Cardinal (catholicism)
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Cardinals ( la, Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally "cardinal of the Holy Roman Church") are the most senior members of the
clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established s. Their roles and functions vary in different religious traditions, but usually involve presiding over specific rituals and teaching their religion's s and practices. Some of the terms used for ind ...
of the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history ...

Catholic Church
, being second in precedence only to the
Pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

Pope
. They are appointed to the rank of cardinal in addition to their existing position within the Church. Collectively, they constitute the
College of Cardinals The College of Cardinals, or more formally the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all Cardinal (Catholicism), cardinals of the Catholic Church. List of current cardinals, its current membership is 215. Cardinals are appointed by the ...
, and are appointed for life. Their most solemn responsibility is to participate in a
conclave A papal conclave is a gathering of the College of Cardinals The College of Cardinals, formerly styled the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all Cardinal (Catholicism), cardinals of the Catholic Church. List of living cardinals ...
to elect a new pope, almost always from among themselves, when the
Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian ...
is vacant. During the period between a pope's death or resignation and the election of his successor, the ''
sede vacante ''Sede vacante'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...

sede vacante
'', the day-to-day governance of the Holy See is in the hands of the College of Cardinals. The right to enter the conclave where the pope is elected is limited to those who have not reached the age of 80 years by the day the vacancy occurs. In addition, cardinals collectively participate in papal consistories (which generally take place annually), in which matters of importance to the Church are considered and new cardinals may be created. Cardinals of working age are also appointed to roles overseeing
dicasteries A dicastery (from gr, δικαστήριον, dikastērion, law-court, from δικαστής, 'judge, juror') is a department of the Roman Curia The Roman Curia ( la, Romana Curia ministerium suum implent) comprises the administrative ins ...
of the
Roman Curia The Roman Curia ( la, Romana Curia ministerium suum implent) comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the central body through which the affairs of the Catholic Church are conducted. It acts in the pope's name and with h ...
, the central administration of the Catholic Church. Cardinals are drawn from a variety of backgrounds, being appointed as cardinals ''in addition'' to their existing roles within the Church. Most cardinals are current or retired
bishops A bishop is an ordained Ordination is the process by which individuals are Consecration, consecrated, that is, set apart and elevated from the laity class to the clergy, who are thus then authorization, authorized (usually by the religious denom ...
or
archbishops In many Christian Denominations Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Te ...
leading
dioceses In Ecclesiastical polity, church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. History In the later organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided Roman province, prov ...
around the world - often the most prominent diocese in their country. Others are
titular bishops A titular bishop in various churches is a bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, E ...
who are current or former officials within the Roman Curia (generally the leaders of dicasteries and other bodies linked with the Curia). A very small number are priests recognised by the pope for their service to the Church; as canon law requires they are generally
consecrated Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service. The word ''consecration'' literally means "association with the sacred". Persons, places, or things can be consecrated, and the term is used in various ways by different group ...

consecrated
as bishops before they are made cardinals, but some are granted a papal dispensation. There are no strict criteria for elevation to the College of Cardinals. A cardinal does not need to be consecrated a priest, and laymen have been cardinals in the past. The selection is entirely up to the pope and with tradition his only guide. In theory, a cardinal could even be a woman, though this has never happened


History

There is disagreement about the origin of the term, but consensus that "''cardinalis''" from the word ''cardo'' (meaning "pivot" or "hinge") was first used in late antiquity to designate a bishop or priest who was incorporated into a church for which he had not originally been ordained. In
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , fo ...

Rome
the first persons to be called cardinals were the deacons of the seven regions of the city at the beginning of the 6th century, when the word began to mean "principal", "eminent", or "superior". The name was also given to the senior priest in each of the "title" churches (the parish churches) of Rome and to the bishops of the seven sees surrounding the city. By the 8th century the Roman cardinals constituted a privileged class among the Roman clergy. They took part in the administration of the church of Rome and in the papal liturgy. By decree of a synod of 769, only a cardinal was eligible to become Bishop of Rome. Cardinals were granted the privilege of wearing the red hat by Pope
Innocent IV Pope Innocent IV ( la, Innocentius IV; – 7 December 1254), born Sinibaldo Fieschi, was Pope, Bishop of Rome and as such head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal State , Papal States from 25 June 1243 to his death in 1254. Fieschi wa ...

Innocent IV
in 1244. In cities other than Rome, the name cardinal began to be applied to certain church men as a mark of honour. The earliest example of this occurs in a letter sent by
Pope Zacharias Pope Zachary ( la, Zacharias; 679 – March 752) was the bishop of Rome from December 741 to his death. He was the last pope of the Byzantine Papacy. Zachary built the original church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, forbade the traffic of slaves in ...
in 747 to
Pippin III Pepin the Short, also called the Younger (german: Pippin der Jüngere, french: Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was King of the Franks The Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was f ...
(the Short), ruler of the
Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the and the , on the edge of the . Later the term was associated with Germanic dynasties within the ...

Franks
, in which Zacharias applied the title to the priests of
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
to distinguish them from country clergy. This meaning of the word spread rapidly, and from the 9th century various episcopal cities had a special class among the clergy known as cardinals. The use of the title was reserved for the cardinals of Rome in 1567 by
Pius V Pope Pius V (17 January 1504 – 1 May 1572), born Antonio Ghislieri (from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri, O.P.), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian ...

Pius V
. In 1059, the right of electing the pope was reserved to the principal clergy of Rome and the bishops of the seven suburbicarian sees. In the 12th century the practice of appointing ecclesiastics from outside Rome as cardinals began, with each of them assigned a church in Rome as his
titular church In the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics Catholic Church by country ...
or linked with one of the suburbicarian dioceses, while still being incardinated in a diocese other than that of Rome. The term ''cardinal'' at one time applied to any priest permanently assigned or
incardinated Incardination is the formal term in the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3  ...
to a church, or specifically to the senior priest of an important church, based on the Latin ''cardo'' (hinge), meaning "pivotal" as in "principal" or "chief". The term was applied in this sense as early as the 9th century to the priests of the ''tituli'' (
parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christianity, Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a priest#Christianity, priest, often termed a parish priest, ...
es) of the
diocese of Rome The Diocese of Rome ( la, Dioecesis Urbis seu Romana; it, Diocesi di Roma) is the ecclesiastical district under the direct jurisdiction of the Pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as ...
. In the year 1563 the Ecumenical Council of Trent, headed by Pope
Pius IV Pope Pius IV (31 March 1499 – 9 December 1565), born Giovanni Angelo Medici, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of membe ...

Pius IV
, wrote about the importance of selecting good cardinals: "nothing is more necessary to the Church of God than that the holy Roman pontiff apply that solicitude which by the duty of his office he owes the universal Church in a very special way by associating with himself as cardinals the most select persons only, and appoint to each church most eminently upright and competent shepherds; and this the more so, because our Lord
Jesus Christ Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it i ...

Jesus Christ
will require at his hands the blood of the sheep of Christ that perish through the evil government of shepherds who are negligent and forgetful of their office." The earlier influence of temporal rulers, notably the French kings, reasserted itself through the influence of cardinals of certain nationalities or politically significant movements. Traditions even developed entitling certain monarchs, including those of Austria, Spain, and France, to nominate one of their trusted clerical subjects to be created cardinal, a so-called "
crown-cardinal was both a cardinal and King of Portugal. A crown-cardinal ( it, cardinale della corona) was a cardinal protector of a Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8 ...
". In
early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, adven ...
times, cardinals often had important roles in secular affairs. In some cases, they took on powerful positions in government. In
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged fro ...
's England, his chief minister was for some time
Cardinal Wolsey Thomas Wolsey (c. March 1473 – 29 November 1530) was an English statesman and Catholic bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a positi ...
.
Cardinal Richelieu Armand Jean du Plessis, Duke of Richelieu Duke of Richelieu was a title of French nobility. It was created on 26 November 1629 for Cardinal Richelieu, Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu (known as Cardinal Richelieu) who, as a Roman Catholic cl ...
's power was so great that he was for many years effectively the ruler of France. Richelieu's successor was also a cardinal,
Jules Mazarin Cardinal Jules Mazarin (, also , , ; 14 July 1602 – 9 March 1661), born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino () or Mazarini, was an Italian cardinal Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a senior official ...

Jules Mazarin
. Guillaume Dubois and
André-Hercule de Fleury André-Hercule de Fleury, Bishop of Fréjus, Archbishop of Aix (22 June or 26 June 165329 January 1743) was a French Cardinal (Catholic Church), cardinal who served as the chief minister of Louis XV of France, Louis XV. Life and government He was ...
complete the list of the four great cardinals to have ruled France. In Portugal, due to a succession crisis, one cardinal,
Henry, King of Portugal Henry ( pt, Henrique ; 31 January 1512 — 31 January 1580), called the Chaste ( Portuguese: ''o Casto'') and the Cardinal-King (Portuguese: ''o Cardeal-Rei'') was king of Portugal and a cardinal Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christi ...
, was crowned king, the only example of a cardinal-king. While the incumbents of some sees are regularly made cardinals, and some countries are entitled to at least one cardinal by
concordate A concordat is a convention between the Holy See and a sovereign state that defines the relationship between the Catholic Church and the state in matters that concern both,René Metz, "What is Canon Law?" (New York: Hawthorn Books, 1960
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_or_the_metropolitan_of_the_capital_city_the_cardinal's_hat),_almost_no_see_carries_an_actual_right_to_the_cardinalate,_not_even_if_its_bishop_is_a_Patriarch#Catholic_Church.html" "title="primate_(bishop).html" "title="st Edit ...
(usually earning either its primate (bishop)">primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutheria Eutheria (; from Greek , 'good, right' and , 'beast'; ) is the clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', "branch"), also known as a monophyletic group or natural gro ...
or the metropolitan of the capital city the cardinal's hat), almost no see carries an actual right to the cardinalate, not even if its bishop is a Patriarch#Catholic Church">Patriarch The highest-ranking bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Or ...

Patriarch
: the notable exception is the Patriarch of Lisbon who, by Pope Clement XII's 1737 bull ''Inter praecipuas apostolici ministerii'', is accorded the right to be elevated to the rank of cardinal in the consistory following their appointment.


Papal elections

In 1059,
Pope Nicholas II Pope Nicholas II ( la, Nicholaus II; c. 990/995 – 27 July 1061), otherwise known as Gerard of Burgundy, was the head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 24 January 1059 until his death. At the time of his election, he was ...

Pope Nicholas II
gave cardinals the right to elect the Bishop of Rome in the
papal bull A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent upLetters patent transferring a predecessor of the Nancy Nancy may refer to: Places France * Nancy, France, a city in the northeastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle a ...
'' In nomine Domini''. For a time this power was assigned exclusively to the cardinal bishops, but in 1179 the
Third Lateran Council The Third Council of the Lateran met in March 1179 as the eleventh ecumenical council An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to disc ...
restored the right to the whole body of cardinals.


Numbers

In 1586
Pope Sixtus V Pope Sixtus V (13 December 1521 – 27 August 1590), born Felice Piergentile, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world's old ...

Pope Sixtus V
limited the number of cardinals to 70: six cardinal bishops, 50 cardinal priests, and 14 cardinal deacons.
Pope John XXIII Pope John XXIII ( la, Ioannes; it, Giovanni; born Giuseppe Angelo Roncalli, ; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian deno ...
(1958-1963) exceeded that limit citing the need to staff Church offices. In November 1970 in ''
Ingravescentem aetatem ''Ingravescentem aetatem'' () is a document issued by Pope Paul VI Pope Paul VI ( la, Paulus VI; it, Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini, ; 26 September 18976 August 1978) was head of the Catholic Church The ...
'', Pope Paul VI established that electors would be under the age of eighty years. When it took effect on 1 January 1971, it deprived twenty-five cardinals of the right to participate in a conclave. In October 1975 in ''Romano Pontifici eligendo'', he set the maximum number of electors at 120, while establishing no limit on the overall size of the college. Popes can dispensation (Catholic Church), set aside church laws and they have regularly brought the number of cardinals under the age of 80 to more than 120, twice reaching as high as 135 with Cardinals created by John Paul II#21 February 2001, Pope John Paul II's consistories of February 2001 and October 2003. No more than 120 electors have ever participated in a
conclave A papal conclave is a gathering of the College of Cardinals The College of Cardinals, formerly styled the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all Cardinal (Catholicism), cardinals of the Catholic Church. List of living cardinals ...
, but most canon lawyers believe that if their number exceeded 120 they would all participate. Pope Paul VI also increased the number of cardinal bishops by assigning that rank, in 1965, to patriarchs of the Eastern Catholic Churches when named cardinals. In 2018, Pope Francis expanded the cardinal bishops of Roman title, because this had not been done despite recent decades' expansion in the two lower orders of cardinals, besides having all six such cardinals being over the age limit for a conclave.


Titular churches

Each cardinal takes on a titular church, either a church in the city of Rome or one of the suburbicarian sees. The only exception is for patriarchs of the Eastern Catholic Churches.Pope Paul VI., Motuproprio "Ad Purpuratorum Patrum Collegium" (11 February 1965), par. II Nevertheless, cardinals possess no power of governance nor are they to intervene in any way in matters which pertain to the administration of goods, discipline, or the service of their titular churches. They are allowed to celebrate Mass and hear confessions and lead visits and pilgrimages to their titular churches, in coordination with the staff of the church. They often support their churches monetarily, and many cardinals do keep in contact with the pastoral staffs of their titular churches. The term cardinal is from the Latin word "cardo" meaning a hinge. Here it means a "door", an example of synecdoche, a figure of speech whereby the part refers to the whole. The "door" is the address of the titular church from which the cardinal derives his membership of the Roman clergy, who elect the Pope. The Dean of the College of Cardinals in addition to such a titular church also receives the Bishop of Ostia, titular bishopric of Ostia, the primary suburbicarian see. Cardinals governing a particular church retain that church.


Title and reference style

In 1630, Pope Urban VIII decreed their title to be ''His Eminence, Eminence'' (previously, it had been "illustrissimo" and "reverendissimo") and decreed that their secular rank would equate to Prince, making them secondary only to the Pope and crowned monarchs. In accordance with tradition, they sign by placing the title "Cardinal" (abbreviated ''Card.'') after their personal name and before their surname as, for instance, "John Card(inal) Doe" or, in Latin, "Ioannes Card(inalis) Doe". Some writers, such as James-Charles Noonan, hold that, in the case of cardinals, the form used for signatures should be used also when referring to them in English. However, official sources, such as the Catholic News Service, say that the correct form for referring to a cardinal in English is normally as "Cardinal [First name] [Surname]". This is the rule given also in stylebooks not associated with the church. This style is also generally followed on the websites of the Holy See and episcopal conferences. Oriental patriarchs who are created cardinals customarily use "Sanctae Ecclesiae Cardinalis" as their full title, probably because they do not belong to the Roman clergy. The [First name] Cardinal [Surname] order is used in the Latin language, Latin Habemus Papam, proclamation of the election of a new pope by the cardinal protodeacon, if the new pope is a cardinal, as it has been since 1378.


Orders and their chief offices


Cardinal bishops

Cardinal bishops (cardinals of the episcopal order) are the senior order of cardinals. Though in modern times the vast majority of cardinals are also Bishop (Catholic Church), bishops or archbishops, few are "cardinal bishops". For most of the second millennium there were six cardinal bishops, each presiding over one of the seven suburbicarian diocese, suburbicarian sees around Rome: Bishop of Ostia, Ostia, Roman Catholic Suburbicarian Diocese of Albano, Albano, Roman Catholic Suburbicarian Diocese of Porto-Santa Rufina, Porto and Santa Rufina, Roman Catholic Suburbicarian Diocese of Palestrina, Palestrina, Roman Catholic Suburbicarian Diocese of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto, Sabina and Mentana, Roman Catholic Suburbicarian Diocese of Frascati, Frascati, and Roman Catholic Suburbicarian Diocese of Velletri-Segni, Velletri. Velletri was united with Ostia from 1150 until 1914, when Pope Pius X separated them again, but decreed that whichever cardinal bishop became Dean of the College of Cardinals would keep the suburbicarian see he already held, adding to it that of Ostia, with the result that there continued to be only six cardinal bishops. Since 1962, the cardinal bishops have only a titular church, titular relationship with the suburbicarian sees, each of which is governed by a separate Ordinary (Catholic Church), ordinary. Until 1961, membership in the order of cardinal bishops was achieved through precedence in the College of Cardinals. When a suburbicarian see fell vacant, the most senior cardinal by precedence could exercise his option to claim the see and be promoted to the order of cardinal bishops.
Pope John XXIII Pope John XXIII ( la, Ioannes; it, Giovanni; born Giuseppe Angelo Roncalli, ; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian deno ...
abolished that privilege on 10 March 1961 and made the right to promote someone to the order of cardinal bishops the sole prerogative of the pope. In 1965, Pope Paul VI decreed in his ''motu proprio'' ''Ad purpuratorum Patrum Collegium'' that patriarchs of the Eastern Catholic Churches who were named cardinals (i.e. "cardinal patriarchs") would also be cardinal bishops, ranking after the six Roman rite cardinal bishops of the suburbicarian sees. (Latin Church patriarchs who become cardinals are cardinal priests, not cardinal bishops: for example Angelo Scola was made Patriarch of Venice in 2002 and cardinal priest of Santi XII Apostoli in 2003.) Those of cardinal patriarch rank continue to hold their patriarchal see and are not assigned any Roman title (suburbicarian see or title or deaconry). At the June 2018 consistory, Pope Francis increased the number of Latin Church cardinal bishops to match the expansion in cardinal priests and cardinal deacons in recent decades. He elevated four cardinals to this rank granting their
titular church In the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics Catholic Church by country ...
es and deaconries suburbicarian rank ''pro hac vice'' (temporarily) and making them equivalent to suburbicarian see titles. At the time of the announcement, all six cardinal bishops of suburbicarian see titles, as well as two of the three cardinal patriarchs, were non-electors because of having reached age 80. Pope Francis created another cardinal bishop in the same way on 1 May 2020, bringing the number of Latin Church cardinal bishops to eleven. The Dean of the College of Cardinals, the highest ranking cardinal, was formerly the longest serving cardinal bishop, but since 1965 is elected by the Latin Church cardinal bishops from among their number, subject to papal approval. Likewise the Vice-Dean, formerly the second longest serving, is also elected. Seniority of the remaining Latin Church cardinal bishops is still by date of appointment to the rank. For a period ending in the mid-20th century, long-serving cardinal priests were entitled to fill vacancies that arose among the cardinal bishops, just as cardinal deacons of ten years' standing are still entitled to become cardinal priests.


Cardinal priests

Cardinal priests are the most numerous of the three orders of cardinals in the Catholic Church, ranking above the cardinal deacons and below the cardinal bishops. Those who are named cardinal priests today are generally also Bishop (Catholic Church), bishops of important dioceses throughout the world, though some hold Roman Curia, Curial positions. In modern times, the name "cardinal priest" is interpreted as meaning a cardinal who is of the order of priests. Originally, however, this referred to certain key priests of important churches of the Diocese of Rome, who were recognized as the ''cardinal'' priests, the important priests chosen by the pope to advise him in his duties as Bishop of diocese of Rome, Rome (the Latin ''cardo'' means "hinge"). Certain clerics in many dioceses at the time, not just that of Rome, were said to be the key personnel—the term gradually became exclusive to Rome to indicate those entrusted with electing the bishop of Rome, the pope. While the cardinalate has long been expanded beyond the Roman pastoral clergy and
Roman Curia The Roman Curia ( la, Romana Curia ministerium suum implent) comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the central body through which the affairs of the Catholic Church are conducted. It acts in the pope's name and with h ...
, every cardinal priest has a
titular church In the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics Catholic Church by country ...
in Rome, though they may be bishops or archbishops elsewhere, just as cardinal bishops were given one of the suburbicarian dioceses around Rome. Pope Paul VI abolished all administrative rights cardinals had with regard to their titular churches, though the cardinal's name and coat of arms are still posted in the church, and they are expected to celebrate Mass and preach there if convenient when they are in Rome. While the number of cardinals was small from the times of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance, and frequently smaller than the number of recognized churches entitled to a cardinal priest, in the 16th century the College expanded markedly. In 1587,
Pope Sixtus V Pope Sixtus V (13 December 1521 – 27 August 1590), born Felice Piergentile, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world's old ...

Pope Sixtus V
sought to arrest this growth by fixing the maximum Size of the College of Cardinals, size of the College at 70, including 50 cardinal priests, about twice the historical number. This limit was respected until 1958, and the list of titular churches modified only on rare occasions, generally when a building fell into disrepair. When
Pope John XXIII Pope John XXIII ( la, Ioannes; it, Giovanni; born Giuseppe Angelo Roncalli, ; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian deno ...
abolished the limit, he began to add new churches to the list, which Popes Pope Paul VI, Paul VI and Pope John Paul II, John Paul II continued to do. Today there are close to 150 titular churches, out of over 300 churches in Rome. The cardinal who is the longest-serving member of the order of cardinal priests is titled ''cardinal protopriest''. He had certain ceremonial duties in the conclave that have effectively ceased because he would generally have already reached age 80, at which cardinals are barred from the conclave. The current cardinal protopriest is Michael Michai Kitbunchu of Thailand.


Cardinal deacons

The cardinal deacons are the lowest-ranking cardinals. Cardinals elevated to the diaconal order are either officials of the
Roman Curia The Roman Curia ( la, Romana Curia ministerium suum implent) comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the central body through which the affairs of the Catholic Church are conducted. It acts in the pope's name and with h ...
or priests elevated after their 80th birthday. Bishops with diocesan responsibilities, however, are created cardinal priests. Cardinal deacons derive originally from the seven deacons in the Papal Household and the seven deacons who supervised the Church's works in the districts of
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , fo ...

Rome
during the early Middle Ages, when church administration was effectively the government of Rome and provided all social services. Cardinal deacons are given title to one of these deaconries. Cardinals elevated to the diaconal order are mainly officials of the
Roman Curia The Roman Curia ( la, Romana Curia ministerium suum implent) comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the central body through which the affairs of the Catholic Church are conducted. It acts in the pope's name and with h ...
holding various posts in the church administration. Their number and influence has varied through the years. While historically predominantly Italian the group has become much more internationally diverse in later years. While in 1939 about half were Italian by 1994 the number was reduced to one third. Their influence in the election of the Pope has been considered important. They are better informed and connected than the dislocated cardinals but their level of unity has been varied.Thomas J. Reese, '' Inside the Vatican: The Politics and Organization of the Catholic Church'', Harvard University Press, 1996 p. 92-93 Under the 1587 decree of
Pope Sixtus V Pope Sixtus V (13 December 1521 – 27 August 1590), born Felice Piergentile, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world's old ...

Pope Sixtus V
, which fixed the maximum size of the College of Cardinals, there were 14 cardinal deacons. Later the number increased. As late as 1939 almost half of the cardinals were members of the curia. Pius XII reduced this percentage to 24 percent. John XXIII brought it back up to 37 percent but Paul VI brought it down to 27 percent where John Paul II maintained this ratio. As of 2005, there were over 50 churches recognized as cardinalatial deaconries, though there were only 30 cardinals of the order of deacons. Cardinal deacons have long enjoyed the right to "opt for the order of cardinal priests" (''optazione'') after they have been cardinal deacons for 10 years. They may on such elevation take a vacant "titular church, title" (a church allotted to a cardinal priest as the church in Rome with which he is associated) or their diaconal church may be temporarily elevated to a cardinal priest's "title" for that occasion. When elevated to cardinal priests, they take their precedence according to the day they were first made cardinal deacons (thus ranking above cardinal priests who were elevated to the college after them, regardless of order). When not celebrating Mass but still serving a liturgical function, such as the semiannual ''Urbi et Orbi'' papal blessing, some Papal Masses and some events at Ecumenical Councils, cardinal deacons can be recognized by the dalmatics they would don with the simple white mitre (so called ''mitra simplex'').


Cardinal protodeacon

The cardinal protodeacon is the senior cardinal deacon in order of appointment to the College of Cardinals. If he is a cardinal elector and participates in a conclave, he Habemus Papam, announces a new pope's election and name from the central balcony of St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City. The protodeacon also bestows the pallium on the new pope and crowns him with the papal tiara, although the crowning has not been celebrated since Pope John Paul I opted for a simpler papal inauguration ceremony in 1978. The current cardinal protodeacon is Renato Raffaele Martino.


= Cardinal protodeacons since 1911

= * Francesco Salesio Della Volpe (4 January 1911 – 5 November 1916†); announced election of Pope Benedict XV (Papal conclave, 1914, 1914) * Gaetano Bisleti (5 November 1916 – 17 December 1928*); announced election of Pope Pius XI (Papal conclave, 1922, 1922) * Camillo Laurenti (17 December 1928 – 16 December 1935*) * Camillo Caccia-Dominioni (16 December 1935 – 12 November 1946†); announced election of Pope Pius XII (Papal conclave, 1939, 1939) * Nicola Canali (12 November 1946 – 3 August 1961†); announced election of
Pope John XXIII Pope John XXIII ( la, Ioannes; it, Giovanni; born Giuseppe Angelo Roncalli, ; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian deno ...
(Papal conclave, 1958, 1958) * Alfredo Ottaviani (3 August 1961 – 26 June 1967*); announced election of Pope Paul VI (Papal conclave, 1963, 1963) * Arcadio Larraona Saralegui, Claretians, CMF (26 June 1967 – 28 April 1969*) * William Theodore Heard (28 April 1969 – 18 May 1970*) * Antonio Bacci (18 May 1970 – 20 January 1971†) * Michael Browne (cardinal), Michael Browne, Dominican Order, OP (20 January 1971 – 31 March 1971†) * Federico Callori di Vignale (31 March 1971 – 8 August 1971†) * Charles Journet (8 August 1971 – 5 March 1973*) * Pericle Felici (5 March 1973 – 30 June 1979*); announced elections of Pope John Paul I (Papal conclave, August 1978, 1978) and Pope John Paul II (Papal conclave, October 1978, 1978) * Sergio Pignedoli (30 June 1979 – 15 June 1980†) * Umberto Mozzoni (15 June 1980 – 2 February 1983*) * Opilio Rossi (2 February 1983 – 22 June 1987*) * Giuseppe Caprio (22 June 1987 – 26 November 1990*) * Aurelio Sabattani (26 November 1990 – 5 April 1993*) * Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy (5 April 1993 – 29 January 1996*) * Eduardo Martínez Somalo (29 January 1996 – 9 January 1999*) * Pio Laghi (9 January 1999 – 26 February 2002*) * Luigi Poggi (26 February 2002 – 24 February 2005*) * Jorge Medina Estévez (24 February 2005 – 23 February 2007*); announced election of Pope Benedict XVI (Papal conclave, 2005, 2005) * Darío Castrillón Hoyos (23 February 2007 – 1 March 2008*) * Agostino Cacciavillan (1 March 2008 – 21 February 2011*) * Jean-Louis Tauran (21 February 2011 – 12 June 2014*); announced election of Pope Francis (Papal conclave, 2013, 2013) * Renato Raffaele Martino (12 June 2014 – present) *Ceased to be protodeacon upon being raised to the order of cardinal-priest
†Was protodeacon at time of death


Special types of cardinals


Camerlengo

The Cardinal Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, assisted by the Vice-Camerlengo and the other prelates of the office known as the Apostolic Camera, has functions that in essence are limited to a period of ''
sede vacante ''Sede vacante'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...

sede vacante
'' of the papacy. He is to collate information about the financial situation of all administrations dependent on the Holy See and present the results to the College of Cardinals, as they gather for the papal conclave.


Cardinals who are not bishops

Until 1917, it was possible for someone who was not a priest, but only in minor orders, to become a cardinal (see "lay cardinals", below), but they were enrolled only in the order of cardinal deacons. For example, in the 16th century, Reginald Pole was a cardinal for 18 years before he was ordained a priest. In 1917 it was established that all cardinals, even cardinal deacons, had to be priests, and, in 1962,
Pope John XXIII Pope John XXIII ( la, Ioannes; it, Giovanni; born Giuseppe Angelo Roncalli, ; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian deno ...
set the norm that all cardinals be ordained as bishop (Catholic Church), bishops, even if they are only priests at the time of appointment. As a consequence of these two changes, canon 351 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law requires that a cardinal be at least in the order of priesthood (Catholic Church), priesthood at his appointment, and that those who are not already bishops must receive episcopal consecration. Several cardinals aged over 80 or close to it when appointed have obtained Dispensation (Catholic Church), dispensation from the rule of having to be a bishop. These were all appointed cardinal-deacons, but Roberto Tucci and Albert Vanhoye lived long enough to exercise the right of option and be promoted to the rank of cardinal-priest. A cardinal who is not a bishop is still entitled to wear and use the episcopal vestments and other pontificalia (episcopal regalia: mitre, crozier, zucchetto, pectoral cross and ring). Even if not a bishop, any cardinal has both actual and honorary precedence over non-cardinal patriarchs, as well as the archbishops and bishops who are not cardinals, but he cannot perform the functions reserved solely to bishops, such as Holy Orders, ordination. The prominent priests who since 1962 were not ordained bishops on their elevation to the cardinalate were over the age of 80 or near to it, and so no cardinal who was not a bishop has participated in recent papal conclaves.


"Lay cardinals"

At various times, there have been cardinals who had only received tonsure#Western Christianity, first tonsure and minor orders but not yet been Holy Orders, ordained as deacons or priests. Though clergy, clerics, they were inaccurately called "lay cardinals". Teodolfo Mertel was among the last of the lay cardinals. When he died in 1899 he was the last surviving cardinal who was not at least ordained a priest. With the revision of the 1917 Code of Canon Law, Code of Canon Law promulgated in 1917 by Pope Benedict XV, only those who are already priests or bishops may be appointed cardinals. Since the time of
Pope John XXIII Pope John XXIII ( la, Ioannes; it, Giovanni; born Giuseppe Angelo Roncalli, ; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian deno ...
a priest who is appointed a cardinal must be consecrated a bishop, unless he obtains a dispensation.


Cardinals ''in pectore'' or secret cardinals

In addition to the named cardinals, the pope may name secret cardinals or cardinals ''in pectore'' (Latin for ''in the breast''). During the Western Schism, many cardinals were created by the contending popes. Beginning with the reign of Pope Martin V, cardinals were created without publishing their names until later, a practice termed ''creati et reservati in pectore''. A cardinal named ''in pectore'' is known only to the pope. In the modern era popes have named cardinals ''in pectore'' to protect them or their congregations from political reprisals. If conditions change, the pope makes the appointment public. The cardinal in question then ranks in precedence with those made cardinals at the time of his ''in pectore'' appointment. If a pope dies before revealing the identity of an ''in pectore'' cardinal, the person's status as cardinal expires. The last pope known to have named a cardinal ''in pectore'' is Pope John Paul II, who named four, including one whose identity was never revealed.


Vesture and privileges

File:Cardinal Théodore Adrien Sarr 2.JPG, alt=Théodore Adrien Cardinal Sarr with a ferraiolo, and wearing a red cassock, but not the rest of the choir dress., Théodore-Adrien Sarr, Cardinal Sarr with a ferraiolo and wearing a red cassock, but not the rest of the choir dress. File:Kardinaal III Danneels en Kasper.JPG, alt=Cardinals Walter Kasper (left) and Godfried Danneels (right) wearing their choir dress: scarlet (red) cassock, white rochet trimmed with lace, scarlet mozetta, scarlet biretta (over the usual scarlet zucchetto), and pectoral cross on cord., Cardinals Walter Kasper (left) and Godfried Danneels (right) wearing their choir dress: scarlet (red) cassock, white rochet trimmed with lace, scarlet mozetta, scarlet biretta (over the usual scarlet zucchetto), and pectoral cross on cord. File:Missione del Guaricano-cardinale Tarcisio Bertone.jpg, alt=Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone in dress for hot tropical countries (white cassock with scarlet piping and buttons)., Tarcisio Bertone, Cardinal Bertone in dress for hot tropical countries (white cassock with scarlet piping and buttons). When in choir dress, a Latin Church cardinal wears Scarlet (color), scarlet garments—the blood-like red symbolizes a cardinal's willingness to die for his faith. Excluding the rochet—which is always white—the scarlet garments include the cassock, mozzetta, and biretta (over the usual scarlet zucchetto). The biretta of a cardinal is distinctive not merely for its scarlet color, but also for the fact that it does not have a pompon or tassel on the top as do the birettas of other prelates. Until the 1460s, it was customary for cardinals to wear a violet (color), violet or blue cape unless granted the privilege of wearing red when acting on papal business. His normal-wear cassock is black but has scarlet piping (sewing), piping and a scarlet fascia (vestment), fascia (sash). Occasionally, a cardinal wears a scarlet ''ferraiolo'' which is a cape worn over the shoulders, tied at the neck in a bow by narrow strips of cloth in the front, without any 'trim' or piping on it. It is because of the scarlet color of cardinals' vesture that the cardinal (bird), bird of the same name has become known as such. Eastern Catholic Churches, Eastern Catholic cardinals continue to wear the normal dress appropriate to their liturgical tradition, though some may line their cassocks with scarlet and wear scarlet fascias, or in some cases, wear Eastern-style cassocks entirely of scarlet. In previous times, at the Papal consistory, consistory at which the pope named a new cardinal, he would bestow upon him a distinctive wide-brimmed hat called a galero. This custom was discontinued in 1969 and the investiture now takes place with the scarlet biretta. In ecclesiastical heraldry, however, the scarlet galero is still displayed on the cardinal's coat of arms. Cardinals had the right to display the galero in their cathedral, and when a cardinal died, it would be suspended from the ceiling above his tomb. Some cardinals will still have a galero made, even though it is not officially part of their apparel. To symbolize their bond with the papacy, the pope gives each newly appointed cardinal a gold ring, which is traditionally kissed by Catholics when greeting a cardinal (as with a bishop's episcopal ring). Before the new uniformity imposed by John Paul II, each cardinal was given a ring, the central piece of which was a gem, usually a sapphire, with the pope's stemma engraved on the inside.. The new cardinal had to pay for the ring, in exchange for which he received the right to make his own Last Will and Testament. There is now no gemstone, and the pope chooses the image on the outside: under Pope Benedict XVI it was a modern depiction of the crucifixion of Jesus, with Virgin Mary, Mary and John the Evangelist, John to each side. The ring includes the pope's coat of arms on the inside. Cardinals have in canon law (Catholic Church), canon law a "privilege of forum" (i.e., exemption from being judged by ecclesiastical tribunals of ordinary rank): only the pope is competent to judge them in matters subject to ecclesiastical jurisdiction (cases that refer to matters that are spiritual or linked with the spiritual, or with regard to infringement of ecclesiastical laws and whatever contains an element of sin, where culpability must be determined and the appropriate ecclesiastical penalty imposed). The pope either decides the case himself or delegates the decision to a tribunal, usually one of the tribunals or congregations of the Roman Curia. Without such delegation, no ecclesiastical court, even the Roman Rota, is competent to judge a canon law case against a cardinal. Additionally, canon law gives cardinals the faculty of hearing confessions validly and licitly everywhere, whereas other priests and bishops must be granted this faculty and might be restricted in its use by the local bishop.Canon 967 §1 of the 1983 ''Code of Canon Law.''


See also

* Cardinal-Infante (disambiguation) * Cardinal-nephew * Cardinal protector * Hierarchy of the Catholic Church#Cardinals, Hierarchy of the Catholic Church * List of living cardinals * List of the creations of the cardinals


Notes


References


Bibliography

* * * * *


External links

* Salvador Miranda
The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church
A digital resource consisting of the biographical entries of the cardinals from 494 to 2014 and of the events and documents concerning the origin of the Roman cardinalate and its historical evolution
Next Cardinal Creating Consistory by Pope Benedict XVI – The Required Background Data
(including statistical data and links). Popes and the Papacy website (Anura Guruge). Retrieved 2010-09-08.

*

by GCatholic *

by GCatholic *

by GCatholic
Catholic-pages List of Cardinals
* Thomas J. Reese, ''Inside the Vatican: The Politics and Organization of the Catholic Church'', Harvard University Press, 199
Cardinal Rating
a website listing the day to day statements printed in the news by current cardinals {{Authority control Cardinals (Catholic Church), * Bishops by type Catholic ecclesiastical titles Religious leadership roles