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The Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
(Spanish: Mar Caribe; French: Mer des Caraïbes; Dutch: Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere. It is bounded by Mexico
Mexico
and Central America to the west and south west, to the north by the Greater Antilles starting with Cuba, to the east by the Lesser Antilles, and to the south by the north coast of South America. The entire area of the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea, the numerous islands of the West Indies, and adjacent coasts, are collectively known as the Caribbean. The Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
is one of the largest seas and has an area of about 2,754,000 km2 (1,063,000 sq mi).[1][2] The sea's deepest point is the Cayman Trough, between the Cayman Islands and Jamaica, at 7,686 m (25,217 ft) below sea level. The Caribbean
Caribbean
coastline has many gulfs and bays: the Gulf of Gonâve, Gulf of Venezuela, Gulf of Darién, Golfo de los Mosquitos, Gulf of Paria and Gulf of Honduras. The Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
has the world's second biggest barrier reef, the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef. It runs 1,000 km (620 mi) along the coasts of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras.[3]

Contents

1 History 2 Extent 3 Geology 4 Oceanography 5 Ecology 6 Weather 7 Flora
Flora
and fauna

7.1 Vegetation 7.2 Fauna

8 Economy and human activity 9 In popular culture 10 See also 11 Gallery 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of the Caribbean

Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
landing on Hispaniola
Hispaniola
in 1492.

The name "Caribbean" derives from the Caribs, one of the region's dominant Native American groups at the time of European contact during the late 15th century. After the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus in 1492, the Spanish term Antillas
Antillas
applied to the lands; stemming from this, " Sea
Sea
of the Antilles" became a common alternative name for " Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea" in various European languages. During the first century of development, Spanish dominance in the region remained undisputed. From the 16th century, Europeans visiting the Caribbean
Caribbean
region identified the "South Sea" (the Pacific Ocean, to the south of the isthmus of Panama) as opposed to the "North Sea" (the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea, to the north of the same isthmus).[4]

Tulum, Maya city on the coast of the Caribbean
Caribbean
in the state of Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
(Mexico)

The Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
had been unknown to the populations of Eurasia until 1492, when Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
sailed into Caribbean
Caribbean
waters on a quest to find a sea route to Asia. At that time the Western Hemisphere in general was unknown to Europeans. But first discovered between the years 800 and 1000 by the vikings. Following the Eurasias discovery of the islands by Columbus, The area was quickly colonised by several Western cultures (initially Spain, then later England, the Dutch Republic, France, Courland and Denmark). Following the colonisation of the Caribbean
Caribbean
islands, the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
became a busy area for European-based marine trading and transport, and this commerce eventually attracted pirates such as Samuel Bellamy
Samuel Bellamy
and Blackbeard. (See Piracy
Piracy
in the Caribbean) Due to the abundance of sunshine, year-round tropical temperatures moderated by the almost constant trade winds and the great variety of scenic destinations to visit, during the second half of the 20th century and on into the 21st the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
became a popular place for tourism. As of 2015[update] the area is home to 22 island territories and borders 12 continental countries. Extent[edit] The International Hydrographic Organization
International Hydrographic Organization
defines the limits of the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
as follows:[5]

On the North. In the Windward Channel – a line joining Caleta Point (74°15′W) and Pearl Point (19°40′N) in Haïti. In the Mona Passage – a line joining Cape Engaño and the extreme of Agujereada (18°31′N 67°08′W / 18.517°N 67.133°W / 18.517; -67.133) in Puerto Rico.

Coral reefs
Coral reefs
in the British Virgin Islands

Eastern limits. From Point San Diego (Puerto Rico) Northward along the meridian thereof (65°39′W) to the 100-fathom line, thence Eastward and Southward, in such a manner that all islands, shoals and narrow waters of the Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
are included in the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
as far as Galera Point (Northeast extremity of the island of Trinidad). From Galera Point through Trinidad
Trinidad
to Galeota Point (Southeast extreme) and thence to Baja Point (9°32′N 61°0′W / 9.533°N 61.000°W / 9.533; -61.000) in Venezuela.

Note that, although Barbados
Barbados
is an island on the same continental shelf, it is considered to be in the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
rather than the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. Geology[edit] The Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
is an oceanic sea largely situated on the Caribbean Plate. The Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
is separated from the ocean by several island arcs of various ages. The youngest stretches from the Lesser Antilles to the Virgin Islands
Virgin Islands
to the north east of Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago off the coast of Venezuela. This arc was formed by the collision of the South American Plate with the Caribbean
Caribbean
Plate and includes active and extinct volcanoes such as Mount Pelee, the Quill (volcano) on Sint Eustatius in the Caribbean
Caribbean
Netherlands and Morne Trois Pitons
Morne Trois Pitons
on Dominica. The larger islands in the northern part of the sea Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica
Jamaica
and Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
lie on an older island arc. The geological age of the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
is estimated to be between 160 and 180 million years and was formed by a horizontal fracture that split the supercontinent called Pangea
Pangea
in the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era.[6] It is assumed the proto-caribbean basin existed in the Devonian
Devonian
period. In the early Carboniferous
Carboniferous
movement of Gondwana
Gondwana
to the north and its convergence with the Euramerica
Euramerica
basin decreased in size. The next stage of the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea's formation began in the Triassic. Powerful rifting led to the formation of narrow troughs, stretching from modern Newfoundland
Newfoundland
to the west coast of the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
which formed siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. In the early Jurassic
Jurassic
due to powerful marine transgression, water broke into the present area of the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
creating a vast shallow pool. The emergence of deep basins in the Caribbean
Caribbean
occurred during the Middle Jurassic
Jurassic
rifting. The emergence of these basins marked the beginning of the Atlantic Ocean and contributed to the destruction of Pangaea
Pangaea
at the end of the late Jurassic. During the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
the Caribbean
Caribbean
acquired the shape close to that seen today. In the early Paleogene due to Marine regression the Caribbean
Caribbean
became separated from the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
by the land of Cuba
Cuba
and Haiti. The Caribbean
Caribbean
remained like this for most of the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
until the Holocene
Holocene
when rising water levels of the oceans restored communication with the Atlantic Ocean.

The shaded relief map of the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
and Gulf of Mexico area.[7][8]

The Caribbean's floor is composed of sub-oceanic sediments of deep red clay in the deep basins and troughs. On continental slopes and ridges calcareous silts are found. Clay minerals
Clay minerals
likely having been deposited by the mainland river Orinoco
Orinoco
and the Magdalena River. Deposits on the bottom of the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
and Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
have a thickness of about 1 km (0.62 mi). Upper sedimentary layers relate to the period from the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
to the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
(250 million years ago to present) and the lower layers from the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
to the Mesozoic. The Caribbean
Caribbean
sea floor is divided into five basins separated from each other by underwater ridges and mountain ranges. Atlantic Ocean water enters the Caribbean
Caribbean
through the Anegada Passage lying between the Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
and Virgin Islands
Virgin Islands
and the Windward Passage located between Cuba
Cuba
and Haiti. The Yucatán Channel
Yucatán Channel
between Mexico and Cuba
Cuba
links the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
with the Caribbean. The deepest points of the sea lie in Cayman Trough
Cayman Trough
with depths reaching approximately 7,686 m (25,220 ft). Despite this, the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
is considered a relatively shallow sea in comparison to other bodies of water.

Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
view from Bodden Town, Grand Cayman

Caribbean
Caribbean
plate tectonics

The pressure of the South American Plate
South American Plate
to the east of the Caribbean causes the region of the Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
to have high volcanic activity. There was a very serious eruption of Mount Pelée
Mount Pelée
in 1902 which caused many casualties. The Caribbean
Caribbean
sea floor is also home to two oceanic trenches: the Cayman Trench
Cayman Trench
and Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Trench, which put the area at a high risk of earthquakes. Underwater earthquakes pose a threat of generating tsunamis which could have a devastating effect on the Caribbean
Caribbean
islands. Scientific data reveals that over the last 500 years the area has seen a dozen earthquakes above 7.5 magnitude.[9] Most recently, a 7.1 earthquake struck Haiti
Haiti
on January 12, 2010.

List of islands in the Caribbean

Oceanography[edit]

Sketch of the North Equatorial Current and the Gulf Stream

The hydrology of the sea has a high level of homogeneity. Annual variations in monthly average water temperatures at the surface do not exceed 3 °C (5.4 °F). Over the past fifty years the Caribbean
Caribbean
has gone through three stages: cooling until 1974; a cold phase with peaks during 1974–1976 and 1984–1986 then; a warming phase with an increase in temperature of 0.6 °C (1.1 °F) per year. Virtually all temperature extremes were associated with the phenomena of El Niño
El Niño
and La Niña. The salinity of seawater is about 3.6% and its density is 1,023.5–1,024.0 kg/m3 (63.90–63.93 lb/cu ft). The surface water colour is blue-green to green. The Caribbean's depth in its wider basins and deep water temperatures are similar to those of the Atlantic. Atlantic deep water is thought to spill into the Caribbean
Caribbean
and contribute to the general deep water of its sea.[10] The surface water (30 feet; 100 m) acts as an extension of the northern Atlantic as the Guiana Current and part of the North Equatorial Current enter the sea on the east. On the western side of the sea the trade winds influence a northerly current which causes an upwelling and a rich fishery near Yucatán.[11] Ecology[edit] The Caribbean
Caribbean
is home to about 9% of the world's coral reefs covering about 50,000 km2 (19,000 sq mi), most of which are located off the Caribbean
Caribbean
Islands and the Central American coast.[12] Among them stands out the Belize
Belize
Barrier Reef with an area of 963 km2 (372 sq mi) which was declared a World Heritage Site in 1996. It forms part of the Great Mayan Reef
Great Mayan Reef
also known as the MBRS
MBRS
and being over 1,000 km (600 mi) in length is the world's second longest. It runs along the Caribbean
Caribbean
coasts of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala
Guatemala
and Honduras. During the past ten years,[when?] unusually warm Caribbean
Caribbean
waters have been increasingly threatening Caribbean
Caribbean
coral reefs. Coral reefs support some of the most diverse marine habitats in the world, but they are fragile ecosystems. When tropical waters become unusually warm for extended periods of time, microscopic plants called zooxanthellae, which are symbiotic partners living within the coral polyp tissues, die off. These plants provide food for the corals, and give them their color. The result of the death and dispersal of these tiny plants is called coral bleaching, and can lead to the devastation of large areas of reef. Over 42% of corals are completely bleached and 95% are experiencing some type of whitening.[13] Historically the Caribbean
Caribbean
is thought to contain 14% of the world's coral reefs.[14]

The Belize
Belize
Barrier Reef photographed from the International Space Station in 2016

The habitats supported by the reefs are critical to such tourist activities as fishing and diving, and provide an annual economic value to Caribbean
Caribbean
nations of US$3.1–4.6 billion. Continued destruction of the reefs could severely damage the region's economy.[15] A Protocol of the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean
Caribbean
Region came in effect in 1986 to protect the various endangered marine life of the Caribbean
Caribbean
through forbidding human activities that would advance the continued destruction of such marine life in various areas. Currently this protocol has been ratified by 15 countries.[16] Also, several charitable organisations have been formed to preserve the Caribbean
Caribbean
marine life, such as Caribbean
Caribbean
Conservation Corporation which seeks to study and protect sea turtles while educating others about them.[17]

Sian Ka'an
Sian Ka'an
Biosphere Reserve, Mexico

In connection with the foregoing, the Institute of Marine Sciences and Limnology of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, conducted a regional study, funded by the Department of Technical Cooperation of the International Atomic Energy Agency, in which specialists from 11 Latin American countries (Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Dominican Republic, Venezuela
Venezuela
plus Jamaica) participated. The findings indicate that heavy metals such as mercury, arsenic, and lead, have been identified in the coastal zone of the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. Analysis of toxic metals and hydrocarbons is based on the investigation of coastal sediments that have accumulated less than 50 meters deep during the last hundred and fifty years. The project results were presented in Vienna in the forum "Water Matters", and the 2011 General Conference of said multilateral organization.[18] Weather[edit]

Average sea surface temperatures for the Caribbean
Caribbean
Atlantic Ocean (25–27 August 2005).[19] Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina
is seen just above Cuba.

The Caribbean
Caribbean
weather is influenced by the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
and Humboldt Current ocean currents.[20] The tropical location of the sea helps the water to maintain a warm temperature ranging from the low of 21–26 °C (70–79 °F) by the season. The Caribbean
Caribbean
is a focal area for many hurricanes within the Western Hemisphere. A series of low pressure systems develop off the West coast of Africa and make their way across the Atlantic Ocean. While most of these systems do not become tropical storms, some do. The tropical storms can develop into Atlantic hurricanes, often in the low pressure areas of the eastern Caribbean. The Caribbean
Caribbean
hurricane season as a whole lasts from June through November, with the majority of hurricanes occurring during August and September. On average around 9 tropical storms form each year, with 5 reaching hurricane strength. According to the National Hurricane Center
National Hurricane Center
385 hurricanes occurred in the Caribbean
Caribbean
between 1494 and 1900. Every year hurricanes represent a potential threat to the islands of the Caribbean, due to the extremely destructive nature of these powerful weather systems. Coral reefs
Coral reefs
can easily be damaged by violent wave action, and can be destroyed when a hurricane dumps sand or mud onto a reef. When this happens, the coral organisms are smothered and the reef dies and ultimately breaks apart. Flora
Flora
and fauna[edit] The region has a high level of biodiversity and many species are endemic to the Caribbean. Vegetation[edit] The vegetation of the region is mostly tropical but differences in topography, soil and climatic conditions increase species diversity. Where there are porous limestone terraced islands these are generally poor in nutrients. It is estimated that 13,000 species of plants grow in the Caribbean
Caribbean
of which 6,500 are endemic. For example, guaiac wood (Guaiacum officinale), the flower of which is the national flower of Jamaica
Jamaica
and the Bayahibe rose (Pereskia quisqueyana) which is the national flower of the Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
and the ceiba which is the national tree of both Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
and Guatemala. The mahogany is the national tree of the Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
and Belize. The caimito (Chrysophyllum cainito) grows throughout the Caribbean. In coastal zones there are coconut palms and in lagoons and estuaries are found thick areas of black mangrove and red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). In shallow water flora and fauna is concentrated around coral reefs where there is little variation in water temperature, purity and salinity. Leeward side of lagoons provide areas of growth for sea grasses. Turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum) is common in the Caribbean
Caribbean
as is manatee grass (Syringodium filiforme) which can grow together as well as in fields of single species at depths up to 20 m (66 ft). Another type shoal grass (Halodule wrightii) grows on sand and mud surfaces at depths of up to 5 m (16 ft). In brackish water of harbours and estuaries at depths less than 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) widgeongrass (Ruppia maritima) grows. Representatives of three species belonging to the genus Halophila, ( Halophila
Halophila
baillonii, Halophila
Halophila
engelmannii and Halophila
Halophila
decipiens) are found at depths of up to 30 m (98 ft) except for Halophila
Halophila
engelmani which does not grow below 5 m (16 ft) and is confined to the Bahamas, Florida, the Greater Antilles
Greater Antilles
and the western part of the Caribbean. Halophila baillonii has been found only in the Lesser Antilles.[21] Fauna[edit]

Puerto Rican parrot

Green sea turtle, Grand Cayman
Grand Cayman
Island

Marine biota in the region have representatives of both the Indian and Pacific oceans which were caught in the Caribbean
Caribbean
before the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panama
four million years ago.[22] In the Caribbean Sea
Sea
there are around 1,000 documented species of fish, including sharks (bull shark, tiger shark, silky shark and Caribbean
Caribbean
reef shark), flying fish, giant oceanic manta ray, angel fish, spotfin butterflyfish, parrotfish, Atlantic Goliath grouper, tarpon and moray eels. Throughout the Caribbean
Caribbean
there is industrial catching of lobster and sardines (off the coast of Yucatán Peninsula). There are 90 species of mammals in the Caribbean
Caribbean
including sperm whales, humpback whales and dolphins. The island of Jamaica
Jamaica
is home to seals and manatees. The Caribbean
Caribbean
monk seal which lived in the Caribbean
Caribbean
is considered extinct. The solenodon is endangered. There are 500 species of reptiles (94% of which are endemic). Islands are inhabited by some endemic species such as rock iguanas and American crocodile. The blue iguana, endemic to the island of Grand Cayman, is endangered. The green iguana is invasive to Grand Cayman. The Mona ground iguana
Mona ground iguana
which inhabits the island of Mona, Puerto Rico, is endangered. The rhinoceros iguana from the island of Hispaniola which is shared between Haiti
Haiti
and the Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
is also endangered. The region has several types of sea turtle (loggerhead, green turtle, hawksbill, leatherback turtle, Atlantic ridley
Atlantic ridley
and olive ridley). Some species are threatened with extinction.[23] Their populations have been greatly reduced since the 17th century – the number of green turtles has declined from 91 million to 300,000 and hawksbill turtles from 11 million to less than 30,000 by 2006.[24] All 170 species of amphibians that live in the region are endemic. The habitats of almost all members of the toad family, poison dart frogs, tree frogs and leptodactylidae (a type of frog) are limited to only one island.[25] The Golden coqui is in serious threat of extinction. In the Caribbean
Caribbean
600 species of birds have been recorded of which 163 are endemic such as the tody, Fernandina's flicker
Fernandina's flicker
and palmchat. The American yellow warbler
American yellow warbler
is found in many areas as is the green heron. Of the endemic species 48 are threatened with extinction including the Puerto Rican amazon, yellow-breasted crake and the Zapata wren. According to Birdlife International in 2006 in Cuba
Cuba
29 species of bird are in danger of extinction and two species officially extinct.[26] The black-fronted piping guan is endangered as is the plain pigeon. The Antilles
The Antilles
along with Central America
Central America
lie in the flight path of migrating birds from North America so the size of populations is subject to seasonal fluctuations. In the forests are found parrots, bananaquit and toucans. Over the open sea can be seen frigatebirds and tropicbirds. Economy and human activity[edit]

A view of Nevis
Nevis
island from the southeastern peninsula of Saint Kitts.

The Caribbean
Caribbean
region has seen a significant increase in human activity since the colonization period. The sea is one of the largest oil production areas in the world, producing approximately 170 million tons[clarification needed] per year.[27] The area also generates a large fishing industry for the surrounding countries, accounting for 500,000 tonnes (490,000 long tons; 550,000 short tons) of fish a year.[28] Human activity in the area also accounts for a significant amount of pollution, The Pan American Health Organization estimated in 1993 that only about 10% of the sewage from the Central American and Caribbean Island countries is properly treated before being released into the sea.[27] The Caribbean
Caribbean
region supports a large tourism industry. The Caribbean Tourism
Tourism
Organization calculates that about 12 million people a year visit the area, including (in 1991–1992) about 8 million cruise ship tourists. Tourism
Tourism
based upon scuba diving and snorkeling on coral reefs of many Caribbean
Caribbean
islands makes a major contribution to their economies.[29] In popular culture[edit]

This article appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture rather than simply listing appearances; add references to reliable sources if possible. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2018)

The Caribbean
Caribbean
is the setting for countless literary efforts often related to piracy acts and swashbuckling. One memorable work of pulp fiction has in its title a geographic feature unique in its way to the islands: Fear Cay, the eleventh Doc Savage
Doc Savage
adventure by Lester Dent. Many James Bond
James Bond
adventures were set there. It is also well known as the location of the Pirates of the Caribbean
Caribbean
films, featuring Port Royal. Peter Matthiessen's Far Tortuga (1975) chronicles the adventures of a turtling crew in the late 1960s.

Saint Thomas, US Virgin Islands

Vieques, Puerto Rico

See also[edit]

Geography portal Oceans portal Caribbean
Caribbean
portal

Piracy
Piracy
in the Caribbean Territorial evolution of the Caribbean

Gallery[edit]

Cayo de Agua in Los Roques archipelago, Venezuela

The Anguilla
Anguilla
island.

Sunrise over the south beach of Jamaica

the island of San Andrés

Roatán, Bay Islands, Honduras

Cayo Largo, Cuba

Marie Galante, Guadeloupe

Scotts Head, Dominica

Great Blue Hole
Great Blue Hole
off the coast of Belize

References[edit]

^ The Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
All The Sea. URL last accessed May 7, 2006 ^ "The Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea".  ^ "Mesoamerican Reef Places WWF". World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 2016-10-21.  ^ Gorgas, William C. (1912). "Sanitation at Panama". Journal of the American Medical Association. American Medical Association. 58 (13): 907. doi:10.1001/jama.1912.04260030305001. ISSN 0002-9955. The Pacific Ocean, south of this isthmus [Panama], was known to the early explorers as the South Sea, and the Caribbean, lying to the north, as the North Sea.  ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 7 February 2010.  ^ Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel (2004), The first inhabitants of the Caribbean
Caribbean
, Cuban Science Network . URL accessed on 28/07/2007 ^ National Geophysical Data Center, 1999. Global Land One-kilometer Base Elevation (GLOBE) v.1. Hastings, D. and P.K. Dunbar. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA. doi:10.7289/V52R3PMS [access date: 2015-03-16] ^ Amante, C. and B.W. Eakins, 2009. ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model: Procedures, Data Sources and Analysis. NOAA Technical Memorandum NESDIS NGDC-24. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA. doi:10.7289/V5C8276M [access date: 2015-03-18]. ^ Dawicki, Shelley. "Tsunamis in the Caribbean? It's Possible". Oceanus. Retrieved April 30, 2006.  ^ Pernetta, John. (2004). Guide to the Oceans. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books, Inc. p. 178. ISBN 978-1-55297-942-6. ^ Pernetta, John. (2004). Guide to the Oceans. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books, Inc. pp. 177–178. ISBN 978-1-55297-942-6. ^ Status of coral reefs in the Caribbean
Caribbean
and Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
Archived June 21, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. World Resource Institute. URL accessed on April 29, 2006. ^ [1] Inter Press Service News Agency – Mesoamerican Coral Reef on the way to becoming a Marine Desert ^ Elder, Danny and Pernetta, John. (1991). The Random House atlas of the oceans. New York : Random House. p. 124. ISBN 9780679408307. ^ Alarm sounded for Caribbean
Caribbean
coral. BBC News. URL accessed on April 29, 2006. ^ Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife to the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean
Caribbean
Region (SPAW) NOAA Fisheries: Office of Protected Resources. URL accessed on April 30, 2006. ^ Caribbean
Caribbean
Conservation Corporation Archived October 1, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. Orion Online. URL last accessed May 1, 2006. ^ Analysis of Contaminants in the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
over the last 150 years. National Autonomous University of Mexico
Mexico
(UNAM) 2012 (Spa). ^ NASA Satellites Record a Month for the Hurricane History Books ^ Silverstein, Alvin (1998) Weather And Climate (Science Concepts); page 17. 21st Century. ISBN 0-7613-3223-5 ^ Caribbean
Caribbean
seagrass. Seagrass watch, retrieved April 23, 2009. ^ Robert James Menzies, John C Ogden. " Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea". Britannica Online Encyclopaedia. ^ Severin Carrell, " Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
Turtles Close to Extinction", The Independent, 28 November 2004. ^ Historic Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
Turtle Population falls 99%. Plunge has significant ecological consequences. Mongabay.com (August 1, 2006). ^ Conservation International Caribbean
Caribbean
Islands, Threatened Species. ^ "Birdlife International" – Red List Cuba. ^ a b An Overview of Land Based Sources of Marine Pollution
Pollution
Caribbean Environment Programme. URL last accessed May 14, 2006. ^ LME 12: Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
Archived 2006-05-04 at the Wayback Machine. NOAA Fisheries Northeast Fisheries Science Center Narragansett Laboratory. URL last accessed May 14, 2006. ^ Reefs at Risk in the Caribbean: Economic Valuation Methodology World Resources Institute 2009.

Further reading[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea.

Snyderman, Marty (1996), Guide to Marine Life: Caribbean-Bahamas-Florida, Aqua Quest Publications, pp. 13–14, 19. ISBN 1-881652-06-8 Glover K., Linda (2004), Defying Ocean's End: An Agenda For Action, Island Press, p. 9. ISBN 1-55963-755-2 Peters, Philip Dickenson (2003), Caribbean
Caribbean
WOW 2.0, Islandguru Media, p. 100. ISBN 1-929970-04-8 Reefs at Risk in the Caribbean: Economic Valuation Methodology, World Resources Institute 2007.

External links[edit]

Center For Advanced Study on Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
and the Caribbean

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 236345924 GND: 40296

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