1 Process 2 Effects on caramelization 3 Uses in food 4 See also 5 References 6 External links
equilibration of anomeric and ring forms sucrose inversion to fructose and glucose condensation reactions intramolecular bonding isomerization of aldoses to ketoses dehydration reactions fragmentation reactions unsaturated polymer formation.
Effects on caramelization The process is temperature-dependent. Specific sugars each have their own point at which the reactions begin to proceed readily. Impurities in the sugar, such as the molasses remaining in brown sugar, greatly speed the reactions.
Fructose 110 °C, 230 °F
Galactose 160 °C, 320 °F
Glucose 160 °C, 320 °F
Sucrose 160 °C, 320 °F
Maltose 180 °C, 356 °F
The caramelization reactions are also sensitive to the chemical
environment. By controlling the level of acidity (pH), the reaction
rate (or the temperature at which the reaction occurs readily) can be
altered. The rate of caramelization is generally lowest at
near-neutral acidity (pH around 7), and accelerated under both acidic
(especially pH below 3) and basic (especially pH above 9)
Uses in food
Note that the preparation of many "caramelized" foods also involves the Maillard reaction; particularly recipes involving protein and/or amino acid -rich ingredients. See also Media related to caramelization at Wikimedia Commons
^ Miller, Dennis (1998). Food Chemistry: A Laboratory Manual. Wiley-Interscience. ISBN 978-0471175438. ^ Food-Info on caramelization ^ Villamiel, M.; del Castillo, M. D.; Corzo, N. (2006). "4. Browning Reactions". In Hui, Y. H.; Nip, W-.K.; Nollet. L. M. L.; Paliyath, G.; Simpson, B. K. Food biochemistry and food processing. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 83–85. ISBN 978-0-8138-0378-4. ^ Scocca, Tom. Layers of Deceit: Why do recipe writers lie and lie and lie about how long it takes to caramelize onions? Slate.com, May 2, 2012. ^ Child, Julia. "French Onion Soup". Archived from the original on 2012-05-02. Retrieved 2017-03-08. ^ "Caramelizing Pears Stemilt". Stemilt. 2016-10-10. Retrieved 2016-10-27.
Look up caramelization in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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