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Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
(German pronunciation: [ˌkaʁl ˈtsaɪs]), branded as ZEISS, is a German manufacturer of optical systems, industrial measurements and medical devices, founded in Jena, Germany in 1846 by optician Carl Zeiss. Together with Ernst Abbe
Ernst Abbe
(joined 1866) and Otto Schott (joined 1884) they built a base for modern optics and manufacturing. There are currently two parts of the company, Carl Zeiss AG located in Oberkochen
Oberkochen
with important subsidiaries in Aalen, Göttingen
Göttingen
and Munich, and Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
GmbH
GmbH
located in Jena. Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
AG is the premier company of the Zeiss Gruppe, one of the two large divisions of the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung. The Zeiss Gruppe is located in Heidenheim and Jena. Also controlled by the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung
Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung
are the glass manufacturers Schott AG
Schott AG
and Jenaer Glas, located in Mainz
Mainz
and Jena
Jena
respectively. Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
is one of the oldest existing optics manufacturers in the world.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Corporate history 2 Innovations 3 Business relationships 4 Zeiss Ikon cameras 5 Camera lenses

5.1 Cinema lenses 5.2 Medium-format lenses 5.3 Large-format lenses 5.4 ZM lenses 5.5 Z-series SLR lenses 5.6 Otus lenses 5.7 Batis lenses 5.8 Loxia lenses 5.9 Touit lenses 5.10 Milvus lenses 5.11 Super-rotator lenses 5.12 NASA 5.13 Smartphone lenses 5.14 ZA lenses

6 Other products

6.1 Sports Optics 6.2 Medical Solutions 6.3 Vision Care 6.4 Industrial Metrology 6.5 Lithography 6.6 Microscopes 6.7 Fire doors

7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Corporate history[edit]

First workshop of Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
in the city center of Jena, c. 1847.

Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Jena
Jena
(1910)

2 historical lenses Carl Zeiss, Jena, Nr. 145077 and Nr. 145078, Tessar
Tessar
1:4,5 F=5,5cm DRP 142294 (produced before 1910).

VEB Zeiss Jena
Jena
Flektogon lens engraved merely "Jena", as exported to West Germany (1967)

The manufacturer Zeiss in Göttingen

Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
opened an optics workshop in Jena
Jena
in 1846. By 1847 he was making microscopes full-time. By 1861 the Zeiss workshop was considered to be among the best scientific-instrument makers in Germany with about 20 people working in the company, and business growing quickly. By 1866 Zeiss sold their 1,000th microscope. In 1872 physicist Ernst Abbe
Ernst Abbe
joined Zeiss and along with Otto Schott
Otto Schott
designed greatly improved lenses for the optical instruments they were producing. After Carl Zeiss's death in 1888, the business was incorporated as the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung
Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung
in 1889. By World War I,[3] Zeiss was the world's largest location of camera production. Zeiss Ikon represented a significant part of the production along with dozens of other brands and factories, and also had major works at Dresden. In 1928 Hensoldt AG was acquired by Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
and has produced the Zeiss binoculars and riflescopes since 1964,[4] occasionally resulting in twin products being offered under both the Hensoldt and Zeiss brand names. The Hensoldt System Technology division (resulting from a merger of the military optics operations of Leica and Hensoldt) was continued by Zeiss under the Hensoldt name until 2006. As part of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
Zwangsarbeiter program, Zeiss used forced labour during the Second World War.[5][6] The destruction of the war caused many companies to divide into smaller subcompanies and others to merge. There was great respect for the engineering innovation that came out of Dresden—before the war the world's first 35 mm single-lens reflex camera, the Kine Exakta, and the first miniature camera with good picture quality were developed there. At the end of the war, Jena
Jena
was occupied by the US Army. When Jena
Jena
and Dresden
Dresden
were incorporated into the Soviet occupation zone, later East Germany, some parts of Zeiss Jena
Jena
were relocated by the US army to the Contessa manufacturing facility in Stuttgart, West Germany, while the remainder of Zeiss Jena
Jena
was reestablished by the (Eastern) German Democratic Republic as Kombinat VEB Zeiss Jena.[7] As part of the World War II reparations, the Soviet army
Soviet army
took most of the existing Zeiss factories and tooling back to the Soviet Union as the Kiev camera works. The western business was restarted in Oberkochen
Oberkochen
(in southwestern Germany) as Opton Optische Werke Oberkochen
Oberkochen
GmbH
GmbH
in 1946, which became Zeiss-Opton Optische Werke Oberkochen
Oberkochen
GmbH
GmbH
in 1947, but was soon renamed to Carl Zeiss. West German Zeiss products were labelled Opton for sale in the Eastern bloc, while East German Zeiss products were labelled "Zeiss Jena" or simply "Jena" for sale in Western countries. In 1973, the Western Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
AG entered into a licensing agreement with the Japanese camera company Yashica
Yashica
to produce a series of high-quality 35 mm film cameras and lenses bearing the Contax
Contax
and Zeiss brand names. This collaboration continued under Yashica's successor, Kyocera, until the latter ceased all camera production in 2005. Zeiss later produced lenses for the space industry and, more recently, has again produced high-quality 35 mm camera lenses. The eastern Zeiss Jena
Jena
was also well known for producing high-quality products. Following German reunification, VEB Zeiss Jena—reckoned as one of the few East German firms that was even potentially able to compete on a global basis—became Zeiss Jena
Jena
GmbH, which became Jenoptik
Jenoptik
Carl Zeiss Jena
Jena
GmbH
GmbH
in 1990. In 1991, Jenoptik
Jenoptik
Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Jena
Jena
was split in two, with Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
AG (Oberkochen) taking over the company's divisions for microscopy and other precision optics (effectively reuniting the pre-war Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
enterprise) and moving its microscopy and planetarium divisions back to Jena. Jenoptik
Jenoptik
GmbH
GmbH
was split off as a specialty company in the areas of photonics, optoelectronics, and mechatronics.[8][9] The Hensoldt AG was renamed Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Sports Optics
Optics
GmbH
GmbH
on 1 October 2006.[10] The companies of the Zeiss Gruppe in and around Dresden
Dresden
have branched into new technologies: screens and products for the automotive industry, for example. Today, there are arguably three companies with primarily Zeiss Ikon heritage: Zeiss Germany, the Finnish/Swedish Ikon (which bought the West German Zeiss Ikon AG), and the independent eastern Zeiss Ikon. On 28 June 2013, Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
officially announced its plan to rename the brand from "Carl Zeiss" to simply "Zeiss". All the products will be standardized under the Zeiss brand.[11] Innovations[edit] The Zeiss company was responsible for many innovations in optical design and engineering. Early on, Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
realised that he needed a competent scientist so as to take the firm beyond just being another optical workshop. In 1866, the service of Dr Ernst Abbe
Ernst Abbe
was enlisted. From then on novel products appeared in rapid succession which brought the Zeiss company to the forefront of optical technology. Abbe was instrumental in the development of the famous Jena
Jena
optical glass. When he was trying to eliminate astigmatism from microscopes, he realised that the range of optical glasses available was insufficient. After some calculations, he realised that performance of optical instruments would dramatically improve if optical glasses of appropriate properties were available. His challenge to glass manufacturers was finally answered by Dr Otto Schott, who established the famous glassworks at Jena
Jena
from which new types of optical glass began to appear from 1888 to be employed by Zeiss and other makers. The new Jena
Jena
optical glass also opened up the possibility of increased performance of photographic lenses. The first use of Jena
Jena
glass in a photographic lens was by Voigtländer, but as the lens was an old design its performance was not greatly improved. Subsequently, the new glasses would demonstrate their value in correcting astigmatism, and in the production of apochromatic lenses. Abbe started the design of a photographic lens of symmetrical design with five elements, but went no further. Zeiss' domination of photographic lens innovation was due to Dr Paul Rudolph. In 1890, Rudolph designed an asymmetrical lens with a cemented group at each side of the diaphragm, appropriately named "Anastigmat". This lens was made in three series: Series III, IV and V, with maximum apertures of f/7.2, f/12.5, and f/18 respectively. In 1891, Series I, II and IIIa appeared with respective maximum apertures of f/4.5, f/6.3, and f/9 and in 1893 came Series IIa of f/8 maximum aperture. These lenses are now better known by the trademark "Protar" which was first used in 1900. At the time, single combination lenses, which occupy one side of the diaphragm only, were still popular. Rudolph designed one with three cemented elements in 1893, with the option of fitting two of them together in a lens barrel as a compound lens, but it was found to be the same as the Dagor by C.P. Goerz, designed by Emil von Hoegh. Rudolph then came up with a single combination with four cemented elements, which can be considered as having all the elements of the Protar stuck together in one piece. Marketed in 1894, it was called the Protarlinse Series VII, the most highly corrected single combination lens with maximum apertures between f/11 and f/12.5, depending on its focal length. But the important thing about this Protarlinse is that two of these lens units can be mounted in the same lens barrel to form a compound lens of even greater performance and larger aperture, between f/6.3 and f/7.7. In this configuration it was called the Double Protar Series VIIa. An immense range of focal lengths can thus be obtained by the various combination of Protarlinse units. Rudolph also investigated the Double-Gauss
Double-Gauss
concept of a symmetrical design with thin positive meniscii enclosing negative elements. The result was the Planar Series Ia of 1896, with maximum apertures up to f/3.5, one of the fastest lenses of its time. Whilst it was very sharp, it suffered from coma which limited its popularity. However, further developments of this configuration made it the design of choice for high-speed lenses of standard coverage. Probably inspired by the Stigmatic lenses designed by Hugh Aldis for Dallmeyer of London, Rudolph designed a new asymmetrical lens with four thin elements, the Unar Series Ib, with apertures up to f/4.5. Due to its high speed it was used extensively on hand cameras. The most important Zeiss lens by Rudolph was the Tessar, first sold in 1902 in its Series IIb f/6.3 form. It can be said as a combination of the front half of the Unar with the rear half of the Protar. This proved to be a most valuable and flexible design, with tremendous development potential. Its maximum aperture was increased to f/4.7 in 1917, and reached f/2.7 in 1930. It is probable that every lens manufacturer has produced lenses of the Tessar
Tessar
configurations. Rudolph left Zeiss after the First World War, but many other competent designers such as Merté, Wandersleb, etc. kept the firm at the leading edge of photographic lens innovations. One of the most significant designer was the ex-Ernemann man Dr Ludwig Bertele, famed for his Ernostar high-speed lens. With the advent of the Contax
Contax
by Zeiss-Ikon, the first serious challenge to the Leica in the field of professional 35 mm cameras, both Zeiss-Ikon and Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
decided to beat the Leica in every possible way. Bertele's Sonnar series of lenses designed for the Contax
Contax
were the match in every respect for the Leica for at least two decades. Other lenses for the Contax
Contax
included the Biotar, Biogon, Orthometar, and various Tessars and Triotars. The last important Zeiss innovation before the Second World War
Second World War
was the technique of applying anti-reflective coating to lens surfaces invented by Olexander Smakula in 1935.[12] A lens so treated was marked with a red "T", short for "Transparent". The technique of applying multiple layers of coating was developed from this basis after the war, and known as "T✻" (T-star).[13]

Zeiss Ikon Nettar 515 with Klio shutter and Nettar ƒ/4.5 lens[14]

After the partitioning of Germany, a new Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
optical company was established in Oberkochen, while the original Zeiss firm in Jena continued to operate. At first both firms produced very similar lines of products, and extensively cooperated in product-sharing, but they drifted apart as time progressed. Jena's new direction was to concentrate on developing lenses for 35 mm single-lens reflex cameras, and many achievements were made, especially in ultra-wide angle designs. In addition to that, Oberkochen
Oberkochen
also worked on designing lenses for the 35 mm single-lens reflex camera Contarex, for the medium format camera Hasselblad, for large format cameras like the Linhof
Linhof
Technika, interchangeable front element lenses such as for the 35 mm single-lens reflex Contaflex
Contaflex
and other types of cameras. Since the beginning of Zeiss as a photographic lens manufacturer, it has had a licensing programme which allows other manufacturers to produce its lenses. Over the years its licensees included Voigtländer, Bausch & Lomb, Ross, Koristka, Krauss, Kodak. etc. In the 1970s, the western operation of Zeiss-Ikon got together with Yashica
Yashica
to produce the new Contax
Contax
cameras, and many of the Zeiss lenses for this camera, among others, were produced by Yashica's optical arm, Tomioka. As Yashica's owner Kyocera
Kyocera
ended camera production in 2006, and Yashica
Yashica
lenses were then made by Cosina, who also manufactured most of the new Zeiss designs for the new Zeiss Ikon coupled rangefinder camera. Another licensee active today is Sony
Sony
who uses the Zeiss name on lenses on its video and digital still cameras. Business relationships[edit] Zeiss has licensed its name and/or technology to various other companies, including Hasselblad, Rollei, Yashica, Sony, Logitech, and Alpa. The nature of the collaboration varies, from co-branding optics designed by another firm (e.g., Sony) to complete optical design and manufacturing (e.g., Hasselblad). On 27 April 2005, the company announced a collaboration with Nokia
Nokia
in the camera phone market, with Zeiss providing camera optics. Zeiss will again provide optics for Nokia
Nokia
products through a collaboration with HMD Global
HMD Global
announced on 6 July 2017.[15]

2004 Zeiss Ikon rangefinder with 35mm ƒ/2 Biogon lens.

Zeiss Ikon cameras[edit] Zeiss Ikon is a camera brand related to Carl Zeiss, but was an independent company formed by the merger of four camera makers (Contessa-Nettel, Ernemann, Goerz and Ica) in 1926. Much of the capital came from Zeiss which also provided most of the lenses and shutters for the cameras. Among the founders was August Nagel of Contessa-Nettel, who left the company in 1928 to form the Nagel Works, and in 1932, his company was bought by Kodak. Post WWII Japanese Nippon Kogaku would offer the "Nikon" camera and Zeiss Ikon prevented some European distribution under the theory that "Nikon" was an infringement on their brand name. The earliest Zeiss Ikon cameras were a range of medium and large format folding cameras, for film and glass plate photography. The most expensive was the Universal Juwel (Jewel) an Ica designed glass plate camera with origins in 1909. This was a favorite of both Ansel Adams and Dorothea Lange. Despite German production, the folding Super Ikonta was among the mainstays of British Army photographers during WWII. In 1932 Zeiss Ikon introduced the Contax
Contax
line of 35mm rangefinder cameras, in an attempt to compete with the Leica series, from Leitz, another giant in German optics. Though it had more features, the first Contax
Contax
(I) was overly complicated and had problems with quality. However, in 1936, the Contax
Contax
II upstaged the Leica in many ways and became the favorite of many renowned photographers and journalists, including Robert Capa
Robert Capa
and Margaret Bourke White. A second 35mm camera, the Contax
Contax
III was mechanically identical with an light meter grafted to the top of the camera. Post WWII the Soviets removed the Contax
Contax
factory to Kiev, as war reparations, and produced the Contax
Contax
II and III cameras under the Kiev brand. The first Kiev cameras were identical except for logos, thus Zeiss Ikon was forced to redesign their cameras to be competitive. These were named the Contax
Contax
IIa and IIIa, and were smaller, lighter, and less complex than the original designs. But by the time the IIa and IIIa hit the market, they faced strong competition from many European and Asian brands, notably the visually similar Nikon
Nikon
which was a high quality camera sharing the same lens-mount and most of the features. By the mid 1950s Zeiss Ikon was focusing on single lens reflex cameras and while offering rangefinders, they were not adding features and became uncompetitive with Japanese brands including Canon, Yashica, Minolta, and Nikon. The Zeiss Ikon Contaflex
Contaflex
single-lens reflex cameras, were viable in the mid 1950s, but soon lost market share to the Japanese brands. More recent 35mm rangefinder cameras are simply named "Zeiss Ikon." The most recent "Zeiss Ikon" rangefinder camera was an M mount camera with automatic exposure, introduced by Zeiss in 2004, manufactured in Japan by Cosina, and now discontinued. Camera lenses[edit] Cinema lenses[edit] Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
AG has long been renowned for its motion picture lenses. Zeiss manufactures prime, and zoom lenses for 35mm, 16mm, and 65mm film production. They also make lenses for digital cinema, and high definition video. Zeiss is mainly known in the trade for their association with the German camera manufacturer Arri
Arri
for whom they currently produce lenses.

Current models of Zeiss cinema lenses are:

Master Prime T✻XP Distagon 14 mm T1.3 Master Prime T✻XP Distagon 16 mm T1.3 Master Prime T✻XP Distagon 18 mm T1.3 Master Prime T✻XP Distagon 21 mm T1.3 Master Prime T✻XP Distagon 25 mm T1.3 Master Prime T✻XP Distagon 27 mm T1.3 Master Prime T✻XP Distagon 32 mm T1.3 Master Prime T✻XP Distagon 35 mm T1.3 Master Prime T✻XP Distagon 40 mm T1.3 Master Prime T✻XP Planar 50 mm T1.3 Master Prime T✻XP Planar 65 mm T1.3 Master Prime T✻XP Sonnar 75 mm T1.3 Master Prime T✻XP Sonnar 100 mm T1.3 Master Prime T✻XP Sonnar 150 mm T1.3 Master Zoom T✻XP 16.5–110 mm T2.6 Master Macro T✻XP Makro-Planar 100 mm T2.0/T4.3 Lightweight Zoom LWZ.2 T✻XP Vario-Sonnar 15.5–45 mm T2.6 Ultra Prime 8R T✻ Distagon 8 mm T2.8 Ultra Prime T✻ Distagon 10 mm T2.1 Ultra Prime T✻ Distagon 12 mm T1.9 Ultra Prime T✻ Distagon 14 mm T1.9 Ultra Prime T✻ Distagon 16 mm T1.9 Ultra Prime T✻ Distagon 20 mm T1.9 Ultra Prime T✻ Distagon 24 mm T1.9 Ultra Prime T✻ Distagon 28 mm T1.9 Ultra Prime T✻ Distagon 32 mm T1.9 Ultra Prime T✻ Distagon 40 mm T1.9 Ultra Prime T✻ Planar 50 mm T1.9 Ultra Prime T✻ Planar 65 mm T1.9 Ultra Prime T✻ Planar 85 mm T1.9 Ultra Prime T✻ Sonnar 100 mm T1.9 Ultra Prime T✻ Sonnar 135 mm T1.9 Ultra Prime T✻ Sonnar 180 mm T1.9

Compact Prime CP.2 T✻ Distagon 18 mm T3.6 Compact Prime CP.2 T✻XP Distagon 21 mm T2.9 Compact Prime CP.2 T✻XP Distagon 25 mm T2.9 Compact Prime CP.2 T✻XP Distagon 28 mm T2.1 Compact Prime CP.2 T✻XP Distagon 35 mm T2.1 Compact Prime CP.2 T✻XP Distagon 50 mm T2.1 Compact Prime CP.2 T✻ Planar 50 mm T2.1 Macro Compact Prime CP.2 T✻ Planar 85 mm T2.1 Compact Prime CP.2 T✻ Makro-Planar 100 mm T2.1 CF Ultra 16 T✻XP Distagon 6 mm T1.3 Ultra 16 T✻XP Distagon 8 mm T1.3 Ultra 16 T✻XP Distagon 9.5 mm T1.3 Ultra 16 T✻XP Distagon 12 mm T1.3 Ultra 16 T✻XP Distagon 14 mm T1.3 Ultra 16 T✻XP Distagon 18 mm T1.3 Ultra 16 T✻XP Distagon 25 mm T1.3 Ultra 16 T✻XP Planar 35 mm T1.3 Ultra 16 T✻XP Planar 50 mm T1.3 DigiPrime T✻ 3.9 mm T1.9 DigiPrime T✻ 5 mm T1.9 DigiPrime T✻ 7 mm T1.6 DigiPrime T✻ 10 mm T1.6 DigiPrime T✻ 14 mm T1.6 DigiPrime T✻ 20 mm T1.6 DigiPrime T✻ 28 mm T1.6 DigiPrime T✻ 40 mm T1.6 DigiPrime T✻ 52 mm T1.6 DigiPrime T✻ 70 mm T1.6 DigiPrime T✻ 135 mm T1.9 DigiZoom T✻ Vario-Sonnar 6–24 mm T1.9 DigiZoom T✻ Vario-Sonnar 17–112 mm T1.9

Medium-format lenses[edit] Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
AG has produced lenses for Hasselblad[16] and Rollei cameras, including:

CFi/CFE-Lenses for Hasselblad
Hasselblad
500 (V System)

F-Distagon T✻ 30mm ƒ/3.5 Distagon T✻ 40mm ƒ/4 Distagon T✻ 50mm ƒ/4 Distagon T✻ 50mm ƒ/4 ZV Distagon T✻ 60mm ƒ/3.5 Planar T✻ 80mm ƒ/2,8 Planar T✻ 100mm ƒ/3.5 Makro-Planar T✻ 120mm ƒ/4 Makro-Planar T✻ 120mm ƒ/4 ZV Sonnar T✻ 150mm ƒ/4 Sonnar T✻ 180mm ƒ/4 Sonnar T✻ 250mm ƒ/5.6 Tele-Superachromat T✻ 350mm ƒ/5,6

FE-Lenses for Hasselblad
Hasselblad
200

Distagon T✻ 50mm ƒ/2,8 FE Planar T✻ 110mm ƒ/2 FE

Hasselblad
Hasselblad
SWC Biogon 38mm ƒ/4.5 Rollei
Rollei
6000 system

F-Distagon 30mm ƒ/3.5 HFT PQ Distagon 40mm ƒ/4 FLE HFT Distagon 50mm ƒ/4 FLE HFT Distagon 60mm ƒ/3.5 HFT PQ Planar 80mm ƒ/2.8 HFT PQS Planar 110mm ƒ/2 HFT PQ Sonnar 150mm ƒ/4 HFT PQS Sonnar 250mm ƒ/5.6 HFT PQS Makro-Planar 120mm ƒ/4 HFT PQS

Rolleiflex TLR

Planar 75mm ƒ/3.5 Distagon 55mm ƒ/4

Large-format lenses[edit] Zeiss has produced lenses for large format and press cameras, including:

Tessar
Tessar
lenses (4 elements in 3 groups)

Tessar
Tessar
100mm ƒ/3.5 (6.5×9 cm format) Tessar
Tessar
105mm ƒ/3.5 (6.5×9 cm fmt) Tessar
Tessar
150mm ƒ/4.5 (9×12 cm fmt)

Planar lenses (5 elements in 4 groups)

Planar 80mm ƒ/2.8 (6×7 cm fmt) Planar 100mm ƒ/2.8 (6.5×9 cm fmt) Planar 135mm ƒ/3.5 Planar 135mm ƒ/3.5 T✻ Planar 150mm ƒ/2.8

Sonnar lenses

Sonnar 180mm ƒ/4.8 Sonnar 250mm ƒ/5.6

Biogon lenses

Biogon 45mm ƒ/4.5 (6×7 cm fmt) Biogon 53mm ƒ/4.5 (6.5×9 cm fmt) Biogon 75mm ƒ/4.5 (9×12 cm fmt)

Lenses for Linhof
Linhof
cameras

Biogon 53mm ƒ/4.5 Hologon 110mm ƒ/8 Planar 135mm ƒ/3.5 Sonnar 250mm ƒ/5.6

Zeiss has departed the large-format optics field along with Nikon, leaving Schneider and Rodenstock as the primary makers of such lenses today. ZM lenses[edit] Zeiss ZM lenses fit Leica M mount
Leica M mount
cameras, including Leica M series, the Ricoh GXR
Ricoh GXR
A12, and many mirrorless interchangeable-lens cameras through the use of adapters. Some ZM lenses are manufactured in Germany by Zeiss, others in Japan by Cosina. Lenses designated "C" are considered compact or classic lenses.

Distagon T✻ 15mm ƒ/2.8 (Made in Germany) Distagon T✻ 18mm ƒ/4 Distagon T✻ 21mm ƒ/2.8 C Biogon T✻ 21mm ƒ/4.5 Biogon T✻ 25mm ƒ/2.8 Biogon T✻ 28mm ƒ/2.8

Biogon T✻ 35mm ƒ/2 C Biogon T✻ 35mm ƒ/2.8 C Sonnar T✻ 50mm ƒ/1.5 Planar T✻ 50mm ƒ/2 Tele- Tessar
Tessar
T✻ 85mm ƒ/4 Sonnar T✻ 85mm ƒ/2 (Made in Germany)

Zeiss claims that the 25mm ƒ/2.8 ZM achieves a resolution of 400 lp/mm in the center of the image at ƒ/4, which is equal to the calculated diffraction limit for this aperture. Z-series SLR lenses[edit] Zeiss produces optically identical manual-focus lenses for multiple SLR lens mounts under the ZE, ZF, ZK, and ZS lines, manufactured in Japan by Cosina
Cosina
to Zeiss specifications.

Optical design ZE ZF ZF.2 ZF-I ZF-IR ZK ZS

Distagon T✻ 15mm ƒ/2.8 ✓

Distagon T✻ 18mm ƒ/3.5 ✓ ✓ ✓

Distagon T✻ 21mm ƒ/2.8 ✓ ✓ ✓

Distagon T✻ 25mm ƒ/2.0 ✓

Distagon T✻ 25mm ƒ/2.8

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓

Distagon T✻ 28mm ƒ/2.0 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓

Distagon T✻ 35mm ƒ/1.4 ✓

Distagon T✻ 35mm ƒ/2.0 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓

✓ ✓

Planar T✻ 50mm ƒ/1.4 ✓ ✓ ✓

✓ ✓ ✓

Makro-Planar T✻ 50mm ƒ/2.0 ✓ ✓ ✓

Planar T✻ 85mm ƒ/1.4 ✓ ✓ ✓

✓ ✓

Makro-Planar T✻ 100mm ƒ/2.0 ✓ ✓ ✓

Apo Sonnar T✻ 135mm ƒ/2.0 ✓

ZF series lenses fit the Nikon
Nikon
F-mount. Four design variations are designated ZF, ZF.2, ZF-I, and ZF-IR. All are manual-focus designs with Nikon
Nikon
AI-S type aperture indexing.

ZF lenses have AI-S aperture indexing, half-stop aperture ring detents, and no electronic features. ZF.2 lenses are like ZF lenses, with the addition CPU functionality, similar to Nikon
Nikon
AI-P lenses. They allow electronic focus confirmation, full metering compatibility, and electronic aperture control with Nikon
Nikon
SLR cameras which require CPU lenses. ZF-I lenses feature mechanical locks for focus and aperture, and additional environmental sealing, for industrial applications. ZF-IR lenses are adapted to infrared imaging, with coatings that transmit wavelengths up to 1100 nm, and focus scales marked for infrared.

ZE lenses fit the Canon EF mount. They feature electronic contacts allowing for focus-confirmation, and electric aperture operation as with standard Canon EF lenses.[17] ZK lenses fit the Pentax K mount. They have no electronics, are manual focus only, KA couplers. Zeiss announced in September 2010 the discontinuation of the ZK line. ZS lenses fit the M42 lens mount
M42 lens mount
(Pentacon/Practica/Pentax screw mount). By use of mount adapters they can be adapted to most 35 mm bayonet camera mounts including Canon FD and EF, Pentax K, Minolta
Minolta
SR and Sony/Konica Minolta/ Minolta
Minolta
A mounts (with the exception of Nikon
Nikon
F mount), usually losing open-aperture-metering, multi-segment metering, focus confirmation, automatic flash zoom capabilities as well as some built-in shake reduction performance and Exif data accuracy. Otus lenses[edit]

Zeiss Otus 55mm & 85mm ƒ/1.4 lens

Zeiss Otus 28mm ƒ/1.4 lens

Zeiss produces manual focus Otus lenses for the Nikon
Nikon
F-mount and Canon EF mount, with electronic features equivalent to Zeiss ZF.2 and ZE lenses respectively. Otus lenses are complex no-compromise designs which Zeiss refers to as the "best in the world" in the normal lens and short telephoto categories. They cover the 35mm format.

Otus Apo Distagon T✻ 28mm ƒ/1.4 Otus Apo Distagon T✻ 55mm ƒ/1.4 Otus Apo Planar T✻ 85mm ƒ/1.4

Batis lenses[edit]

Zeiss Batis ƒ/2.0 25 mm

Zeiss produces autofocus Batis lenses for the Sony
Sony
E-mount. Like Sony "FE" lenses, they cover the 35mm format.

Batis Distagon T✻ 18mm f/2.8 Batis Distagon T✻ 25mm f/2 Batis Sonnar T✻ 85mm f/1.8 Batis Sonnar T✻ 135mm f/2.8

Loxia lenses[edit] Zeiss produces manual focus Loxia lenses for the Sony
Sony
E-mount. Like Sony
Sony
"FE" lenses, they cover the 35mm format.

Loxia Distagon T✻ 21mm f/2.8 Loxia Biogon T✻ 35mm f/2.0 Loxia Planar T✻ 50mm f/2.0 Loxia Sonnar T✻ 85mm f/2.4

Touit lenses[edit] Zeiss produces autofocus Touit lenses for the Fujifilm X-mount
Fujifilm X-mount
and Sony
Sony
E-mount. They cover the APS-C
APS-C
format.

Touit Distagon T✻ 12mm f/2.8 Touit Planar T✻ 32mm f/1.8 Touit Makro Planar T✻ 50mm f/2.8 Macro

Milvus lenses[edit]

Zeiss Milvus ƒ/1.4 50 mm

Zeiss produces manual focus Milvus lenses for the Nikon
Nikon
F-mount (ZF.2) and Canon EF-mount
Canon EF-mount
(ZE), covering the 35mm format.

Milvus Distagon T✻ 21mm ƒ/2.8 Milvus Distagon T✻ 35mm ƒ/2 Milvus Distagon T✻ 50mm ƒ/1.4 Milvus Makro-Planar T✻ 50mm ƒ/2 Milvus Planar T✻ 85mm ƒ/1.4 Milvus Makro-Planar T✻ 100mm ƒ/2

Super-rotator lenses[edit] These are 360° tilt/shift lenses (based on Zeiss medium format lens designs) for 35 mm format including full-frame digital. Available mounts: Canon EF, Nikon
Nikon
F, Sony
Sony
Alpha/Konica Minolta/ Minolta
Minolta
A mount. Other mounts on request. Manual focus only, no electronics. Manufactured in Germany and Ukraine.

Hartblei
Hartblei
Superrotator Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Distagon T✻ IF 1:4.0 40 mm Hartblei
Hartblei
Superrotator Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Planar T✻ 1:2.8 80 mm Hartblei
Hartblei
Superrotator Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Makro-Planar T✻ 1:4.0 120 mm

NASA[edit] Zeiss is currently in the process of designing the optical components for the James Webb Space Telescope
Telescope
set to replace the Hubble Space Telescope
Telescope
sometime in 2018.[citation needed] A unique triplet of ultra-fast 50 mm f/0.7 lenses originally created by Zeiss for NASA's lunar program had the distinction of being reused by Stanley Kubrick
Stanley Kubrick
in the filming of his historical drama Barry Lyndon. The period atmosphere of the film demanded that several indoor scenes be filmed by candlelight. To facilitate this, Kubrick had the lenses modified to mount onto a cinema camera and two of them subsequently further modified in separate ways to give wider angles of view.[18]

Nokia
Nokia
808 PureView with Zeiss lens[19]

Smartphone lenses[edit] Zeiss worked with Nokia, and later with Microsoft
Microsoft
as they continued production of the Lumia series.[20] The Nokia
Nokia
808 PureView features a lens custom-developed by Zeiss for its 1/1.2 inch sensor; as did its successor, the Nokia
Nokia
Lumia 1020. The Nokia
Nokia
N90 and Nokia
Nokia
N8 also used Zeiss optics. In 2017, Zeiss again provided optics for Nokia products through a collaboration with HMD Global,[15] beginning with the Nokia
Nokia
8.[21] ZA lenses[edit] ZA ("Zeiss Alpha") lenses are designed and manufactured by Sony
Sony
in Japan, and co-branded with the Zeiss name. Sony
Sony
and Zeiss collaboratively set design and quality parameters for ZA lenses.

A-mount ZA-lenses fit the Sony
Sony
Alpha/Konica Minolta/ Minolta
Minolta
A-mount. They are fully dedicated autofocus lenses with eight electrical contacts, ROM-IC, and distance encoder ('(D)-function' to support ADI flash). All except for the DT lens are full-frame lenses.

Sony
Sony
α Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Distagon T✻ 1:2 24 mm ZA SSM (SAL-24F20Z) Sony
Sony
α Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Planar T✻ 1:1.4 50 mm ZA SSM (SAL-50F14Z) Sony
Sony
α Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Planar T✻ 1:1.4 85 mm ZA (SAL-85F14Z) Sony
Sony
α Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Sonnar T✻ 1:1.8 135 mm ZA (SAL-135F18Z) Sony
Sony
α Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Vario-Sonnar T✻ 1:2.8 16–35 mm ZA SSM (SAL-1635Z) Sony
Sony
α Zeiss Vario-Sonnar T✻ 1:2.8 16–35 mm ZA SSM II (SAL-1635Z2) Sony
Sony
α Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Vario-Sonnar T✻ DT 1:3.5-1:4.5 16–80 mm ZA (SAL-1680Z) Sony
Sony
α Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Vario-Sonnar T✻ 1:2.8 24–70 mm ZA SSM (SAL-2470Z) Sony
Sony
α Zeiss Vario-Sonnar T✻ 1:2.8 24–70 mm ZA SSM II (SAL-2470Z2)

E-mount ZA-lenses are fully dedicated Sony
Sony
E-mount autofocus lenses. Lenses carrying the E designation cover the APS-C
APS-C
format, while lenses designated FE cover 35mm format.

Sony
Sony
α Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Sonnar T✻ E 1:1.8 24 mm ZA (SEL-24F18Z) Sony
Sony
α Zeiss Distagon T✻ FE 1:1.4 35 mm ZA (SEL-35F14Z) Sony
Sony
α Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Sonnar T✻ FE 1:2.8 35 mm ZA (SEL-35F28Z) Sony
Sony
α Zeiss Planar
Zeiss Planar
T✻ FE 1:1.4 50 mm ZA (SEL-50F14Z) Sony
Sony
α Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Sonnar T✻ FE 1:1.8 55 mm ZA (SEL-55F18Z) Sony
Sony
α Zeiss Vario- Tessar
Tessar
T✻ FE 1:4 16–35 mm ZA OSS (SEL-1635Z) Sony
Sony
α Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Vario- Tessar
Tessar
T✻ E 1:4 16–70 mm ZA OSS (SEL-1670Z) Sony
Sony
α Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Vario- Tessar
Tessar
T✻ FE 1:4 24–70 mm ZA OSS (SEL-2470Z)

In addition to these Sony
Sony
collaboration lenses, Zeiss offers Touit ( APS-C
APS-C
format), Loxia (35mm format) and Batis (35mm format) lenses for E-mount. Other products[edit]

Zeiss pocket stereoscope

Zeiss and its subsidiaries offer a wide range of products related to optics and vision. These include camera and cine lenses, microscopes and microscopy software, binoculars and spotting scopes, eyeglasses and lenses, planetariums and dome video-systems, optics for military applications (head tracker systems, submarine periscopes, targeting systems), optical sensors, industrial metrology systems and ophthalmology products. Even video glasses belong to the product range. In the summer of 2012, the new video glasses Cinemizer OLED will come on the market. In addition to the viewing of 2D and 3D movies, it will be possible to play PC games
PC games
when it is fitted with equipment.[22] The largest part of Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
AG's revenue is generated by its Semiconductor Manufacturing Technologies division, which produces lithographic systems for the semiconductor industry as well as process control solutions (electron microscopes, mask repair tools, helium ion microscopes).[23] Sports Optics[edit] Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Sports Optics
Optics
division produces rifle scopes, spotting scopes, binoculars, and distance measuring devices for outdoors enthusiasts. The three main product lines are the Conquest line, which is manufactured in Germany and assembled in the United States, and Victory line, which is produced entirely in Germany, and the Terra line, which is made in Asia. Medical Solutions[edit] This branch of Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
is managed by Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Meditec. It is divided in Ophthalmology/Optometry, Neurosurgery, ENT, Spine, P&R, Dentistry, Radiotherapy and Gynecology. Vision Care[edit] Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Vision Care division develops, manufactures and distributes ophthalmic lenses, lens coatings, and dispensary technologies and services. Zeiss is known for ophthalmic lenses made from high refractive index glass, allowing stronger prescription lenses to be thinner. Their progressive lens ZEISS Progressive Individual has won multiple awards including the OLA awards in 2009 presented at Washington, D.C.[24] and the VisionPlus or VP Awards in 2014 at Mumbai, India.[25] Industrial Metrology[edit] Zeiss Industrial Metrology specializes in high-accuracy measurement systems, including coordinate measuring machines (CMMs), computed tomography measurement machines (non-medical), optical measuring equipment, metrology software and measurement sensor systems. The Industrial Metrology subsidiary provides this equipment to a wide range of manufacturing facilities worldwide.[26] Zeiss has manufactured coordinate measuring machines since 1919,[27] offering very basic manually operated CMMs. In 1973, Zeiss introduced the UMM 500, using a Zeiss sensor system and Hewlett-Packard computer.[28] Zeiss has since vastly improved and diversified their product line and now feature many high accuracy CMMs, the Metrotom,[28] a CT x-ray scanning measuring machine, with the ability to quickly and completely measure a part in 3 dimensions without ever touching the part, and the O-INSPECT,[28] a fully optical measurement machine. Zeiss is currently a member of the International Association of CMM Manufacturers (IACMM).[28] Many of the sensor systems produced by Zeiss are proprietary technologies, using technologies exclusively patented by Zeiss, and therefore can offer better accuracy and repeatability than its competitors.[29] Zeiss was the first manufacturer of coordinate measurement machines to introduce computer numerical control (CNC) technology to a coordinate measurement machine. Zeiss was the first company to offer CNC stylus changer capability for the said machines.[28] Lithography[edit] Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
SMT lenses are used in chip-lithography machines for focusing the extremely short wavelengths.[30] Microscopes[edit] Zeiss offers different types of microscopes:

Optical microscopes Laser scanning microscopes (LSMs) Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) Scanning helium ion microscopes (SHIMs)

Fire doors[edit] The name Zeiss Ikon can also be found in old cinemas, on fire shutters on the projection windows. These had heat fuses that melted and dropped the shutter over the hole if the film caught fire in the projection booth. See also[edit]

Telescopic sight Walther Bauersfeld Zeiss projector

References[edit]

^ zeiss.de: Executive Board of Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
AG ^ a b c "Wirtschaftsdaten der ZEISS Gruppe". www.zeiss.de. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ "Zeiss". www.smecc.org. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ 150 Years of Hensoldt Archived 24 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Gruner, Wolf (2006). Jewish forced labor under the Nazis: economic needs and racial aims, 1938-1944. Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
[1]. ISBN 0-521-83875-4.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ Klemperer, Victor (2000). To The Bitter End: The Diaries of Victor Klemperer 1942-45. Phoenix. ISBN 0-7538-1069-7.  ^ [2] Archived 10 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ König, Karsten (21 July 1998). "A Short Review On History Of Optics In Jena". Institute of Anatomy II, University of Jena. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 19 February 2008.  ^ "A passion for politics and a head for business". Optics
Optics
& Laser Europe. 1 January 2002. Retrieved 19 February 2008.  ^ What you should know about Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Sports Optics
Optics
GmbH
GmbH
Archived 24 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Xiang, Liu (3 July 2013). " Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Officially Renamed To Zeiss". GSM Insider. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013.  ^ History of Camera Lenses from Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
- 1935 - Alexander Smakula develops anti-reflection coating ^ "Lens Coating - ZEISS United States". www.zeiss.com. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ "Nettar - Camera-wiki.org - The free camera encyclopedia". camera-wiki.org. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ a b " Nokia
Nokia
and Zeiss brands reunite for the Android era". Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ [3] Hasselblad
Hasselblad
Historical ^ Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Camera Lens News 29, September 2008 (retrieved 3 October 2008) ^ "Untitled Document". www.visual-memory.co.uk. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ " Nokia
Nokia
808 PureView - Full phone specifications". www.gsmarena.com. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ "Creating a PureView with ZEISS: Lumia Imaging Innovation". Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows Blog, 25 September 2014. Accessed 23 August 2017 ^ "Counterclockwise: Nokia
Nokia
genetics and the features it evolved". Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ 3D-capable video glasses with Head Tracker for Games (German), Golem, retrieved 3 March 2012. ^ Slides of Half-Year Press Conference for fiscal year 2007/08, 29 May 2008 Archived 9 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "minews - mivision Bringing Optics
Optics
into Focus". mivision. 2010-01-20. Retrieved 2015-11-02.  ^ "VisionPlus Awards". Vp-awards.com. Archived from the original on 2014-03-18. Retrieved 2015-11-02.  ^ "ZEISS Industrial Metrology Homepage". www.zeiss.com. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ Carl Zeiss, Industrial Metrology – 90 Years in Industrial Metrology Archived 27 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c d e "ZEISS Industrial Metrology Homepage". www.zeiss.com. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ "ZEISS Industrial Metrology Homepage". www.zeiss.com. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ [4] Archived 1 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zeiss.

Official website Zeiss Company Timeline starting 1973 Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Company Timeline starting 1909 Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Company History, an older article but updated and covering Zeiss history up to about 2000, with interesting content and i

.