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Carl Foreman, CBE
CBE
(July 23, 1914 – June 26, 1984) was an American screenwriter and film producer who wrote the award-winning films The Bridge on the River Kwai and High Noon, among others. He was one of the screenwriters that were blacklisted in Hollywood
Hollywood
in the 1950s because of their suspected communist sympathy or membership in the Communist
Communist
Party.

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Monogram Pictures 1.2 Stanley Kramer 1.3 High Noon
High Noon
and Blacklisting 1.4 Uncredited Writer 1.5 Writer-Producer

2 Awards 3 Personal Life 4 High Noon, HUAC, the Red Scare, and the Korean War 5 Documentaries on Foreman 6 Partial filmography (screenwriter) 7 Major awards

7.1 Wins 7.2 Nominations

8 References 9 Sources 10 External links

Biography[edit] Born in Chicago, Illinois, to a working-class Jewish family, he was the son of Fanny (Rozin) and Isidore Foreman.[2] He studied at the University of Illinois. As a student in the 1930s, he became an advocate of revolutionary socialism and joined the American Communist Party. Monogram Pictures[edit] After graduating from university, Carl Foreman
Carl Foreman
moved to Hollywood where he used his writing talents and training to work as a screenwriter. His first screen credit was for producer Sam Katzman at Monogram Pictures, Bowery Blitzkrieg (1941), starring the East Side Kids. Foreman then provided the original story (for $25) and wrote a script (for $200) for the next East Side Kids
East Side Kids
film, Spooks Run Wild (1941), with Bela Lugosi. Also at Monogram he provided the story for and wrote the script of Rhythm Parade (1942). Foreman's career was interrupted by service in the United States military during World War II. During his time in the services he helped write the script for Know Your Enemy - Japan (1945). He provided the original story for a John Wayne
John Wayne
Western, Dakota (1945). Stanley Kramer[edit] On his return to Hollywood, Foreman became associated with producer Stanley Kramer. Kramer produced Foreman's next credited script, So This Is New York (1948), starring comedian Henry Morgan, for The Enterprise Studios and directed by Richard Fleischer. It was a mild success. Foreman then wrote a movie for Fleischer at RKO, The Clay Pigeon (1949). Kramer and Foreman's next film, the boxing tale Champion (1949), was a big success, making a star of Kirk Douglas. Foreman received an Academy Award nomination for his script. Champion had been directed by Mark Robson
Mark Robson
and he, Kramer and Foreman reunited on Home of the Brave (1949), an adaptation of Arthur Laurents' play. It was another critical and commercial success. Kramer and Foreman's third film together was The Men (1950), which introduced Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
to cinema audiences; he played a paraplegic soldier. The film, directed by Fred Zinnemann, was critically acclaimed although not a popular success. Also acclaimed was their fourth film, Cyrano de Bergerac (1950), which won star Jose Ferrer
Jose Ferrer
a Best Actor Oscar. It was adapted from Brian Hooker's English translation of Edmond Rostand's Cyrano de Bergerac. Without Kramer, Foreman worked on Young Man with a Horn (1950), with Douglas. High Noon
High Noon
and Blacklisting[edit] Foreman and Kramer's next collaboration was the Western, High Noon. During production of the film, Foreman was summoned to appear before the House Committee on Un-American Activities
House Committee on Un-American Activities
(HUAC). He testified that he had been a member of the American Communist
Communist
Party more than ten years earlier while still a young man but had become disillusioned with the Party and quit. As a result of his refusal to give the names of fellow Party members, Foreman was labeled as an "uncooperative witness" and blacklisted by all of the Hollywood
Hollywood
studio bosses. High Noon
High Noon
is seen by some as an allegory for McCarthyism.[citation needed] The Western film
Western film
is considered an American classic and was No. 27 on American Film Institute's 100 Years, 100 Movies, and has been selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry. This would be the last film he would be allowed to work on by a Hollywood
Hollywood
studio for the next six years. High Noon, the film that was Foreman's greatest screenwriting accomplishment, made no mention of him as associate producer but did credit him for the screenplay, and he did receive an Academy Award nomination for his script from his fellow members of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Uncredited Writer[edit] In 1951 Foreman signed a three-picture deal with Robert L. Lippert who said he "had no doubt for Foreman's Americanism."[3] Unemployed, Foreman and some others who had also been blacklisted such as Ring Lardner, Jr. moved to England where they wrote scripts under pseudonyms that were channeled back to Hollywood. As "Derek Frye" he and fellow blacklistee Harold Buchman wrote the thriller The Sleeping Tiger (1954) which was directed by another blacklistee, Joseph Losey. After working on Born for Trouble (1955), he wrote a draft of the screenplay for The Bridge on the River Kwai
The Bridge on the River Kwai
(1957) which was later reworked by fellow blacklisted writer Michael Wilson. Based on the novel by Pierre Boulle, the two were not given screen credit and the Academy Award for Writing Adapted Screenplay went to Pierre Boulle, who did not speak English. This was only rectified posthumously in 1984 and his name was added to the award. Foreman also worked uncredited on A Hatful of Rain
A Hatful of Rain
(1957), directed by Zinnemann. Writer-Producer[edit] Bridge on the River Kwai had been a massive commercial and critical success, and Foreman's contribution had not gone un-noticed. He set up his own production company, Highroad and established a deal with Columbia Pictures, who had released Kwai. Foreman wrote and helped produce The Key (1958), a war film directed by Carol Reed. Highroad then made the Peter Sellars comedy The Mouse that Roared (1959), a big hit. Foreman wrote and produced The Guns of Navarone (1961), based on a best selling novel. Foreman fired director Alexander Mackendrick shortly before production. The resulting movie was a massive hit. The film's success enabled Foreman to direct as well as produce and write his next film, The Victors (1963) for Columbia. Although another war story, it was a box office disappointment. Foreman's next big success was the smash hit 1966 film Born Free which Foreman presented. He wrote and produced Mackenna's Gold
Mackenna's Gold
(1969) for Columbia, with the same director (J. Lee Thompson) and star (Gregory Peck) as Navarone but the film was not as successful. However The Virgin Soldiers (1969), which his company made for Columbia, was a hit in Britain. His company also made Monsieur Lecoq (never completed) and Otley
Otley
(1969). Foreman's next big production was Young Winston
Young Winston
(1972), which he wrote and produced, with Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
directing. It was not particularly successful; neither was Living Free (1972), which Foreman produced. He tried to get finance for a film about a rafting trip across the Indian Ocean, Finding Ernie, but it was not made.[4] Foreman co-wrote and helped produce a sequel to Navarone, Force 10 from Navarone (1978), but again it did not match the success of its predecessor. He executive produced The Golden Gate Murders (1979) and his last credit was as writer of a disaster movie, When Time Ran Out (1980), which was a notable flop. Awards[edit] In 1965, Foreman was made a governor of the British Film Institute, serving until 1971. In 1970, Foreman was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire. Such is his influence on the British film industry, that from 1998 to 2009 there was a British Academy Film Award named in his honor; the Carl Foreman
Carl Foreman
Award for the Most Promising Newcomer. Personal Life[edit] Nearing the end of his life, Carl Foreman
Carl Foreman
returned to the United States, where he died of a brain tumor in 1984 in Beverly Hills, California. His first marriage resulted in the birth of a daughter, Katie, to Estelle; his second marriage brought him two children, Amanda and Jonathan, born in London to Evelyn. Foreman's daughter, Amanda Foreman, graduated from Columbia University and Oxford University, where she received a PhD in history. She won the Whitbread Prize for her 1998 best-selling biography Georgiana: Duchess of Devonshire, which was followed in 2011 by the epic non-fiction study A World on Fire: Britain's Crucial Role in the American Civil War. Foreman's son, Jonathan Foreman, graduated in modern history from Cambridge University
Cambridge University
and a law degree from the University of Pennsylvania, and worked as an editorial writer and senior film critic for the New York Post
New York Post
before relocating to London in 2004 to work for the Daily Mail. In 2008, he became one of the founders of the monthly British centre-right current affairs magazine Standpoint. High Noon, HUAC, the Red Scare, and the Korean War[edit] High Noon's production and release also intersected with the second Red Scare
Red Scare
and the Korean War. Foreman was called before HUAC
HUAC
while he was writing the film. Foreman had not been in the Communist
Communist
Party for almost ten years, but declined to 'name names' and was considered an 'un-cooperative witness' by HUAC.[5] When Stanley Kramer
Stanley Kramer
found out some of this, he forced Foreman to sell his part of their company, and tried to get him kicked off the making of the picture.[6] Fred Zinnemann, Gary Cooper, and Bruce Church intervened. There was also a problem with the Bank of America loan, as Foreman hadn't yet signed certain papers. Thus Foreman remained on the production, but moved to England before it was released nationally, as he knew he would never be allowed to work in America.[7] Kramer claimed he had not stood up for Foreman partly because Foreman was threatening to dishonestly name Kramer as a Communist.[8] Foreman said that Kramer was afraid of what would happen to him and his career if Kramer didn't cooperate with the Committee. Kramer wanted Foreman to name names and not plead his Fifth Amendment rights.[9] There had also been pressure against Foreman by, among others, Harry Cohn
Harry Cohn
of Columbia Pictures
Columbia Pictures
(Kramer's brand new boss at the time), John Wayne
John Wayne
of the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals (who said he would "never regret having helped run Foreman out of this country" and called High Noon
High Noon
"un-American") and Hedda Hopper
Hedda Hopper
of the Los Angeles Times.[10] Cast and crew members were also affected. Howland Chamberlin was blacklisted, while Floyd Crosby and Lloyd Bridges were "gray listed."[11] Documentaries on Foreman[edit] In 2002, PBS
PBS
television made a two-hour film about Foreman's ordeal during McCarthyism
McCarthyism
titled Darkness at High Noon: The Carl Foreman Documents. It was written and directed by outspoken conservative Lionel Chetwynd. Foreman was also the subject of an episode of Screenwriters: Words Into Image, directed by Terry Sanders and Frieda Lee Mock. Partial filmography (screenwriter)[edit]

Spooks Run Wild
Spooks Run Wild
(1941) Bowery Blitzkrieg (1941) So This Is New York
So This Is New York
(1948) Champion (1949) Home of the Brave (1949) The Men (1950) Cyrano de Bergerac (1950) Young Man with a Horn (1950) High Noon
High Noon
(1952) The Sleeping Tiger
The Sleeping Tiger
as Derek Frye (1954) The Bridge on the River Kwai
The Bridge on the River Kwai
(1957) A Hatful of Rain
A Hatful of Rain
(1957) The Guns of Navarone (1961) The Victors (1963) Mackenna's Gold
Mackenna's Gold
(1969) Young Winston
Young Winston
(1972) Force 10 from Navarone (1978) When Time Ran Out
When Time Ran Out
(1980)

Major awards[edit] Wins[edit]

1953 : WGA Award for Best Written American Drama – High Noon 1958 : Academy Award for Writing Adapted Screenplay – The Bridge on the River Kwai (awarded posthumously) 1973 : Writers' Guild of Great Britain
Writers' Guild of Great Britain
for Best British Screenplay – Young Winston

Nominations[edit]

1950 : Academy Award for Writing Original Screenplay
Academy Award for Writing Original Screenplay
– Champion 1950 : WGA Award for Best Written American Drama Champion 1951 : Academy Award for Writing Original Screenplay
Academy Award for Writing Original Screenplay
– The Men 1951 : WGA Award for Best Written American Drama – The Men 1953 : Academy Award for Writing Original Screenplay
Academy Award for Writing Original Screenplay
– High Noon 1953 : Golden Globe
Golden Globe
Award for Best Screenplay – Motion Picture – High Noon 1962 : Academy Award for Writing Adapted Screenplay – The Guns of Navarone 1962 : BAFTA Award
BAFTA Award
for Best British Screenplay – The Guns of Navarone 1973 : Academy Award for Writing Original Screenplay
Academy Award for Writing Original Screenplay
– Young Winston

References[edit]

^ "Carl Foreman". filmreference.com ^ " Carl Foreman
Carl Foreman
Biography (1914–1984)". filmreference.com ^ Special
Special
to THE NEW,YORK TIMES. (1951, Oct 25). FOREMAN SETS UP OWN FILM CONCERN. New York Times (1923-Current File) Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.sl.nsw.gov.au/docview/112125295?accountid=13902 ^ Carl Foreman
Carl Foreman
Is 'Finding Ernie': Carl Foreman
Carl Foreman
By A. H. WEILER. New York Times (1923-Current file); New York, N.Y. [New York, N.Y]15 Oct 1972: D15. ^ Byman, pp. 73, 76, and Chapter 5 ^ Byman, pp. 9, 80 ^ Byman, pp. 80, 90 ^ Byman, p. 86. ^ Byman, pp. 76, 80. See also Chapters 1 and 5 ^ Byman, pp. 83, 86, 87 ^ Byman, p. 9

Sources[edit]

Byman, Jeremy (2004). Showdown at High Noon: Witch-hunts, Critics, and the End of the Western. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-4998-4. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Carl Foreman.

Carl Foreman
Carl Foreman
on IMDb

v t e

Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay

1928–1950

Benjamin Glazer (1928) Hanns Kräly (1929) Frances Marion
Frances Marion
(1930) Howard Estabrook
Howard Estabrook
(1931) Edwin J. Burke (1932) Victor Heerman
Victor Heerman
and Sarah Y. Mason
Sarah Y. Mason
(1933) Robert Riskin
Robert Riskin
(1934) Dudley Nichols (1935) Pierre Collings
Pierre Collings
and Sheridan Gibney (1936) Heinz Herald, Geza Herczeg, and Norman Reilly Raine
Norman Reilly Raine
(1937) Ian Dalrymple, Cecil Arthur Lewis, W. P. Lipscomb, and George Bernard Shaw (1938) Sidney Howard
Sidney Howard
(1939) Donald Ogden Stewart
Donald Ogden Stewart
(1940) Sidney Buchman and Seton I. Miller (1941) George Froeschel, James Hilton, Claudine West, and Arthur Wimperis (1942) Philip G. Epstein, Julius J. Epstein, and Howard E. Koch (1943) Frank Butler, and Frank Cavett (1944) Charles Brackett and Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1945) Robert Sherwood (1946) George Seaton
George Seaton
(1947) John Huston
John Huston
(1948) Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
(1949) Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
(1950)

1951–1975

Harry Brown and Michael Wilson (1951) Charles Schnee (1952) Daniel Taradash (1953) George Seaton
George Seaton
(1954) Paddy Chayefsky
Paddy Chayefsky
(1955) John Farrow, S. J. Perelman, and James Poe (1956) Carl Foreman
Carl Foreman
and Michael Wilson (1957) Alan Jay Lerner
Alan Jay Lerner
(1958) Neil Paterson (1959) Richard Brooks
Richard Brooks
(1960) Abby Mann (1961) Horton Foote (1962) John Osborne
John Osborne
(1963) Edward Anhalt (1964) Robert Bolt (1965) Robert Bolt (1966) Stirling Silliphant (1967) James Goldman (1968) Waldo Salt (1969) Ring Lardner Jr.
Ring Lardner Jr.
(1970) Ernest Tidyman (1971) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
and Mario Puzo
Mario Puzo
(1972) William Peter Blatty
William Peter Blatty
(1973) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
and Mario Puzo
Mario Puzo
(1974) Bo Goldman
Bo Goldman
and Lawrence Hauben (1975)

1976–2000

William Goldman
William Goldman
(1976) Alvin Sargent (1977) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1978) Robert Benton (1979) Alvin Sargent (1980) Ernest Thompson
Ernest Thompson
(1981) Costa-Gavras
Costa-Gavras
and Donald E. Stewart (1982) James L. Brooks
James L. Brooks
(1983) Peter Shaffer (1984) Kurt Luedtke (1985) Ruth Prawer Jhabvala
Ruth Prawer Jhabvala
(1986) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
and Mark Peploe (1987) Christopher Hampton
Christopher Hampton
(1988) Alfred Uhry
Alfred Uhry
(1989) Michael Blake (1990) Ted Tally (1991) Ruth Prawer Jhabvala
Ruth Prawer Jhabvala
(1992) Steven Zaillian (1993) Eric Roth (1994) Emma Thompson
Emma Thompson
(1995) Billy Bob Thornton
Billy Bob Thornton
(1996) Curtis Hanson
Curtis Hanson
and Brian Helgeland (1997) Bill Condon (1998) John Irving
John Irving
(1999) Stephen Gaghan
Stephen Gaghan
(2000)

2001–present

Akiva Goldsman
Akiva Goldsman
(2001) Ronald Harwood (2002) Philippa Boyens, Peter Jackson, and Fran Walsh (2003) Alexander Payne
Alexander Payne
and Jim Taylor (2004) Larry McMurtry
Larry McMurtry
and Diana Ossana (2005) William Monahan
William Monahan
(2006) Joel Coen and Ethan Coen (2007) Simon Beaufoy (2008) Geoffrey S. Fletcher
Geoffrey S. Fletcher
(2009) Aaron Sorkin
Aaron Sorkin
(2010) Alexander Payne, Jim Rash, and Nat Faxon
Nat Faxon
(2011) Chris Terrio (2012) John Ridley
John Ridley
(2013) Graham Moore (2014) Adam McKay
Adam McKay
and Charles Randolph (2015) Barry Jenkins
Barry Jenkins
and Tarell Alvin McCraney
Tarell Alvin McCraney
(2016) James Ivory
James Ivory
(2017)

v t e

Golden Globe
Golden Globe
Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama

1940s

The Song of Bernadette (1943) Going My Way
Going My Way
(1944) The Lost Weekend (1945) The Best Years of Our Lives
The Best Years of Our Lives
(1946) Gentleman's Agreement (1947) Johnny Belinda / The Treasure of the Sierra Madre (1948) All the King's Men (1949)

1950s

Sunset Boulevard (1950) A Place in the Sun (1951) The Greatest Show on Earth (1952) On the Waterfront
On the Waterfront
(1954) East of Eden (1955) Around the World in 80 Days (1956) The Bridge on the River Kwai
The Bridge on the River Kwai
(1957) The Defiant Ones (1958) Ben-Hur (1959)

1960s

Spartacus (1960) The Guns of Navarone (1961) Lawrence of Arabia (1962) The Cardinal
The Cardinal
(1963) Becket (1964) Doctor Zhivago (1965) A Man for All Seasons (1966) In the Heat of the Night (1967) The Lion in Winter (1968) Anne of the Thousand Days (1969)

1970s

Love Story (1970) The French Connection (1971) The Godfather
The Godfather
(1972) The Exorcist (1973) Chinatown (1974) One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1975) Rocky
Rocky
(1976) The Turning Point (1977) Midnight Express (1978) Kramer vs. Kramer
Kramer vs. Kramer
(1979)

1980s

Ordinary People
Ordinary People
(1980) On Golden Pond (1981) E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
(1982) Terms of Endearment
Terms of Endearment
(1983) Amadeus (1984) Out of Africa (1985) Platoon (1986) The Last Emperor
The Last Emperor
(1987) Rain Man
Rain Man
(1988) Born on the Fourth of July (1989)

1990s

Dances with Wolves
Dances with Wolves
(1990) Bugsy
Bugsy
(1991) Scent of a Woman (1992) Schindler's List
Schindler's List
(1993) Forrest Gump
Forrest Gump
(1994) Sense and Sensibility (1995) The English Patient (1996) Titanic (1997) Saving Private Ryan
Saving Private Ryan
(1998) American Beauty (1999)

2000s

Gladiator (2000) A Beautiful Mind (2001) The Hours (2002) The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003) The Aviator (2004) Brokeback Mountain
Brokeback Mountain
(2005) Babel (2006) Atonement (2007) Slumdog Millionaire
Slumdog Millionaire
(2008) Avatar (2009)

2010s

The Social Network
The Social Network
(2010) The Descendants
The Descendants
(2011) Argo (2012) 12 Years a Slave (2013) Boyhood (2014) The Revenant (2015) Moonlight (2016) Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri
Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri
(2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 76510207 LCCN: n85038516 ISNI: 0000 0001 0917 8313 GND: 12085211X SUDOC: 059088125 BNF: cb139921044 (data) BIBSYS: 4020498 BNE: XX1282

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