (2001). Linnaeus: the compleat naturalist. London: Frances Lincoln. ISBN 978-0-7112-1841-3.  Blunt, Wilfrid (2004). Linnaeus: the compleat naturalist. London: Frances Lincoln. ISBN 978-0-7112-2362-2.  Bontius, J. (1658). "Historiae naturalis & medicae Indiae Orientalis libri sex". In Gulielmo Piso. De Indiæ Utriusque re naturali et medica libri quatuordecim. Quorum contenta pagina sequens exhibet. Amsterdam: Elzevier. pp. 1–226.  Braziel, Jana Evans (2007). "Genre, race, erasure: a genealogical critique of "American" autobiography". In Joseph A. Young and Jana Evans Braziel. Erasing Public Memory: Race, Aesthetics, and Cultural Amnesia in the Americas. Mercer University Press. pp. 35–70. ISBN 978-0-88146-076-6.  Broberg, G. (1975). Homo sapiens L. studien: Carl von Linné naturuppfattning och människolära. Uppsala: Almquist and Wiksell.  Broberg, Gunnar (2008). "The Dragonslayer". Tijdschrift voor Skandinavistiek. 29 (1–2): 29–43.  Broberg, Gunnar (2006). Carl Linnaeus. Stockholm: Swedish Institute. ISBN 978-91-520-0912-3.  Davis, P. H.; Heywood, V. H. (1973). Principles of Angiosperm Taxonomy. Huntington, New York: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company.  Fara, Patricia (2003). Sex, Botany
Botany
and Empire: The Story of Carl Linnaeus
Linnaeus
and Joseph Banks. Cambridge: Icon Books. ISBN 9781840464443. Retrieved 22 February 2015.  Frängsmyr, Tore; Lindroth, Sten; Eriksson, Gunnar; Broberg, Gunnar (1983). Linnaeus, the man and his work. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-7112-1841-3.  Frodin, D. G. (2001). "The evolution of floras". Guide to Standard Floras of the World: an Annotated, Geographically Arranged Systematic Bibliography of the Principal Floras, Enumerations, Checklists, and Chorological Atlases of Different Areas (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 24–51. ISBN 978-0-521-79077-2.  Gribbin, Mary; Gribbin, John (2008). Flower
Flower
Hunters. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-956182-7.  Keevak, Michael (2011). Becoming Yellow: A Short History of Racial Thinking. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-14031-5.  Koerner, Lisbet (1999). Linnaeus: Nature and Nation. Harvard: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-09745-2.  Loring Brace, C. (2005). "Race" is a Four Letter Word. The Genesis of the Concept. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517351-2.  Marks, Jonathan (2010). "Ten facts about human variation". In Muehlenbein, Michael. Human
Human
Evolutionary Biology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 265–276. ISBN 978-0-521-87948-4.  Östholm, Hanna (2007). Mary J. Morris and Leonie Berwick, ed. "The Linnaean Legacy: Three Centuries after his Birth" (PDF). The Linnean. Newsletter and Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London. Special Issue No. 8: 35–44. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 July 2011.  Quammen, David (June 2007). "The Name Giver". National Geographic. Retrieved 3 April 2010.  Reveal, James L.; Pringle, James S. (1993). "7. Taxonomic Botany
Botany
and Floristics". Flora
Flora
of North America. 1. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505713-9.  Simpson, George Gaylord (1961). Principles of Animal Taxonomy. New York and London: Columbia University Press.  Slotkin, J. S. (1965). "The Eighteenth Century". Readings in early Anthropology. Methuen Publishing. pp. 175–243.  Sprague, T. A. (1953). " Linnaeus
Linnaeus
as a nomenclaturist". Taxon. 2 (3): 40–46. doi:10.2307/1217339. JSTOR 1217339.  Stace, Clive A. (1991). Plant
Plant
Taxonomy and Biosystematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-42785-2.  Stafleu, Frans A. (1971). Linnaeus
Linnaeus
and the Linnaeans: the Spreading of their Ideas in Systematic Botany, 1735–1789. Utrecht: International Association for Plant
Plant
Taxonomy. ISBN 978-90-6046-064-1.  Stearn, W. T. (1959). "The Background of Linnaeus' Contributions to the Nomenclature and Methods of Systematic Biology". Systematic Zoology. 8 (1): 4–22. doi:10.2307/2411603.  Stöver, Dietrich Johann Heinrich (1794). Joseph Trapp, ed. The life of Sir Charles Linnæus. London: Library of Congress. OCLC 5660395.  Van den Hoek, C.; D. G. Mann & H. M. Jahns (2005). Algae: An Introduction to Phycology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-30419-1.  Veitch, H. J. (1897). "Nepenthes". Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society. 21 (2): 226–262.  Willoughby, Pamela (2007). The Evolution of Modern Humans in Africa: a Comprehensive Guide. AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0-7591-0119-7.  Wilson, Don E.; DeeAnn M. Reeder (2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 1 (3rd ed.). JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0.  Windelspecht, Michael (2002). Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries of the 17th century. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-31501-5. 

Further reading

C. L. Brightwell (1858). A Life of Linnaeus. London: J. Van Voorst.  Edward Lee Greene
Edward Lee Greene
(1912). Carolus Linnaeus. Philadelphia: Christopher Sower Company.  Lys de Bray (2001). The Art of Botanical Illustration: A history of classic illustrators and their achievements. London: Quantum Publishing Ltd. pp. 62–71. ISBN 978-1-86160-425-5.  Edmund Otis Hovey (1908). The Bicentenary of the Birth of Carolus Linnaeus. New York: New York Academy of Sciences.  George, Sam (June 2005). "'Not Strictly Proper For A Female Pen': Eighteenth-Century Poetry and the Sexuality of Botany". Comparative Critical Studies. 2 (2): 191–210. doi:10.3366/ccs.2005.2.2.191. Retrieved 23 February 2015.  George, Sam (30 January 2014). "Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education". Science & Education. 23 (3): 673–694. Bibcode:2014Sc&Ed..23..673G. doi:10.1007/s11191-014-9677-y. Retrieved 23 February 2015.  Sverker Sörlin; Otto Fagerstedt (2004). Linné och hans apostlar (in Swedish). Stockholm: Natur & Kultur/Fakta. ISBN 978-91-27-35590-3.  J. L. P. M. Krol (1982). "Linnaeus' verblijf op de Hartekamp". Het Landgoed de Hartekamp
Hartekamp
in Heemstede
Heemstede
(in Dutch). Heemstede. ISBN 978-90-70712-01-3.  Lars Hansen, ed. (2007–2011). The Linnaeus
Linnaeus
Apostles – Global Science & Adventure. 8 vols. 11 books. London & Whitby: The IK Foundation & Company. ISBN 978-1-904145-26-4. 

Standard author abbreviation The standard author abbreviation L. is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name.[1] External links

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Biographies

Biography at the Department of Systematic Botany, University of Uppsala Biography at The Linnean Society of London Biography from the University of California Museum of Paleontology A four-minute biographical video from the London Natural History Museum on YouTube Biography from Taxonomic Literature, 2nd Edition. 1976–2009.

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Linnaeus
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was depicted by Jay Hosler in a parody of Peanuts titled "Good ol' Charlie Darwin". The 15 March 2007 issue of Nature featured a picture of Linnaeus
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and Linnaean taxonomy. A tattoo of Linnaeus' definition of the order Primates mentioned by Carl Zimmer Ginkgo biloba
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Bibliotheca Botanica
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Mammalia Aves Amphibia Pisces Insecta

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12th edition Animalia Paradoxa

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Natural history

Pioneering naturalists

Classical antiquity

Aristotle
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(History of Animals) Theophrastus
Theophrastus
(Historia Plantarum) Aelian (De Natura Animalium) Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(Natural History) Dioscorides (De Materia Medica)

Renaissance

Gaspard Bauhin
Gaspard Bauhin
(Pinax theatri botanici) Otto Brunfels Hieronymus Bock Andrea Cesalpino Valerius Cordus Leonhart Fuchs Conrad Gessner
Conrad Gessner
(Historia animalium) Frederik Ruysch William Turner (Avium Praecipuarum, New Herball) John Gerard
John Gerard
(Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes)

Enlightenment

Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
(Micrographia) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek William Derham Hans Sloane Jan Swammerdam Carl Linnaeus
Linnaeus
(Systema Naturae) Georg Steller Joseph Banks Johan Christian Fabricius James Hutton John Ray
John Ray
(Historia Plantarum) Comte de Buffon (Histoire Naturelle) Bernard Germain de Lacépède Gilbert White
Gilbert White
(The Natural History of Selborne) Thomas Bewick
Thomas Bewick
(A History of British Birds) Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
(Philosophie Zoologique)

19th century

George Montagu ( Ornithological
Ornithological
Dictionary) Georges Cuvier
Georges Cuvier
(Le Règne Animal) William Smith Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
(On the Origin of Species) Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace
(The Malay Archipelago) Henry Walter Bates
Henry Walter Bates
(The Naturalist on the River Amazons) Alexander von Humboldt John James Audubon
John James Audubon
(The Birds of America) William Buckland Charles Lyell Mary Anning Jean-Henri Fabre Louis Agassiz Philip Henry Gosse Asa Gray William Jackson Hooker Joseph Dalton Hooker William Jardine (The Naturalist's Library) Ernst Haeckel
Ernst Haeckel
(Kunstformen der Natur) Richard Lydekker
Richard Lydekker
(The Royal Natural History)

20th century

Abbott Thayer (Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom) Hugh B. Cott
Hugh B. Cott
(Adaptive Coloration in Animals) Niko Tinbergen (The Study of Instinct) Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
(On Aggression) Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
(The Dancing Bees) Ronald Lockley
Ronald Lockley
(Shearwaters)

Topics

Natural history
Natural history
museums (List) Parson-naturalists (List) Natural History Societies List of natural history dealers

v t e

Historical race concepts

By color

Black Bronze Brown Red White Yellow

Anthropological

Australoid Capoid Caucasoid Mongoloid Negroid

Sub-types

Alpine Arabid Armenoid Atlantid Borreby Brunn Caspian Dinaric East Baltic Ethiopid Hamitic Dravidian Irano-Afghan Japhetic Malay Mediterranean Neo-Mongoloid Neo-Danubian Nordic Northcaucasian Ladogan Lappish Pamirid Proto-Mongoloid Semitic Turanid

Multiracial

Miscegenation Ethnogenesis List of racially mixed groups

Writers

Louis Agassiz John Baker Erwin Baur John Beddoe Robert Bennett Bean François Bernier Renato Biasutti Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Franz Boas Paul Broca Alice Mossie Brues Halfdan Bryn Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon Charles Caldwell Petrus Camper Samuel A. Cartwright Houston Stewart Chamberlain Sonia Mary Cole Carleton S. Coon Georges Cuvier Jan Czekanowski Charles Davenport Joseph Deniker Egon Freiherr von Eickstedt Anténor Firmin Eugen Fischer John Fiske Francis Galton Stanley Marion Garn Reginald Ruggles Gates George Gliddon Arthur de Gobineau Madison Grant John Grattan Hans F. K. Günther Ernst Haeckel Frederick Ludwig Hoffman Earnest Hooton Julian Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley Calvin Ira Kephart Robert Knox Robert E. Kuttner Georges Vacher de Lapouge Fritz Lenz Carl Linnaeus Cesare Lombroso Bertil Lundman Felix von Luschan Dominick McCausland John Mitchell Ashley Montagu Lewis H. Morgan Samuel George Morton Josiah C. Nott Karl Pearson Oscar Peschel Isaac La Peyrère Charles Pickering Ludwig Hermann Plate Alfred Ploetz James Cowles Prichard Otto Reche Gustaf Retzius William Z. Ripley Alfred Rosenberg Benjamin Rush Henric Sanielevici Heinrich Schmidt Ilse Schwidetzky Charles Gabriel Seligman Giuseppe Sergi Samuel Stanhope Smith Herbert Spencer Morris Steggerda Lothrop Stoddard William Graham Sumner Thomas Griffith Taylor Paul Topinard John H. Van Evrie Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer Rudolf Virchow Voltaire Alexander Winchell Ludwig Woltmann

Writings

An Essay upon the Causes of the Different Colours of People in Different Climates (1744) The Outline of History of Mankind (1785) Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question (1849) An Essay on the Inequality of the Human
Human
Races (1855) The Races of Europe (Ripley, 1899) The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899) Race Life of the Aryan Peoples
Race Life of the Aryan Peoples
(1907) Heredity in Relation to Eugenics (1911) Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development (1916) The Passing of the Great Race
The Passing of the Great Race
(1916) The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy
The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy
(1920) The Myth of the Twentieth Century
The Myth of the Twentieth Century
(1930) Annihilation of Caste
Annihilation of Caste
(1936) The Races of Europe (Coon, 1939) An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus (1943) The Race Question
The Race Question
(1950)

Theories

Eugenics Great chain of being Monogenism Polygenism Pre-Adamite

Related

History of anthropometry Racial categorization

in India in Latin
Latin
America

in Brazil in Colombia

in Singapore in the United States

Scientific racism

Nazism and race

Racial hygiene Olive skin Whiteness

in the United States

Whitening

Branqueamento/Blanqueamiento

Passing Racial stereotypes Martial race Master race Color names

Colorism

Négritude

v t e

Botany

History of botany

Subdisciplines

Plant
Plant
systematics Ethnobotany Paleobotany Plant
Plant
anatomy Plant
Plant
ecology Phytogeography

Geobotany Flora

Phytochemistry Plant
Plant
pathology Bryology Phycology Floristics Dendrology

Plant
Plant
groups

Algae Archaeplastida Bryophyte Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Spermatophytes Pteridophyte Gymnosperm Angiosperm

Plant
Plant
morphology (glossary)

Plant
Plant
cells

Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole

Tissues

Meristem Vascular tissue

Vascular bundle

Ground tissue

Mesophyll

Cork Wood Storage organs

Vegetative

Root Rhizoid Bulb Rhizome Shoot

Stem Leaf

Petiole Cataphyll

Bud Sessility

Reproductive (Flower)

Flower
Flower
development Inflorescence

Umbel Raceme Bract Pedicellate

Flower

Whorl Floral symmetry Floral diagram Floral formula

Receptacle Hypanthium
Hypanthium
(Floral cup) Perianth

Tepal Petal Sepal

Sporophyll Gynoecium

Ovary

Ovule

Stigma

Archegonium Androecium

Stamen Staminode Pollen Tapetum

Gynandrium Gametophyte Sporophyte Plant
Plant
embryo Fruit

Fruit
Fruit
anatomy Berry Capsule Seed

Seed
Seed
dispersal Endosperm

Surface structures

Epicuticular wax Plant
Plant
cuticle Epidermis Stoma Nectary Trichome Prickle

Plant
Plant
physiology Materials

Nutrition Photosynthesis

Chlorophyll

Plant
Plant
hormone Transpiration Turgor pressure Bulk flow Aleurone Phytomelanin Sugar Sap Starch Cellulose

Plant
Plant
growth and habit

Secondary growth Woody plants Herbaceous plants Habit

Vines

Lianas

Shrubs

Subshrubs

Trees Succulent plants

Reproduction

Evolution Ecology

Alternation of generations Sporangium

Spore Microsporangia

Microspore

Megasporangium

Megaspore

Pollination

Pollinators Pollen
Pollen
tube

Double fertilization Germination Evolutionary development Evolutionary history

timeline

Hardiness zone

Plant
Plant
taxonomy

History of plant systematics Herbarium Biological classification Botanical nomenclature

Botanical name Correct name Author citation International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP)

Taxonomic rank International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Plant
Plant
taxonomy systems Cultivated plant taxonomy

Citrus taxonomy cultigen

cultivar Group grex

Practice

Agronomy Floriculture Forestry Horticulture

Lists Related topics

Botanical terms Botanists

by author abbreviation

Botanical expedition

Category Portal WikiProject

v t e

Zoology

Branches

Apiology Arachnology Arthropodology Batrachology Biological Anthropology Cetology Coleopterology Conchology Entomology Ethology Helminthology Herpetology
Herpetology
(Ophiology) Ichthyology Lepidopterology Malacology
Malacology
(Teuthology) Mammalogy Myrmecology Nematology Neuroethology Ornithology Parasitology Paleozoology Planktology Primatology Zooarchaeology

Zoologists

Karl Ernst von Baer Richard C. Banks Georges Cuvier Charles Darwin Jean-Henri Fabre William Kirby Carl Linnaeus Konrad Lorenz Thomas Say Jakob von Uexküll Alfred Russel Wallace more...

History

Pre-Darwin Post-Darwin Timeline of zoology

Animals portal Biology
Biology
portal  Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 34594730 LCCN: n79109333 ISNI: 0000 0001 2127 4957 GND: 118573349 SELIBR: 253377 SUDOC: 028300327 BNF: cb130917536 (data) BIBSYS: 90052213 ULAN: 500372798 MGP: 118796 NLA: 35307414 NDL: 00447776 NKC: nlk20000085460 ICCU: ITICCUIEIV04353 Botanist: L. BNE: XX847999 CiNii: DA01901178 RKD: 424967 SNAC: w6th8rk6

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