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A cardinal (Latin: Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually (now always for those created when still within the voting age-range) an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church. The cardinals of the Church are collectively known as the College of Cardinals. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and making themselves available individually or in groups to the Pope
Pope
as requested. Most have additional duties, such as leading a diocese or archdiocese or managing a department of the Roman Curia. A cardinal's primary duty is electing the bishop of Rome
Rome
when the see becomes vacant. During the sede vacante (the period between a pope's death or resignation and the election of his successor), the day-to-day governance of the Holy See
Holy See
is in the hands of the College of Cardinals. The right to enter the conclave of cardinals where the pope is elected is limited to those who have not reached the age of 80 years by the day the vacancy occurs. In 1059, the right of electing the pope was reserved to the principal clergy of Rome
Rome
and the bishops of the seven suburbicarian sees. In the 12th century the practice of appointing ecclesiastics from outside Rome
Rome
as cardinals began, with each of them assigned a church in Rome as his titular church or linked with one of the suburbicarian dioceses, while still being incardinated in a diocese other than that of Rome.[citation needed] The term cardinal at one time applied to any priest permanently assigned or incardinated to a church,[1] or specifically to the senior priest of an important church, based on the Latin
Latin
cardo (hinge), meaning "principal" or "chief". The term was applied in this sense as early as the ninth century to the priests of the tituli (parishes) of the diocese of Rome.[1]

Contents

1 History 2 Numbers 3 Titular church 4 Title and reference style 5 Orders and their chief offices

5.1 Cardinal bishops

5.1.1 Dean and Vice-Dean of the College of Cardinals 5.1.2 Cardinal patriarchs

5.2 Cardinal priests 5.3 Cardinal deacons

5.3.1 Cardinal protodeacon

5.3.1.1 Cardinal protodeacons since 1911

6 Special
Special
types of cardinals

6.1 Camerlengo 6.2 Cardinals who are not bishops 6.3 "Lay cardinals"

7 Cardinals in pectore or secret cardinals 8 Vesture and privileges 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links

History[edit] Further information: Papal selection before 1059

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Cardinal Richelieu, chief minister of France

There is disagreement about the origin of the term, but the consensus that "cardinalis" from the word cardo (meaning 'pivot' or 'hinge') was first used in late antiquity to designate a bishop or priest who was incorporated into a church for which he had not originally been ordained. In Rome
Rome
the first persons to be called cardinals were the deacons of the seven regions of the city at the beginning of the 6th century, when the word began to mean "principal," "eminent," or "superior." The name was also given to the senior priest in each of the "title" churches (the parish churches) of Rome
Rome
and to the bishops of the seven sees surrounding the city. By the 8th century the Roman cardinals constituted a privileged class among the Roman clergy. They took part in the administration of the church of Rome
Rome
and in the papal liturgy. By decree of a synod of 769, only a cardinal was eligible to become bishop of Rome. In 1059, during the pontificate of Nicholas II, cardinals were given the right to elect the bishop of Rome
Rome
under the Papal Bull
Papal Bull
In nomine Domini. For a time this power was assigned exclusively to the cardinal bishops, but the Third Lateran Council
Third Lateran Council
in 1179 gave back the right to the whole body of cardinals. Cardinals were granted the privilege of wearing the red hat by Pope
Pope
Innocent IV in 1244.[2] In cities other than Rome, the name cardinal began to be applied to certain church men as a mark of honour. The earliest example of this occurs in a letter sent by Pope
Pope
Zacharias in 747 to Pippin III
Pippin III
(the Short), ruler of the Franks, in which Zacharias applied the title to the priests of Paris
Paris
to distinguish them from country clergy. This meaning of the word spread rapidly, and from the 9th century various episcopal cities had a special class among the clergy known as cardinals. The use of the title was reserved for the cardinals of Rome in 1567 by Pius V. In the year 1563 the influential Ecumenical Council of Trent, headed by Pope
Pope
Pius IV, wrote about the importance of selecting good Cardinals. According to this historic council "nothing is more necessary to the Church of God than that the holy Roman pontiff apply that solicitude which by the duty of his office he owes the universal Church in a very special way by associating with himself as cardinals the most select persons only, and appoint to each church most eminently upright and competent shepherds; and this the more so, because our Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ will require at his hands the blood of the sheep of Christ that perish through the evil government of shepherds who are negligent and forgetful of their office."[3] The earlier influence of temporal rulers, notably the French kings, reasserted itself through the influence of cardinals of certain nationalities or politically significant movements. Traditions even developed entitling certain monarchs, including those of Austria, Spain, and France, to nominate one of their trusted clerical subjects to be created cardinal, a so-called crown-cardinal.[4] In early modern times, cardinals often had important roles in secular affairs. In some cases, they took on powerful positions in government. In Henry VIII's England, his chief minister was Cardinal Wolsey. Cardinal Richelieu's power was so great that he was for many years effectively the ruler of France.[5] Richelieu's successor was also a cardinal, Jules Mazarin. Guillaume Dubois
Guillaume Dubois
and André-Hercule de Fleury complete the list of the four great cardinals to have ruled France.[4] In Portugal, due to a succession crisis, one cardinal, Henry, King of Portugal, was crowned king, the only example of a cardinal-king. Numbers[edit] In 1586 Pope
Pope
Sixtus V limited the number of cardinals to 70:[6] six cardinal bishops, 50 cardinal priests, and 14 cardinal deacons. Pope John XXIII exceeded that limit citing the need to staff Church offices.[7] In November 1970 in Ingravescentem aetatem, Pope
Pope
Paul VI established a maximum age of eighty years for electors. This immediately deprived twenty-five cardinals of the right to participate in a conclave.[8] In October 1975 in Romano Pontifici eligendo, he set the maximum number of electors at 120, while establishing no limit on the overall size of the College.[9] Popes can set aside church laws[10][11] and they have sometimes brought the number of cardinals under the age of 80 to more than 120, reaching as high as 135 with Pope
Pope
John Paul II's consistory of 21 February 2001.[12] No more than 120 electors have ever participated in a conclave, but most canon lawyers believe that if their number exceeded 120 they would all participate.[13][a] Pope
Pope
Paul VI also increased the number of cardinal bishops by assigning that rank, in 1965, to patriarchs of the Eastern Catholic Churches when named cardinals.[14][15] Titular church[edit]

Cardinal Innitzer, Archbishop
Archbishop
of Vienna and Cardinal-Priest of San Crisogono

Each cardinal takes on a titular church, either a church in the city of Rome
Rome
or one of the suburbicarian sees. The only exception is for patriarchs of Eastern Catholic Churches.[16] Nevertheless, cardinals possess no power of governance nor are they to intervene in any way in matters which pertain to the administration of goods, discipline, or the service of their titular churches.[17] They are allowed to celebrate Mass and hear confessions and lead visits and pilgrimages to their titular churches, in coordination with the staff of the church. They often support their churches monetarily, and many Cardinals do keep in contact with the pastoral staffs of their titular churches. The Dean of the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
in addition to such a titular church also receives the titular bishopric of Ostia, the primary suburbicarian see. Cardinals governing a particular Church retain that church.[18] Title and reference style[edit] In 1630, Pope
Pope
Urban VIII decreed their title to be Eminence (previously, it had been "illustrissimo" and "reverendissimo")[b] and decreed that their secular rank would equate to Prince, making them secondary only to the Pope
Pope
and crowned monarchs.[c][d] In accordance with tradition, they sign by placing the title "Cardinal" (abbreviated Card.) after their personal name and before their surname as, for instance, "John Card(inal) Doe" or, in Latin, "Ioannes Card(inalis) Cognomen". Some writers, such as James-Charles Noonan,[19] hold that, in the case of cardinals, the form used for signatures should be used also when referring to them in English. Official sources such as the Catholic News Service[20] say that the correct form for referring to a cardinal in English is normally as "Cardinal [First name] [Surname]". This is the rule given also in stylebooks not associated with the Catholic Church.[21][22][23][24] This style is also generally followed on the websites of the Holy See and episcopal conferences.[25] Oriental Patriarchs who are created Cardinals customarily use "Sanctae Ecclesiae Cardinalis" as their full title,[26] probably because they do not belong to the Roman clergy.[16] In Latin, the [First name] Cardinal [Surname] order is used in the proclamation of the election of a new pope by the cardinal protodeacon,[e] if the new pope is a cardinal, as he has been since 1378. While the incumbents of some sees are regularly made cardinals, and some countries are entitled to at least one cardinal by concordate (usually earning either its primate or the metropolitan of the capital city the cardinal's hat), no see carries an actual right to the cardinalate, not even if its bishop is a Patriarch. Orders and their chief offices[edit]

Choir dress
Choir dress
of a cardinal.

Cardinal bishops[edit]

Cardinal Sodano, current Dean of the College

Cardinal bishops (cardinals of the episcopal order) are among the most senior prelates of the Catholic Church. Though in modern times most cardinals are also bishops, the term "cardinal bishop" only refers to the cardinals who are titular bishops of one of the seven suburbicarian sees. In early times, the privilege of papal election was not reserved to the cardinals, and for centuries the person elected was customarily a Roman priest and never a bishop from elsewhere. To preserve apostolic succession the rite of consecrating him a bishop had to be performed by someone who was already a bishop. The rule remains that, if the person elected Pope
Pope
is not yet a bishop, he is consecrated by the Dean of the College of Cardinals, the Cardinal Bishop
Bishop
of Ostia. There are seven suburbicarian sees: Ostia, Albano, Porto and Santa Rufina, Palestrina, Sabina and Mentana, Frascati, and Velletri.[28] Velletri was united with Ostia from 1150 until 1914, when Pope
Pope
Pius X separated them again, but decreed that whichever cardinal bishop became Dean of the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
would keep the suburbicarian see he already held, adding to it that of Ostia, with the result that there continued to be only six cardinal bishops.[29][30][31] Since 1962, the cardinal bishops have only a titular relationship with the suburbicarian sees, with no powers of governance over them.[32] Each see has its own bishop, with the exception of Ostia, of which the Cardinal Vicar
Cardinal Vicar
of the see of Rome
Rome
serves as apostolic administrator. The current cardinal bishops of the suburbicarian dioceses are given in the table below. Those highlighted in red (which, as of 10 June 2017, is all of them) are ineligible to participate in a Papal conclave.

Name Country Birthday and age Suburbicarian see Seniority date Curial office

Sodano, AngeloAngelo Sodano, Dean  Italy 000000001927-11-23-000023 November 1927 7001900000000000000♠90 Ostia (as Dean) Albano 000000001994-01-10-000010 January 1994 Cardinal Secretary of State
Cardinal Secretary of State
emeritus

Re, Giovanni BattistaGiovanni Battista Re, Vice-Dean  Italy 000000001934-01-30-000030 January 1934 7001840000000000000♠84 Sabina-Poggio Mirteto 000000002002-10-01-00001 October 2002 Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Bishops

Etchegaray, RogerRoger Etchegaray, Vice-Dean emeritus  France 000000001922-09-25-000025 September 1922 7001950000000000000♠95 Porto-Santa Rufina 000000001998-06-24-000024 June 1998 President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace

Arinze, FrancisFrancis Arinze  Nigeria 000000001932-11-01-00001 November 1932 7001850000000000000♠85 Velletri-Segni 000000002005-04-25-000025 April 2005 Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments

Bertone, TarcisioTarcisio Bertone, Camerlengo  Italy 000000001934-12-02-00002 December 1934 7001830000000000000♠83 Frascati 000000002008-05-10-000010 May 2008 Cardinal Secretary of State
Cardinal Secretary of State
emeritus and Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church emeritus

Saraiva Martins, JoséJosé Saraiva Martins  Portugal 000000001932-01-06-00006 January 1932 7001860000000000000♠86 Palestrina 000000002009-02-24-000024 February 2009 Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints

For a period ending in the mid-20th century, long-serving cardinal priests were entitled to fill vacancies that arose among the cardinal bishops, just as cardinal deacons of ten years' standing are still entitled to become cardinal priests. Since then, cardinals have been advanced to cardinal bishop exclusively by papal appointment. Those appointed to be cardinal-bishops are usually already cardinals, but their seniority within the order of cardinal bishops is determined by the date of their elevation to the order of cardinal bishop, rather than by the date they originally became cardinals of a lesser order. Dean and Vice-Dean of the College of Cardinals[edit] Main article: Dean of the College of Cardinals The Dean of the College of Cardinals, or Cardinal Dean, is the primus inter pares of the College of Cardinals, elected by the cardinal bishops holding suburbicarian sees from among their own number, an election, however, that must be approved by the Pope. The position of Dean formerly belonged by right to the longest-serving of the cardinal bishops. The Vice-Dean is similarly elected by the six suburbicarian cardinal bishops from among their own number with the Pope's approval and also formerly belonged by right to the second-longest-serving of the cardinal bishops. Cardinal patriarchs[edit] In 1965, Pope
Pope
Paul VI decreed in his motu proprio Ad Purpuratorum Patrum Collegium that patriarchs of the Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
who were named cardinals (i.e., patriarch cardinals) would also be cardinal bishops, ranking after the six cardinal bishops of the suburbicarian sees.[33] Unlike all other cardinals, these patriarch cardinals do not receive any title associated with the Diocese
Diocese
of Rome. Unlike the other cardinal bishops, they do not participate in electing the dean nor can they be chosen dean. There are currently three Eastern Patriarchs who are cardinal bishops:

Nasrallah Sfeir, Patriarch
Patriarch
Emeritus of Antioch of the Maronites Antonios Naguib, Patriarch
Patriarch
Emeritus of Alexandria of the Copts Bechara Boutros al-Rahi, Patriarch
Patriarch
of Antioch of the Maronites

If a Latin
Latin
Rite prelate who carries the title patriarch, such as that of Venice or Lisbon, becomes a cardinal, he ranks as a cardinal priest, not as a cardinal bishop. Cardinal priests[edit] Cardinal priests are the most numerous of the three orders of cardinals in the Catholic Church, ranking above the cardinal deacons and below the cardinal bishops.[34] Those who are named cardinal priests today are generally bishops of important dioceses throughout the world, though some hold Curial positions. In modern times, the name "cardinal priest" is interpreted as meaning a cardinal who is of the order of priests. Originally, however, this referred to certain key priests of important churches of the Diocese of Rome, who were recognized as the cardinal priests, the important priests chosen by the pope to advise him in his duties as Bishop
Bishop
of Rome
Rome
(the Latin
Latin
cardo means "hinge"). Certain clerics in many dioceses at the time, not just that of Rome, were said to be the key personnel—the term gradually became exclusive to Rome
Rome
to indicate those entrusted with electing the bishop of Rome, the pope.

Cardinal-priest Thomas Wolsey

While the cardinalate has long been expanded beyond the Roman pastoral clergy and Roman Curia, every cardinal priest has a titular church in Rome, though they may be bishops or archbishops elsewhere, just as cardinal bishops are given one of the suburbicarian dioceses around Rome. Pope
Pope
Paul VI abolished all administrative rights cardinals had with regard to their titular churches, though the cardinal's name and coat of arms are still posted in the church, and they are expected to celebrate mass and preach there if convenient when they are in Rome. While the number of cardinals was small from the times of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance, and frequently smaller than the number of recognized churches entitled to a cardinal priest, in the 16th century the College expanded markedly. In 1587, Pope
Pope
Sixtus V sought to arrest this growth by fixing the maximum size of the College at 70, including 50 cardinal priests, about twice the historical number. This limit was respected until 1958, and the list of titular churches modified only on rare occasions, generally when a building fell into disrepair. When Pope
Pope
John XXIII abolished the limit, he began to add new churches to the list, which Popes Paul VI and John Paul II continued to do. Today there are close to 150 titular churches, out of over 300 churches in Rome. The cardinal who is the longest-serving member of the order of cardinal priests is titled cardinal protopriest. He had certain ceremonial duties in the conclave that have effectively ceased because he would generally have already reached age 80, at which cardinals are barred from the conclave. The current cardinal protopriest is Michael Michai Kitbunchu of Thailand. Cardinal deacons[edit] The cardinal deacons are the lowest-ranking cardinals. Cardinals elevated to the diaconal order are either officials of the Roman Curia or priests elevated after their 80th birthday. Bishops with diocesan responsibilities, however, are created cardinal priests. Cardinal deacons derive originally from the seven deacons in the Papal Household and the seven deacons who supervised the Church's works in the districts of Rome
Rome
during the early Middle Ages, when church administration was effectively the government of Rome
Rome
and provided all social services. Cardinal deacons are given title to one of these deaconries. Cardinals elevated to the diaconal order are mainly officials of the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
holding various posts in the church administration. Their number and influence has varied through the years. While historically predominantly Italian the group has become much more internationally diverse in later years. While in 1939 about half were Italian by 1994 the number was reduced to one third. Their influence in the election of the Pope
Pope
has been considered important, they are better informed and connected than the dislocated cardinals but their level of unity has been varied.[35] Under the 1587 decree of Pope
Pope
Sixtus V, which fixed the maximum size of the College of Cardinals, there were 14 cardinal deacons. Later the number increased. As late as 1939 almost half of the cardinals were members of the curia. Pius XII reduced this percentage to 24 percent. John XXIII brought it back up to 37 percent but Paul VI brought it down to 27 percent where John Paul II maintained this ratio.[35] As of 2005, there were over 50 churches recognized as cardinalatial deaconries, though there were only 30 cardinals of the order of deacons. Cardinal deacons have long enjoyed the right to "opt for the order of cardinal priests" (optazione) after they have been cardinal deacons for 10 years. They may on such elevation take a vacant "title" (a church allotted to a cardinal priest as the church in Rome
Rome
with which he is associated) or their diaconal church may be temporarily elevated to a cardinal priest's "title" for that occasion. When elevated to cardinal priests, they take their precedence according to the day they were first made cardinal deacons (thus ranking above cardinal priests who were elevated to the college after them, regardless of order). When not celebrating Mass but still serving a liturgical function, such as the semiannual Urbi et Orbi
Urbi et Orbi
papal blessing, some Papal Masses and some events at Ecumenical Councils, cardinal deacons can be recognized by the dalmatics they would don with the simple white mitre (so called mitra simplex). Cardinal protodeacon[edit] The cardinal protodeacon is the senior cardinal deacon in order of appointment to the College of Cardinals. If he is a cardinal elector and participates in a conclave, he announces a new pope's election and name[f] from the central balcony of St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
in Vatican City. The proto-deacon also bestows the pallium on the new pope and crowns him with the papal tiara, though coronations have been discontinued since Pope
Pope
John Paul I opted for a simpler papal inauguration ceremony in 1978.[37] The current cardinal proto-deacon is Renato Raffaele Martino. Cardinal protodeacons since 1911[edit]

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Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of Cardinal Martino, current Cardinal Protodeacon

Francesco Salesio Della Volpe
Francesco Salesio Della Volpe
(4 January 1911 – 5 November 1916†); announced election of Pope
Pope
Benedict XV (1914) Gaetano Bisleti
Gaetano Bisleti
(5 November 1916 – 17 December 1928*); announced election of Pope
Pope
Pius XI (1922) Camillo Laurenti
Camillo Laurenti
(17 December 1928 – 16 December 1935*) Camillo Caccia-Dominioni
Camillo Caccia-Dominioni
(16 December 1935 – 12 November 1946†); announced election of Pope
Pope
Pius XII (1939) Nicola Canali
Nicola Canali
(12 November 1946 – 3 August 1961†); announced election of Pope
Pope
John XXIII (1958) Alfredo Ottaviani
Alfredo Ottaviani
(3 August 1961 – 26 June 1967*); announced election of Pope
Pope
Paul VI (1963) Arcadio Larraona Saralegui, CMF (26 June 1967 – 28 April 1969*) William Theodore Heard (28 April 1969 – 18 May 1970*) Antonio Bacci (18 May 1970 – 20 January 1971†) Michael Browne, OP (20 January 1971 – 31 March 1971†) Federico Callori di Vignale (31 March 1971 – 8 August 1971†) Charles Journet (8 August 1971 – 5 March 1973*) Pericle Felici (5 March 1973 – 30 June 1979*); announced elections of Pope
Pope
John Paul I (1978) and Pope
Pope
John Paul II (1978) Sergio Pignedoli
Sergio Pignedoli
(30 June 1979 – 15 June 1980†) Umberto Mozzoni (15 June 1980 – 2 February 1983*) Opilio Rossi
Opilio Rossi
(2 February 1983 – 22 June 1987*) Giuseppe Caprio
Giuseppe Caprio
(22 June 1987 – 26 November 1990*) Aurelio Sabattani
Aurelio Sabattani
(26 November 1990 – 5 April 1993*) Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy
Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy
(5 April 1993 – 29 January 1996*) Eduardo Martínez Somalo
Eduardo Martínez Somalo
(29 January 1996 – 9 January 1999*) Pio Laghi
Pio Laghi
(9 January 1999 – 26 February 2002*) Luigi Poggi
Luigi Poggi
(26 February 2002 – 24 February 2005*) Jorge Medina Estévez
Jorge Medina Estévez
(24 February 2005 – 23 February 2007*); announced election of Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI (2005) Darío Castrillón Hoyos
Darío Castrillón Hoyos
(23 February 2007 – 1 March 2008*) Agostino Cacciavillan
Agostino Cacciavillan
(1 March 2008 – 21 February 2011*) Jean-Louis Tauran
Jean-Louis Tauran
(21 February 2011 – 12 June 2014*); announced election of Pope
Pope
Francis (2013) Renato Raffaele Martino (12 June 2014 – present)[38]

*Ceased to be protodeacon upon being raised to the order of cardinal-priest †Was protodeacon at time of death Special
Special
types of cardinals[edit] Camerlengo[edit] The Cardinal Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, assisted by the Vice-Camerlengo and the other prelates of the office known as the Apostolic Camera, has functions that in essence are limited to a period of sede vacante of the papacy. He is to collate information about the financial situation of all administrations dependent on the Holy See
Holy See
and present the results to the College of Cardinals, as they gather for the papal conclave.[39] Cardinals who are not bishops[edit]

Reginald Pole
Reginald Pole
was a cardinal for 18 years before he was ordained a priest.

Until 1917, it was possible for someone who was not a priest, but only in minor orders, to become a cardinal (see "lay cardinals", below), but they were enrolled only in the order of cardinal deacons. For example, in the 16th century, Reginald Pole
Reginald Pole
was a cardinal for 18 years before he was ordained a priest. In 1917 it was established that all cardinals, even cardinal deacons, had to be priests,[40] and, in 1962, Pope
Pope
John XXIII set the norm that all cardinals be ordained as bishops, even if they are only priests at the time of appointment.[41] As a consequence of these two changes, canon 351 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law requires that a cardinal be at least in the order of priesthood at his appointment, and that those who are not already bishops must receive episcopal consecration. Several cardinals aged over 80 or close to it when appointed have obtained dispensation from the rule of having to be a bishop.[g] These were all appointed cardinal-deacons, but Roberto Tucci
Roberto Tucci
and Albert Vanhoye
Albert Vanhoye
lived long enough to exercise the right of option and be promoted to the rank of cardinal-priest. A cardinal who is not a bishop is still entitled to wear and use the episcopal vestments and other pontificalia (episcopal regalia: mitre, crozier, zucchetto, pectoral cross and ring). Even if not a bishop, any cardinal has both actual and honorary precedence over non-cardinal patriarchs, as well as the archbishops and bishops who are not cardinals, but he cannot perform the functions reserved solely to bishops, such as ordination. The prominent priests who since 1962 were not ordained bishops on their elevation to the cardinalate were over the age of 80 or near to it, and so no cardinal who was not a bishop has participated in recent papal conclaves. "Lay cardinals"[edit] Main article: Lay cardinal At various times, there have been cardinals who had only received first tonsure and minor orders but not yet been ordained as deacons or priests. Though clerics, they were inaccurately called "lay cardinals". Teodolfo Mertel
Teodolfo Mertel
was among the last of the lay cardinals. When he died in 1899 he was the last surviving cardinal who was not at least ordained a priest. With the revision of the Code of Canon Law promulgated in 1917 by Pope
Pope
Benedict XV, only those who are already priests or bishops may be appointed cardinals.[42] Since the time of Pope
Pope
John XXIII a priest who is appointed a cardinal must be consecrated a bishop, unless he obtains a dispensation.[43] Cardinals in pectore or secret cardinals[edit] Main article: In pectore In addition to the named cardinals, the pope may name secret cardinals or cardinals in pectore ( Latin
Latin
for in the breast). During the Western Schism, many cardinals were created by the contending popes. Beginning with the reign of Pope
Pope
Martin V,[1] cardinals were created without publishing their names until later, termed creati et reservati in pectore.[44] A cardinal named in pectore is known only to the pope. In the modern era popes have named cardinals in pectore to protect them or their congregations from political reprisals. If conditions change, the pope makes the appointment public. The cardinal in question then ranks in precedence with those made cardinals at the time of his in pectore appointment. If a pope dies before revealing the identity of an in pectore cardinal, the person's status as cardinal expires. Of the 232 cardinals that Pope
Pope
John Paul II created, four were named in pectore.[45] Three were later identified as:

Ignatius Kung Pin-Mei, Bishop
Bishop
of Shanghai, People's Republic of China - made cardinal 1979, revealed 1991, died 2000. Marian Jaworski, Archbishop
Archbishop
of Lviv, Ukraine
Ukraine
- made cardinal 1998, revealed 2001. Jānis Pujāts, Archbishop
Archbishop
of Riga, Latvia
Latvia
- made cardinal 1998, revealed 2001. The fourth cardinal was created in 2003. John Paul II did not reveal this cardinal's identity prior to his death, nor in his will. Speculation centered on Joseph Zen
Joseph Zen
Ze-kiun, Archbishop
Archbishop
of Hong Kong, Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz, Archbishop
Archbishop
of Moscow, and Archbishop
Archbishop
Stanisław Dziwisz, John Paul's longtime friend and secretary.[46]

Vesture and privileges[edit] Main article: Pontifical vestments

Pontifical vestments

Cardinal Sarr with a ferraiolo, and wearing a red cassock, but not the rest of the choir dress.

Cardinals Walter Kasper
Walter Kasper
(left) and Godfried Danneels
Godfried Danneels
(right) wearing their choir dress: scarlet (red) cassock, white rochet trimmed with lace, scarlet mozetta, scarlet biretta (over the usual scarlet zucchetto), and pectoral cross on cord.

Cardinal Pell wearing the ordinary dress of a cardinal: black cassock with scarlet (red) piping and buttons, scarlet fascia (sash), pectoral cross on a chain, and a scarlet zucchetto.

Cardinal Bertone in dress for hot tropical countries (white cassock with scarlet piping and buttons).

When in choir dress, a Latin-rite cardinal wears scarlet garments — the blood-like red symbolizes a cardinal's willingness to die for his faith.[47][48] Excluding the rochet — which is always white — the scarlet garments include the cassock, mozzetta, and biretta (over the usual scarlet zucchetto). The biretta of a cardinal is distinctive not merely for its scarlet color, but also for the fact that it does not have a pompon or tassel on the top as do the birettas of other prelates. Until the 1460s, it was customary for cardinals to wear a violet or blue cape unless granted the privilege of wearing red when acting on papal business. His normal-wear cassock is black but has scarlet piping and a scarlet fascia (sash). Occasionally, a cardinal wears a scarlet ferraiolo which is a cape worn over the shoulders, tied at the neck in a bow by narrow strips of cloth in the front, without any 'trim' or piping on it.[49] It is because of the scarlet color of cardinals' vesture that the bird of the same name has become known as such.[citation needed] Eastern Catholic cardinals continue to wear the normal dress appropriate to their liturgical tradition, though some may line their cassocks with scarlet and wear scarlet fascias, or in some cases, wear Eastern-style cassocks entirely of scarlet.[50] In previous times, at the consistory at which the pope named a new cardinal, he would bestow upon him a distinctive wide-brimmed hat called a galero. This custom was discontinued in 1969[49] and the investiture now takes place with the scarlet biretta. In ecclesiastical heraldry, however, the scarlet galero is still displayed on the cardinal's coat of arms. Cardinals had the right to display the galero in their cathedral, and when a cardinal died, it would be suspended from the ceiling above his tomb. Some cardinals will still have a galero made, even though it is not officially part of their apparel.[citation needed] To symbolize their bond with the papacy, the pope gives each newly appointed cardinal a gold ring,[51] which is traditionally kissed by Catholics when greeting a cardinal (as with a bishop's episcopal ring). Before the new uniformity imposed by John Paul II, each cardinal was given a ring, the central piece of which was a gem, usually a sapphire, with the pope's stemma engraved on the inside.[52] There is now no gemstone, and the pope chooses the image on the outside: under Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI it was a modern depiction of the crucifixion of Jesus, with Mary and John to each side. The ring includes the pope's coat of arms on the inside.[53] Cardinals have in canon law a "privilege of forum" (i.e., exemption from being judged by ecclesiastical tribunals of ordinary rank): only the pope is competent to judge them in matters subject to ecclesiastical jurisdiction (cases that refer to matters that are spiritual or linked with the spiritual, or with regard to infringement of ecclesiastical laws and whatever contains an element of sin, where culpability must be determined and the appropriate ecclesiastical penalty imposed). The pope either decides the case himself or delegates the decision to a tribunal, usually one of the tribunals or congregations of the Roman Curia. Without such delegation, no ecclesiastical court, even the Roman Rota, is competent to judge a canon law case against a cardinal.[54] See also[edit]

Cardinal-Infante (other) Cardinal-nephew Cardinal protector Hierarchy of the Catholic Church Living cardinals List of the creations of the cardinals

Notes[edit]

^ The rule set out in Universi Dominici gregis
Universi Dominici gregis
is that "No Cardinal elector can be excluded from active or passive voice in the election of the Supreme Pontiff, for any reason or pretext." ^ They were formerly called illustrissimi and reverendissimi; but Pope Urban VIII (of the Barberini family), in 1630, established the above as their title of honour. Edward Wigglesworth, Thomas Gamaliel Bradford: Encyclopædia Americana: a popular dictionary of arts, sciences. Volume 4. Page 493. ^ As the exclusive electors of the pope (at least since 1179), cardinals were deemed to be the ecclesiastical equivalents of the Holy Roman Empire's 'Prince-Electors,' an extremely elite group with precedence over all other nobility (including archdukes, dukes and counts), who were tasked with the responsibility of electing Holy Roman Emperors.... A decree of 10 June 1630, by Urban VII bestowed the title "His Eminence", historically reserved for high nobility, upon the cardinals, thus elevating them above the 'His Excellency,' then being used to refer to Italian princes." Guruge, Anura. The Next Pope. Alton, New Hampshire. 2010. Page 81. ^ Authoritarian, keenly conscious of his position, Urban kept business in his own hands and rarely discussed it with his cardinals: to compensate them he gave them the rank of princes of the church and a right to the title of 'eminence' (June 1630). Oxford Dictionary of Popes: Urban VIII ^ "Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum; habemus Papam: Eminentissimum ac Reverendissimum Dominum, Dominum (first name) Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Cardinalem (last name), ..."[27] (Meaning: "I announce to you a great joy; we have a Pope: The Most Eminent and Most Reverend Lord, Lord (first name) Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church (last name), ...") ^ once he has been ordained to the episcopate[36] ^ Examples include Domenico Bartolucci, Karl Josef Becker, Yves Congar, Aloys Grillmeier, Henri de Lubac, Julien Ries, Leo Scheffczyk, Roberto Tucci
Roberto Tucci
and Albert Vanhoye.

References[edit]

^ a b c  Sägmüller, Johannes Baptist (1913). "Cardinal". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Catholic bishops and Pope
Pope
Pius IV
Pius IV
(11 November 1563). The Council of Trent. Tan Books and Publishers.  ^ a b Chadwick, Owen (1981). The Popes and European Revolution. Oxford University Press. p. 266. ISBN 9780198269199.  ^ Henry Kitchell Webster, Hutton Webster, Early European History, p. 604. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=rXSqwPFMn3oC. ^ Cortesi, Arnaldo (18 November 2017). "Two Americans among 23 New Cardinals". New York Times. Retrieved 25 October 2017.  ^ Cortesi, Arnoldo (16 December 1958). " Pope
Pope
Elevates 33 to Cardinalate; Deplores China Church Schism". New York Times. Retrieved 25 October 2017.  ^ Hoffman, Paul (24 November 1970). "Voting for Popes Is Barred to Cardinals Over 80". New York Times. Retrieved 30 October 2017.  ^ Reese, Thomas J. (1998). Inside the Vatican: The Politics and Organization of the Catholic Church. Harvard University Press. p. 101. ISBN 9780674418028.  ^ Are There Any Limitations on the Power of the Pope? Archived 14 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Mickens, Robert (24 April 2017). "Letter from Rome
Rome
The Next Stage of Francis's Mission". Commonwealth Magazine. Retrieved 9 July 2017.  ^ Stanley, Alexandra (22 February 2001). "Shaping a Legacy, Pope Installs 44 Cardinals". New York Times. Retrieved 1 September 2016.  ^ Allen Jr., John L. (2002). Conclave: The Politics, Personalities, and Process of the Next Papal Election. Random House. p. 107. ISBN 9780385504560. Most canon lawyers take the opinion that the pope, in appointing more electors than anticipated by Universi Dominici Gregis, made an exception to his own rules and hence all the cardinals under eighty, regardless of the limit of 120, are eligible to enter the conclave. (Canon lawyers ruefully joke that nobody violates canon law like a pope.) As a political matter, it seems probable that all cardinals under eighty will be admitted regardless of the wording of Universi Dominici Gregis because the task of trying to decide who cannot enter could paralyze the process indefinitely.  ^ "Pontiff Installs 27 New Cardinals". New York Times. 23 February 1965. Retrieved 26 October 2017.  ^ Pope
Pope
Paul VI (11 February 1965). "Ad purpuratorum Patrum". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved 3 December 2017. ] ^ a b Pope
Pope
Paul VI., Motuproprio "Ad Purpuratorum Patrum Collegium" (11 February 1965), par. II ^ Code of Canon law: 357-1 ^ Code of Canon law: 350 ^ Noonan, The Church Visible, p. 205 ^ "Catholic News Service" (PDF). www.catholicnews.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-12-12.  ^ Religion Stylebook: "Cardinals should be referred to conventionally, as in Cardinal Avery Dulles, not Avery Cardinal Dulles ^ "University of San Francisco Editorial Style Guide: "On first reference capitalize these titles before the individual's name: Cardinal Timothy Manning, archbishop of Los Angeles"" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 December 2014.  ^ "Associated Press Style Guide: "The preferred form for first reference is ... Cardinal Daniel DiNardo"" (PDF).  ^ "At first reference Cardinal John Doe. At subsequent references the cardinal or Doe" (Reuters Handbook of Journalism) ^ The websites of the Holy See
Holy See
(except for signatures), and of the Episcopal Conferences in the United States, England and Wales Archived 20 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine., Ireland Archived 24 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine. and the Australia Archived 20 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine. agree with the stylebooks. The Bishops' Conference of Scotland Archived 11 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine. uses both styles side by side. On diocesan sites, the "John Cardinal Doe" style is found on, for example, those of Boston, Chicago, Dublin, New York Archived 3 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine., Toronto, Washington Archived 1 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Galveston-Houston Archived 24 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine., Detroit, Durban Archived 19 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine., Colombo, Bombay, and the "Cardinal John Doe" on, for example, those of Armagh,Los Angeles Archived 29 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Philadelphia Archived 17 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine., St Andrews and Edinburgh Archived 7 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine., Wellington, Westminster. ^ cfr. Klaus Ganzer, Kardinäle als Kirchenfürsten?: Stimmen der Zeit 2011, Nr. 5, S. 313-323 ^ "Election - BENEDICT XVI". www.vatican.va.  ^ John P. Beal, New Commentary on the Code of Canon Law
Code of Canon Law
(Paulist Press 2000 ISBN 978-0-80910502-1), p. 468 ^ Umberto Benigni, "Ostia and Velletri" in Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
(New York 1911) ^ Pope
Pope
Pius X, motu proprio Edita a Nobis of 5 May 1914 in Acta Apostolicae Sedis VI (1914), p. 219-220 Archived 3 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "History of Papal Electoral Law". www.ewtn.com.  ^ Pope
Pope
John XXIII (9 April 1962). "Suburbicariis sedibus" (in Latin). Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved 2 November 2017.  ^ Pope
Pope
Paul VI (11 February 1965). "Ad Purpuratorum Patrum Collegium" (in Latin). Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved 3 December 2017.  ^ John Hardon, Modern Catholic Dictionary ^ a b Thomas J. Reese, Inside the Vatican: The Politics and Organization of the Catholic Church, Harvard University Press, 1996 p. 92-93 ^ Ap. Const. Universi Dominici Gregis, No. 89 ^ "Acting in the place of the Roman Pontiff, he also confers the pallium upon metropolitan bishops or gives the pallium to their proxies." Canon 355 §2 ^ Scaramuzzi, Jacopo (12 June 2014). "Martino diventa cardinale protodiacono (senza "Habemus Papam")". La Stampa (in Italian). Retrieved 23 January 2018.  ^ " Pastor
Pastor
Bonus, - John Paul II - Apostolic Constitution (June 28, 1988) - John Paul II". www.vatican.va.  ^ Canon 232 §1 of the 1917 Code of Canon Law ^ Motu proprio
Motu proprio
Cum gravissima, 15 April 1962 Archived 2 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ canon 232 §1 of the 1917 Code of Canon Law ^ Cf. canon 351 §1 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law ^ "Consistories of Martin V - 23 July 1423 (II), Note". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church.  ^ "His Holiness John Paul II Short Biography". Holy See
Holy See
Press Office. 30 June 2005. Archived from the original on 30 December 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2007.  ^ Boudreau, Richard (7 April 2005). "Mystery Cardinal Will Never Be Able to Join Peers". Los Angeles Times.  ^ The College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
- General Documentazion Archived 17 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Applause and tears in Basilica greet Pontiff (26 November 2007) Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 1 June 2008. Quote: "In a ceremony televised across the world cardinal-elect Sean Brady knelt before Pope Benedict XVI and pledged his allegiance to the Church before receiving his special red birretta — a symbol of a cardinal's dignity and willingness to shed blood for the increase of the Christian faith." ^ a b "Instruction on the dress, titles and coat-of-arms of cardinals, bishops and lesser prelates". L'Osservatore Romano, English ed. 17 April 1969: vol.4. Retrieved 1 September 2006.  ^ Photograph of Josyf Slipyj, Major Archbishop
Archbishop
of the Ukrainian Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Cardinal, wearing a galero on top of his red klobuk. Retrieved from http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/6322/78/1600/SlypyjGalero1.jpg. ^ Paulson, Michael (25 March 2006). "Bling! examination of the ring of Cardinal O'Malley". Boston Globe. Retrieved 8 September 2010.  ^ John Abel Nainfa (1909). Costume of Prelates
Prelates
of the Catholic Church: According to Roman Etiquette. Baltimore-New York: John Murphy Company. p. 107. . The new cardinal had to pay for the ring, in exchange for which he received the right to make his own Last Will and Testament. ^ "Elevated cardinals receive gold ring from the pope during Mass of Rings". www.fogcityjournal.com. Retrieved 2018-02-20.  ^ Canon 1405 §1 and canon 1406 §2 Archived 22 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine.

Bibliography[edit]

Kuttner, Steven (1945). "Cardinalis: The History of a Canonical Concept". Traditio. 3: 129–214. JSTOR 27830076. (Registration required (help)).   Battandier, Albert (1913). "Ecclesiastical Addresses". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  Noonan, Jr., James-Charles (1996). The Church Visible: The Ceremonial Life and Protocol of the Roman Catholic Church. Viking. ISBN 0-670-86745-4.   Sägmüller, Johannes Baptist (1913). "Cardinal". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.   Boudinhon, Auguste (1911). "Cardinal". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cardinals’ coat of arms.

Salvador Miranda. The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. A digital resource consisting of the biographical entries of the cardinals from 494 to 2014 and of the events and documents concerning the origin of the Roman cardinalate and its historical evolution Next Cardinal Creating Consistory by Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI -- The Required Background Data (including statistical data and links). Popes and the Papacy
Papacy
website (Anura Guruge). Retrieved 2010-09-08. GCatholic on all Cardinals

List of All Cardinals By Precedence by GCatholic List of all Cardinal Titular Churches by GCatholic List of all Cardinal Deaconries by GCatholic

Catholic-pages List of Cardinals Thomas J. Reese, Inside the Vatican: The Politics and Organization of the Catholic Church, Harvard University Press, 1996 [1] Cardinal Rating a website listing the day to day statements printed in the news by current cardinals

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