A CARICATURE is a rendered image showing the features of its subject in a simplified or exaggerated way through sketching, pencil strokes, or through other artistic drawings.
In literature, a CARICATURE is a description of a person using exaggeration of some characteristics and oversimplification of others.
Caricatures can be insulting or complimentary and can serve a political purpose or be drawn solely for entertainment. Caricatures of politicians are commonly used in editorial cartoons , while caricatures of movie stars are often found in entertainment magazines .
* 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Notable caricaturists * 4 Computerization * 5 The caricature advantage
* 6 Modern use
* 6.1 Museums
* 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links
The term is derived from the Italian caricare—to charge or load. An early definition occurs in the English doctor Thomas Browne 's Christian Morals , published posthumously in 1716. Expose not thy self by four-footed manners unto monstrous draughts, and Caricatura representations.
with the footnote: When Men's faces are drawn with resemblance to some other Animals, the Italians call it, to be drawn in Caricatura
Thus, the word "caricature" essentially means a "loaded portrait". Until the mid 19th century, it was commonly and mistakenly believed that the term shared the same root as the French 'charcuterie', likely owing to Parisian street artists using cured meats in their satirical portrayal of public figures.
Ancient Pompeiian graffiti caricature of a politician.
Some of the earliest caricatures are found in the works of Leonardo da Vinci , who actively sought people with deformities to use as models. The point was to offer an impression of the original which was more striking than a portrait.
While the first book on caricature drawing to be published in England
was Mary Darly\'s A Book of Caricaturas (c. 1762), the first known
North American caricatures were drawn in 1759 during the battle for
Quebec. These caricatures were the work of Brig.-Gen. George
Townshend whose caricatures of British General
In a lecture titled The History and Art of Caricature, the British caricaturist Ted Harrison said that the caricaturist can choose to either mock or wound the subject with an effective caricature. Drawing caricatures can simply be a form of entertainment and amusement – in which case gentle mockery is in order – or the art can be employed to make a serious social or political point. A caricaturist draws on (1) the natural characteristics of the subject (the big ears, long nose, etc.); (2) the acquired characteristics (stoop, scars, facial lines etc.); and (3) the vanities (choice of hair style, spectacles, clothes, expressions, and mannerisms).
See list of caricaturists . Une discussion littéraire à la
deuxième Galerie by
SIR MAX BEERBOHM (1872–1956, British), created and published
caricatures of the famous men of his own time and earlier. His style
of single-figure caricatures in formalized groupings was established
by 1896 and flourished until about 1930. His published works include
Caricatures of Twenty-five Gentlemen (1896), The Poets\' Corner
Rossetti and His Circle
GEORGE CRUIKSHANK (1792–1878, British) created political prints that attacked the royal family and leading politicians. He went on to create social caricatures of British life for popular publications such as The Comic Almanack (1835–1853) and Omnibus (1842). Cruikshanks' New Union Club of 1819 is notable in the context of slavery. He also earned fame as a book illustrator for Charles Dickens and many other authors.
HONORé DAUMIER (1808–1879, French) created over 4,000 lithographs,
most of them caricatures on political, social, and everyday themes.
They were published in the daily French newspapers (
MORT DRUCKER (1929-, American) joined Mad in 1957 and became well
known for his parodies of movie satires. He combined a comic strip
style with caricature likenesses of film actors for Md, and he also
contributed covers to Time . He has been recognized for his work with
National Cartoonists Society
ALEX GARD (1900–1948, Russian) created more than 700 caricatures of
show business celebrities and other notables for the walls of Sardi\'s
Restaurant in the theater district of New York City: the first artist
to do so. Today the images are part of the Billy Rose Theatre
Collection of The
New York Public Library
AL HIRSCHFELD (1903–2003, American) was best known for his simple
black and white renditions of celebrities and Broadway stars which
used flowing contour lines over heavy rendering. He was also known for
depicting a variety of other famous people, from politicians,
musicians, singers and even television stars like the cast of Star
Trek: The Next Generation . He was even commissioned by the United
States Postal Service to provide art for U.S. stamps. Permanent
collections of Hirschfeld's work appear at the Metropolitan Museum of
Art and the
Museum of Modern Art
S. JITHESH (Indian ) is best known for his super-speedy style of
SEBASTIAN KRüGER (1963, German ) is known for his grotesque, yet
hyper-realistic distortions of the facial features of celebrities,
which he renders primarily in acrylic paint , and for which he has won
The Times . He is well known for his lifelike depictions
The Rolling Stones , in particular,
DAVID LEVINE (1926–2009, American) is noted for his caricatures in
The New York Review of Books and
HERMANN MEJIA (Venezuelan ) is known for his frequent work for MAD
THOMAS NAST (1840–1902, American) was a famous caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered by some as written in 1908 by the New York Times to be the father of American political cartooning. He is often credited with creating the definitive caricature of Santa Claus, and often mistakenly credited with creating the definitive caricatures of the Democratic Donkey and the Republican Elephant.
GOGU NEAGOE (1976, Romanian) holds a Guinness World Record for the doing 131 caricatures through the phone, without ever seeing the subject.
SANFORD ROSS (1907-1954, American) was recognized by New York critics for his lithographic caricatures of New Jersey mansions and civic buildings in the 1930s.
SAM VIVIANO (1953, American) has done much work for corporations and
in advertising, having contributed to
An example of a caricature created using computerized techniques, superimposed over a photographic image.
There have been some efforts to produce caricatures automatically or semi-automatically using computer graphics techniques. For example, a system proposed by Akleman et al. provides warping tools specifically designed toward rapidly producing caricatures. There are very few software programs designed specifically for automatically creating caricatures.
Computer graphic system requires quite different skill sets to design a caricature as compared to the caricatures created on paper. Thus using a computer in the digital production of caricatures requires advanced knowledge of the program's functionality. Rather than being a simpler method of caricature creation, it can be a more complex method of creating images that feature finer coloring textures than can be created using more traditional methods.
A milestone in formally defining caricature was Susan Brennan's
master's thesis in 1982. In her system, caricature was formalized as
the process of exaggerating differences from an average face. For
Though Brennan's formalization was introduced in the 1980s, it remains relevant in recent work. Mo et al. refined the idea by noting that the population variance of the feature should be taken into account. For example, the distance between the eyes varies less than other features such as the size of the nose. Thus even a small variation in the eye spacing is unusual and should be exaggerated, whereas a correspondingly small change in the nose size relative to the mean would not be unusual enough to be worthy of exaggeration.
On the other hand, Liang et al. argue that caricature varies depending on the artist and cannot be captured in a single definition. Their system uses machine learning techniques to automatically learn and mimic the style of a particular caricature artist, given training data in the form of a number of face photographs and the corresponding caricatures by that artist. The results produced by computer graphic systems are arguably not yet of the same quality as those produced by human artists. For example, most systems are restricted to exactly frontal poses, whereas many or even most manually produced caricatures (and face portraits in general) choose an off-center "three-quarters" view. Brennan's caricature drawings were frontal-pose line drawings. More recent systems can produce caricatures in a variety of styles, including direct geometric distortion of photographs.
THE CARICATURE ADVANTAGE
Brennan's caricature generator was used to test recognition of caricatures. Rhodes, Brennan and Carey demonstrated that caricatures were recognised more accurately than the original images. They used line drawn images but Benson and Perrett showed similar effects with photographic quality images. Explanations for this advantage have been based on both norm-based theories of face recognition and exemplar-based theories of face recognition.
A modern, street-style caricature, with the subject holding the picture for comparison
Beside the political and public-figure satire, most contemporary caricatures are used as gifts or souvenirs, often drawn by street vendors. For a small fee, a caricature can be drawn specifically (and quickly) for a patron. These are popular at street fairs, carnivals, and even weddings, often with humorous results.
There are numerous museums dedicated to caricature throughout the
world, including the Museo de la Caricatura of
Mexico City , the
Muzeum Karykatury in
List of caricaturists
* ^ "
* ^ "The Historic Elephant and Donkey; It Was
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