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Caracalla
Caracalla
(/ˌkærəˈkælə/; Latin: Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
Severus Antoninus Augustus;[1] 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus, was a Roman emperor
Roman emperor
from AD 198 to 217. A member of the Severan Dynasty, he was the eldest son of Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
and Julia Domna. Caracalla
Caracalla
reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus' death in 211. Caracalla
Caracalla
then ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta, with whom he had a fraught relationship, until he had Geta murdered later that year. Caracalla's reign was marked by domestic instability and external invasions from the Germanic people. Caracalla's reign was notable for the Antonine Constitution (Latin: Constitutio Antoniniana), also known as the Edict of Caracalla, which granted Roman citizenship
Roman citizenship
to nearly all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. The edict gave all the enfranchised men Caracalla's adopted praenomen and nomen: "Marcus Aurelius". Domestically, Caracalla
Caracalla
was known for the construction of the Baths of Caracalla, which became the second-largest baths in Rome; for the introduction of a new Roman currency named the antoninianus, a sort of double denarius; and for the massacres he enacted against the people of Rome
Rome
and elsewhere in the empire. Towards the end of his rule, Caracalla
Caracalla
began a campaign against the Parthian Empire. He did not see this campaign through to completion due to his assassination by a disaffected soldier in 217. He was succeeded as emperor by Macrinus
Macrinus
after three days. Caracalla
Caracalla
is presented in ancient sources as a tyrant and cruel leader, an image that has survived into modernity. Dio Cassius and Herodian present Caracalla
Caracalla
as a soldier first and emperor second. In the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth started the legend of Caracalla's role as the king of Britain. Later, in the 18th century, Caracalla's memory was revived in the works of French artists due to the parallels between Caracalla's apparent tyranny and that of King Louis XVI. Modern works continue to portray Caracalla
Caracalla
as a psychopathic and evil ruler. His rule is remembered as being one of the most tyrannical of all Roman emperors.

Contents

1 Names 2 Life

2.1 Early life 2.2 Reign

2.2.1 Brother's murder 2.2.2 Provincial tours 2.2.3 Julia Domna 2.2.4 Army policy 2.2.5 Baths 2.2.6 Caracalla
Caracalla
and Serapis 2.2.7 Constitutio Antoniniana 2.2.8 Monetary policy 2.2.9 Parthian war

2.3 Death

3 Portraiture 4 Legacy

4.1 Damnatio memoriae 4.2 Classical portrayal 4.3 Medieval legends 4.4 Eighteenth-century artworks and the French Revolution 4.5 Modern portrayal

5 Severan family tree 6 See also 7 References

7.1 Footnotes 7.2 Citations 7.3 Sources

8 External links

Names[edit] Caracalla
Caracalla
was born Lucius Septimius Bassianus. He was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus at the age of seven as part of his father's attempt at union with the families of Antoninus Pius
Antoninus Pius
and Marcus Aurelius.[2][3] According to Aurelius Victor in his Epitome de Caesaribus, he became known by the agnomen "Caracalla" after a Gallic hooded tunic that he habitually wore and made fashionable.[1] He may have begun wearing it during his campaigns on the Rhine and Danube.[4] Dio generally referred to him as Tarautas, after a famously diminutive and violent gladiator of the time.[5]

Life[edit] Early life[edit] Caracalla
Caracalla
was born in Lugdunum, Gaul
Gaul
(now Lyon, France), on 4 April 188 to Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
and Julia Domna. He had a slightly younger brother, Geta, who would briefly rule as co-emperor alongside him.[2][6] Caracalla's father, Septimius Severus, appointed Caracalla
Caracalla
joint Augustus
Augustus
and full emperor from the year 198 onwards.[7] His brother Geta was granted the same title in 210.[8] In 202 Caracalla
Caracalla
was forced to marry the daughter of Gaius Fulvius Plautianus, Fulvia Plautilla, a woman whom he hated, though for what reason is unknown.[9] By 205 Caracalla
Caracalla
had succeeded in having Plautianus executed for treason, though he had probably fabricated the evidence of the plot himself.[9] It was then that he banished his wife, whose later killing might have been carried out under Caracalla's orders.[2][9] Reign[edit] Brother's murder[edit] Caracalla's father, Septimius Severus, died on 4 February 211 at Eboracum
Eboracum
(present day York) while on campaign in Caledonia, north of the Roman Britannia.[10] Caracalla
Caracalla
and his brother, Geta, jointly inherited the throne upon their father's death.[8][10] Caracalla
Caracalla
and Geta ended the campaign in Caledonia after concluding a peace with the Caledonians
Caledonians
that returned the border of Roman Britain to the line demarcated by Hadrian's Wall.[8][11] During the journey back to Rome with their father's ashes, Caracalla
Caracalla
and his brother continuously argued with one another, making relations between them increasingly hostile.[8][11] Caracalla
Caracalla
and Geta considered dividing the empire in half along the Bosphorus
Bosphorus
to make their co-rule less hostile. Caracalla was to rule in the west and Geta was to rule in the east. They were persuaded not to do this by their mother.[11] On 26 December 211, at a reconciliation meeting arranged by their mother, Caracalla
Caracalla
had Geta assassinated by members of the Praetorian Guard loyal to himself, Geta dying in his mother's arms.[10] Caracalla then persecuted and executed most of Geta's supporters and ordered a damnatio memoriae pronounced by the Senate against his brother's memory.[1][12] Geta's image was removed from all paintings, coins were melted down, statues were destroyed, his name was struck from papyrus records, and it became a capital offence to speak or write Geta's name.[13] In the aftermath of the damnatio memoriae, an estimated 20,000 people were massacred.[12][13] Those killed were Geta's inner circle of guards and advisers, friends, and other military staff under his employ.[12] Provincial tours[edit]

The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
during the reign of Caracalla

In 213, about a year after Geta's death, Caracalla
Caracalla
left Rome
Rome
never to return.[14] He went north to the German frontier to deal with the Alamanni, a confederation of Germanic tribes who had broken through the limes in Raetia.[14][15] During the campaign of 213–214, Caracalla
Caracalla
successfully defeated some of the Germanic tribes while settling other difficulties through diplomacy, though precisely with whom these treaties were made remains unknown.[15][16] While there, Caracalla
Caracalla
strengthened the frontier fortifications of Raetia
Raetia
and Germania Superior, collectively known as the Agri Decumates, so that it was able to withstand any further barbarian invasions for another twenty years. Historian Edward Gibbon
Edward Gibbon
compares Caracalla
Caracalla
to emperors such as Hadrian
Hadrian
who spent their careers campaigning in the provinces and then to tyrants such as Nero
Nero
and Domitian
Domitian
whose entire reigns were confined to Rome
Rome
and whose actions only impacted upon the senatorial and equestrian classes residing there. Gibbon then concludes that Caracalla
Caracalla
was "the common enemy of mankind", as both Romans and provincials alike were subject to "his rapine and cruelty".[14] After Caracalla
Caracalla
concluded his campaign against the Alamanni, it became evident that he was inordinately preoccupied with the Greek-Macedonian general and conqueror Alexander the Great.[4][17] He began openly mimicking Alexander in his personal style. In planning his invasion of the Parthian Empire, Caracalla
Caracalla
decided to arrange 16,000 of his men in Macedonian-style phalanxes, despite the Roman army having made the phalanx an obsolete tactical formation.[4][17][18] The historian Christopher Matthew mentions that the term Phalangarii has two possible meanings, both with military connotations. The first refers merely to the Roman battle line and does not specifically mean that the men were armed with pikes, and the second bears similarity to the 'Marian Mules' of the late Roman Republic
Roman Republic
who carried their equipment suspended from a long pole, which were in use until at least the 2nd century AD.[18] As a consequence, the Phalangarii of Legio II Parthica may not have been pikemen, but rather standard battle line troops or possibly Triarii.[18] Caracalla's mania for Alexander went so far that Caracalla
Caracalla
visited Alexandria while preparing for his Persian invasion and persecuted philosophers of the Aristotelian school based on a legend that Aristotle had poisoned Alexander. This was a sign of Caracalla's increasingly erratic behaviour. But this mania for Alexander, strange as it was, was overshadowed by subsequent events in Alexandria.[17] When the inhabitants of Alexandria heard of Caracalla's claims that he had killed his brother Geta in self-defence, they produced a satire mocking this as well as Caracalla's other pretensions.[19][20] In 215 Caracalla
Caracalla
travelled to Alexandria and responded to this insult by slaughtering the deputation of leading citizens who had unsuspectingly assembled before the city to greet his arrival, before setting his troops against Alexandria for several days of looting and plunder.[14][21] Following the massacre at Alexandria, Caracalla
Caracalla
moved east onto Armenia. By 216 he had pushed through Armenia and south into Parthia.[22] Julia Domna[edit]

Relief (c. 212–15) with Caracalla
Caracalla
(left) and Julia Domna as Victoria.

During the reign of Septimius Severus, Julia Domna had played a prominent public role, receiving titles of honor such as "Mother of the camp", but she also played a role behind the scenes helping Septimius administer the empire.[23] Described as ambitious,[24] Julia Domna surrounded herself with thinkers and writers from all over the empire.[25] While Caracalla
Caracalla
was mustering and training troops for his planned Persian invasion, Julia remained in Rome, administering the empire. Julia's growing influence in state affairs was the beginning of a trend of emperors' mothers having influence, which continued throughout the Severan dynasty.[26] When Geta died in 211, her responsibilities increased because Caracalla
Caracalla
found administrative tasks to be mundane.[23] She may have taken upon one of the more important civil functions of the emperor; receiving petitions and answering correspondence.[27] The extent of her role in this position, however, is probably overstated. She may have represented her son and played a role in meetings and answering queries; however, the final authority on legal matters was Caracalla.[27] When Caracalla
Caracalla
was murdered, Julia was in Antioch sorting out correspondence, removing unimportant messages from the bunch so that when Caracalla
Caracalla
returned, he would not be overburdened with duties.[23] The emperor filled all of the roles in the legal system as judge, legislator, and administrator.[27] Army policy[edit] During his reign as emperor, Caracalla
Caracalla
raised the annual pay of an average legionary from 2000 sesterces (500 denarii) to 2700–3000 sesterces (675–750 denarii). He lavished many benefits on the army, which he both feared and admired, in accordance with the advice given by his father on his deathbed always to heed the welfare of the soldiers and ignore everyone else.[8][15] Caracalla
Caracalla
needed to gain and keep the trust of the military, and he did so with generous pay raises and popular gestures.[28] He spent much of his time with the soldiers, so much so that he began to imitate their dress and adopt their manners.[1][29][30] Baths[edit]

The Baths of Caracalla

Main article: Baths of Caracalla Construction on the Baths of Caracalla
Baths of Caracalla
began in 211 at the start of Caracalla's rule. The baths are named for Caracalla, though it is most probable that his father was responsible for their planning. In 216 a partial inauguration of the baths took place, but the outer perimeter of the baths was not completed until the reign of Severus Alexander.[31] These large baths were typical of the Roman practice of building complexes for social and state activities in large densely populated cities.[31] The baths covered around 50 acres (or 202,000 square meters) of land and could accommodate around 1,600 bathers at any one time.[31] They were the second largest public baths built in ancient Rome
Rome
and were complete with swimming pools, exercise yards, a stadium, steam rooms, libraries, meeting rooms, fountains, and other amenities, all of which were enclosed within formal gardens.[31][32] The interior spaces were decorated with colourful marble floors, columns, mosaics, and colossal statuary.[33] Caracalla
Caracalla
and Serapis[edit] At the outset of his reign, Caracalla
Caracalla
declared divine support for Egyptian deity Serapis – a god of healing. The Iseum et Serapeum in Alexandria was apparently renovated during Caracalla's co-rule with his father Septimius Severus. The evidence for this exists in two inscriptions found near the temple that appear to bear their names. Additional archaeological evidence exists for this in the form of two papyrii that have been dated to the Severan period and also two statues associated with the temple that have been dated to around 200 AD. Upon Caracalla's ascension to sole ruler in 212, the imperial mint began striking coins bearing Serapis' image. This was a reflection of the god's central role during Caracalla's reign. After Geta's death, the weapon that had killed him was dedicated to Serapis
Serapis
by Caracalla. This was most likely done to cast Serapis
Serapis
into the role of Caracalla's protector from treachery.[34] Caracalla
Caracalla
also erected a temple on the Quirinal Hill
Quirinal Hill
in 212, which he dedicated to Serapis.[21] A fragmented inscription found in the church of Sant' Agata dei Goti in Rome
Rome
records the construction, or possibly restoration, of a temple dedicated to the god Serapis. The inscription bears the name " Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
Antoninus", a reference to either Caracalla
Caracalla
or Elagabalus, but more likely to Caracalla
Caracalla
due to his known strong association with the god. Two other inscriptions dedicated to Serapis, as well as a granite crocodile similar to one discovered at the Iseum et Serapeum, were also found in the area around the Quirinal Hill.[35] Constitutio Antoniniana[edit] Main article: Constitutio Antoniniana The Constitutio Antoniniana (lit. "Constitution of Antoninus", also called "Edict of Caracalla" or "Antonine Constitution") was an edict issued in 212 by Caracalla
Caracalla
declaring that all free men in the Roman Empire were to be given full Roman citizenship,[36] with the exception of the dediticii, people who had become subject to Rome
Rome
through surrender in war, and certain freed slaves.[37][38] Whether the dediticii were excepted from the decree is a matter of debate.[39][40] Before 212 the majority of Roman citizens had been inhabitants of Roman Italia, with about 4–7% of all peoples in the Roman empire being Roman citizens at the time of the death of Augustus
Augustus
in 14 AD. Outside Rome, citizenship was restricted to Roman coloniae[a] – Romans, or their descendants, living in the provinces, the inhabitants of various cities throughout the Empire – and small numbers of local nobles such as kings of client countries. Provincials, on the other hand, were usually non-citizens, although some Magistrates and their families and relatives held the Latin Right.[b][44] Dio maintains that one purpose for Caracalla
Caracalla
issuing the edict was the desire to increase state revenue; at the time, Rome
Rome
was in a difficult financial situation and needed to pay for the new pay raises and benefits that were being conferred on the military.[45] The edict widened the obligation for public service and gave increased revenue through the inheritance and emancipation taxes that only had to be paid by Roman citizens.[14] The provincials also benefited from this edict because they were now able to think of themselves as equal partners to the Romans in the empire.[14] However, few of those that gained citizenship were wealthy, and while it is true that Rome
Rome
was in a difficult financial situation, it is thought that this could not have been the sole purpose of the edict.[45] Another purpose for issuing the edict, as described within the papyrus upon which part of the edict was inscribed, was to appease the gods who had delivered Caracalla
Caracalla
from conspiracy.[46] The conspiracy in question was in response to Caracalla's murder of Geta and the subsequent slaughter of his followers; fratricide would only have been condoned if his brother had been a tyrant.[47] The damnatio memoriae against Geta and the large payments Caracalla
Caracalla
had made to his own supporters were designed to protect himself from possible repercussions. After this had succeeded, Caracalla
Caracalla
felt the need to repay the gods of Rome
Rome
by returning the favour to the people of Rome through a similarly grand gesture. This was done through the granting of citizenship.[47][48] Another purpose for issuing the edict might have been related to the fact that the periphery of the empire was now becoming central to its existence, and the granting of citizenship may have been simply a logical outcome of Rome's continued expansion of citizenship rights.[48][49] Monetary policy[edit]

O: laureate head of Caracalla ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM

R: Sol holding globe, rising hand P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P

silver denarius struck in Rome
Rome
216 AD; ref.: RIC 281b, C 359

The expenditures that Caracalla
Caracalla
made with the large bonuses he gave to soldiers prompted him to debase the coinage soon after his ascension.[1] At the end of Severus' reign, and early into Caracalla's, the Roman denarius had an approximate silver purity of around 55%, but by the end of his reign the purity had been reduced to about 51%.[50][51] In 215 Caracalla
Caracalla
introduced the antoninianus, a coin intended to serve as a double denarius.[52] This new currency, however, had a silver purity of about 52% for the period between 215 and 217 and an actual size ratio of 1 antoninianus to 1.5 denarii. This in effect made the antoninianus equal to about 1.5 denarii.[53][54][55] The reduced silver purity of the coins caused people to hoard the old coins that had higher silver content, making the inflation problem caused by the earlier devaluation of the denarii worse than it had been before.[52][53] Parthian war[edit] In 216 Caracalla
Caracalla
pursued a series of aggressive campaigns in the east against the Parthians, intended to bring more territory under direct Roman control. He offered the king of Parthia, Artabanus V of Parthia, a marriage proposal between himself and the king's daughter.[4][56] Artabanus refused the offer, realizing that the proposal was merely an attempt to unite the kingdom of Parthia
Parthia
under the control of Rome.[56] In response, Caracalla
Caracalla
used the opportunity to start a campaign against the Parthians. That summer Caracalla
Caracalla
began to attack the countryside east of the Tigris in the Parthian war of Caracalla.[56] In the following winter, Caracalla
Caracalla
retired to Edessa, modern Şanlıurfa
Şanlıurfa
in south-east Turkey, and began making preparations to renew the campaign by spring.[56] Death[edit] At the beginning of 217, Caracalla
Caracalla
was at Edessa with a large army preparing to start a new invasion of Parthia.[4] On 8 April 217 Caracalla
Caracalla
was travelling to visit a temple near Carrhae, now Harran
Harran
in southern Turkey, where in 53 BC the Romans had suffered a defeat at the hands of the Parthians.[4] After stopping briefly to urinate, Caracalla
Caracalla
was approached by a soldier, Justin Martialis, and stabbed to death.[4] Martialis had been incensed by Caracalla's refusal to grant him the position of centurion, and the Praetorian Guard
Praetorian Guard
Prefect Macrinus, Caracalla's successor, saw the opportunity to use Martialis to end Caracalla's reign.[56] In the immediate aftermath of Caracalla's death, his murderer, Martialis, was killed as well.[4] Three days later, Macrinus
Macrinus
declared himself emperor with the support of the Roman army.[57][58] Portraiture[edit]

This medallion exemplifies the typical manner in which Caracalla
Caracalla
was depicted. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.

Caracalla's official portrayal as sole emperor marks a break from the detached images of the philosopher-emperors who preceded him: his close-cropped haircut is that of a soldier, his pugnacious scowl a realistic and threatening presence. This rugged soldier-emperor, an iconic archetype, was adopted by most of the following emperors, such as Maximinus Thrax, who were dependent on the support of the troops to rule the empire.[59][60] Herodian describes Caracalla
Caracalla
as having preferred northern European clothing, Caracalla
Caracalla
being the name of the short Gaulish cloak that he made fashionable, and he often wore a blond wig.[61] Dio mentions that when Caracalla
Caracalla
was a boy, he had a tendency to show an angry or even savage facial expression.[62] The way Caracalla
Caracalla
wanted to be portrayed to his people can be seen through the many surviving busts and coins. Images of the young Caracalla
Caracalla
cannot be clearly distinguished from his younger brother Geta.[63] On the coins, Caracalla
Caracalla
was shown with laureate after becoming Augustus
Augustus
in 197 while Geta is bareheaded until he himself became Augustus
Augustus
in 209.[64] Between 209 and their father's death in February 211, both brothers are shown as mature young men who were ready to take over the empire. Between the death of the father and the assassination of Geta towards the end of 211, Caracalla's portrait remains static with a short full beard while Geta develops a long beard with hair strains like his father. The latter was a strong indicator of Geta's effort to be seen as the true successor to their father, an effort that came to naught when he was murdered.[64] Caracalla's presentation on coins during the period of his co-reign with his father, from 198 to 210, are in broad terms in line with the third-century imperial representation; most coin types communicate military and religious messages, with other coins giving messages of saeculum aureum and virtues.[65] During Caracalla's sole reign, from 212 to 217, a significant shift in representation took place. The majority of coins produced during this period made associations with divinity or had religious messages; others had non-specific and unique messages that were only circulated during Caracalla's sole rule.[66] Legacy[edit] Damnatio memoriae[edit] Caracalla
Caracalla
was not subject to a proper damnatio memoriae after his assassination; while the Senate disliked him, his popularity with the military prevented Macrinus
Macrinus
and the Senate from openly declaring him to be a hostis. Macrinus, in an effort to placate the Senate, instead ordered the secret removal of statues of Caracalla
Caracalla
from public view. After his death, the public made comparisons between him and other condemned emperors and called for the horse race celebrating his birthday to be abolished and for gold and silver statues dedicated to him to be melted down. These events were, however, limited in scope; most erasures of his name from inscriptions were either accidental or occurred as a result of re-use. Macrinus
Macrinus
had Caracalla
Caracalla
deified and commemorated on coins as Divus Antoninus. There does not appear to have been any intentional mutilation of Caracalla
Caracalla
in any images that were created during his reign as sole emperor.[67] Classical portrayal[edit] Caracalla
Caracalla
is presented in the ancient sources of Dio, Herodian, and the Historia Augusta as a cruel tyrant and savage ruler.[68] This portrayal of Caracalla
Caracalla
is only further supported by the murder of his brother Geta and the subsequent massacre of Geta's supporters that Caracalla
Caracalla
ordered.[68] Alongside this, these contemporary sources present Caracalla
Caracalla
as a "soldier-emperor" for his preference of the soldiery over the senators, a depiction that made him even less popular with the senatorial biographers.[68] Dio explicitly presented Caracalla
Caracalla
as an emperor who marched with the soldiers and behaved like a soldier. Dio also often referred to Caracalla's large military expenditures and the subsequent financial problems this caused.[68] These traits dominate Caracalla's image in the surviving classical literature.[69] The Baths of Caracalla
Baths of Caracalla
are presented in classical literature as unprecedented in scale, and impossible to build if not for the use of reinforced concrete.[70] The Edict of Caracalla, issued in 212, however, goes almost unnoticed in classical records.[69] The Historia Augusta is considered by historians as the least trustworthy for all accounts of events, historiography, and biographies among the ancient works and is full of fabricated materials and sources.[71][72][73][74][75] The works of Herodian of Antioch are, by comparison, "far less fantastic" than the stories presented by the Historia Augusta.[71] Historian Andrew G. Scott suggests that Dio's work is frequently considered the best source for this period.[76] However, Doctor and Professor Clare Rowan questions Dio's accuracy on the topic of Caracalla, referring to the work as having presented a hostile attitude towards Caracalla
Caracalla
and thus needing to be treated with caution.[77] An example of this hostility is found in one section where Dio notes that Caracalla
Caracalla
is descended from three different races and that he managed to combine all of their faults into one person: the fickleness, cowardice, and recklessness of the Gallic, the cruelty and harshness of the Africans, and the craftiness that is associated with the Syrians.[77] Despite this, the outline of events as presented by Dio are described by Rowan as generally accurate, while the motivations that Dio suggests are of questionable origin.[77] An example of this is his presentation of the Edict of Caracalla; the motive that Dio appends to this event is Caracalla's desire to increase tax revenue. Doctors Olivier Hekster, Nicholas Zair, and Rowan challenge this presentation because the majority of people who were enfranchised by the edict would have been poor.[45][77] In her work, Rowan also describes Herodian's depiction of Caracalla: more akin to a soldier than an emperor.[78] Medieval legends[edit] Geoffrey of Monmouth's pseudohistorical History of the Kings of Britain makes Caracalla
Caracalla
a king of Britain, referring to him by his actual name "Bassianus", rather than by the nickname Caracalla. In the story, after Severus' death the Romans wanted to make Geta king of Britain, but the Britons preferred Bassianus because he had a British mother. The two brothers fought until Geta was killed and Bassianus succeeded to the throne, after which he ruled until he was overthrown and killed by Carausius. However, Carausius' revolt actually happened about seventy years after Caracalla's death in 217.[79] Eighteenth-century artworks and the French Revolution[edit] Caracalla's memory was revived in the art of late eighteenth-century French painters. His tyrannical career became the subject of the work of several French painters such as Greuze, Julien de Parme, David, Bonvoisin, J.A.C. Pajou, and Lethière. Their fascination with Caracalla
Caracalla
was a reflection of the growing discontent of the French people with the French monarchy. Caracalla's visibility was influenced by the existence of several literary sources in French that included both translations of ancient works and contemporary works of the time. Caracalla's likeness was readily available to the painters due to the distinct style of his portraiture and his unusual soldier-like choice of fashion that distinguished him from other emperors. The artworks may have served as a warning that absolute monarchy could become the horror of tyranny and that disaster could come about if the regime failed to reform. Art historian Susan Wood suggests that this reform was for the absolute monarchy to become a constitutional monarchy, as per the original goal of revolution, rather than the republic that it eventually became. Wood also notes the similarity between Caracalla and his crimes leading to his assassination and the eventual uprising against, and death of, King Louis XVI: both rulers had died as a result of their apparent tyranny.[80] Modern portrayal[edit] Caracalla
Caracalla
has had a reputation as being among the worst of Roman emperors, a perception that survives even into modern works.[81] The art and linguistics historian John Agnew and the writer Walter Bidwell describe Caracalla
Caracalla
as having an evil spirit, referring to the devastation he wrought in Alexandria.[82] The Roman historian David Magie describes Caracalla, in the book Roman Rule in Asia Minor, as brutal and tyrannical and points towards psychopathy as an explanation for his behaviour.[83][84] Gibbon, author of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, takes Caracalla's reputation, which he had received for the murder of Geta and subsequent massacre of Geta's supporters, and applies it to Caracalla's provincial tours, suggesting that "every province was by turn the scene of his rapine and cruelty".[81] The historian Clifford Ando supports this description, suggesting that Caracalla's rule as sole emperor is notable "almost exclusively" for his crimes of theft, massacre, and mismanagement.[85] By contrast, this representation is questioned by the historian Shamus Sillar, who cites the construction of roads and reinforcement of fortifications in the western provinces, among other things, as being contradictory to the representation made by Gibbon of cruelty and destruction.[86] The history professors Molefi Asante and Shaza Ismail note that Caracalla
Caracalla
is known for the disgraceful nature of his rule, stating that "he rode the horse of power until it nearly died of exhaustion" and that though his rule was short, his life, personality, and acts made him a notable, though likely not beneficial, figure in the Roman Empire.[87] Severan family tree[edit]

v t e

Severan family tree

Septimius Macer

Gaius Claudius
Claudius
Septimius Aper

Lucius Septimius Severus

Publius Septimius Aper

Gaius Septimius Aper

Fulvia Pia

Publius Septimius Geta

Polla

Julius Bassianus

Publius Septimius Geta

Septimia Octavilla

Paccia Marciana (1)

Septimius Severus r. (193–211)[i]

Julia Domna (2)

Julia Maesa

Julius Avitus

Fulvia Plautilla

Caracalla r. (197–217)[ii]

Geta r. (209–211)[iii]

Julia Soaemias

Sextus Varius Marcellus

Julia Mamaea

Gessius Marcianus[iv] (2)

Julia Cornelia Paula
Julia Cornelia Paula
(1)

Aquilia Severa
Aquilia Severa
(2 and 4)

Elagabalus r. (218–222)[v]

Annia Faustina
Annia Faustina
(3)

Sallustia Orbiana

Severus Alexander r. (222–235)[vi]

(1) = 1st spouse (2) = 2nd spouse (3) = 3rd spouse (4) = 4th spouse Dark green indicates an emperor of the Severan dynasty

Notes: Except where otherwise noted, the notes below indicate that an individual's parentage is as shown in the above family tree.

^ Birley, Anthony R. (1999). Septimius Severus: The African Emperor. London: Routledge. p. i.  ^ Burrell, Barbara (2004). Neokoroi: Greek Cities and Roman Emperors. p. 216.  ^ Burrell, Barbara (2004). Neokoroi: Greek Cities and Roman Emperors. p. 247.  ^ Birley, Anthony R. (1999). Septimius Severus: The African Emperor. London: Routledge. p. 217.  ^ Gibbon, Edward; Smith, William (1889). The Student's Gibbon: The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. p. 45.  ^ Gibbon, Edward; Smith, William (1889). The Student's Gibbon: The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. p. 47. 

Bibliography:

Birley, Anthony R. (1999). Septimius Severus: The African Emperor. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415165911.  Gibbon, Edward; Smith, William (1889). The Student's Gibbon: The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. 

See also[edit]

Severan dynasty
Severan dynasty
family tree Septimia (gens)

References[edit] Footnotes[edit]

^ Coloniae are cities of Roman citizens built in conquered provinces. Non-Romans living in a colonia were allowed to become citizens when they accepted the rule of Rome.[41] ^ The Latin Rights or ius Latii were an intermediate or probationary stage for non-Roman's obtaining full Roman citizenship. Aside from the right to vote, and ability to pursue a political office, the Latin Rights were just a limited Roman citizenship.[42][43]

Citations[edit]

^ a b c d e Dunstan, William, E. (2011). Ancient Rome. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. pp. 405–406. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7.  ^ a b c Gagarin, Michael (2009). Ancient Greece and Rome. Oxford University Press. p. 51.  ^ Tabbernee, William; Lampe, Peter (2008). Pepouza and Tymion: The Discovery and Archaeological Exploration of a Lost Ancient City and an Imperial Estate. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-020859-8.  ^ a b c d e f g h Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). How Rome
Rome
Fell: death of a superpower. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-300-16426-8.  ^ Phang, Sara (2008). Roman Military Service: Ideologies of Discipline in the Late Republic
Republic
and Early Principate. Cambridge University Press. p. 188. ISBN 0-521-88269-9.  ^ Dunstan, William, E. (2011). Ancient Rome. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. p. 399. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7.  ^ Grant, Michael (1996). The Severans: the Changed Roman Empire. Psychology Press. p. 19.  ^ a b c d e Dunstan, William, E. (2011). Ancient Rome. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. p. 405. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7.  ^ a b c Dunstan, William, E. (2011). Ancient Rome. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. p. 402. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7.  ^ a b c Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). How Rome
Rome
Fell: death of a superpower. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-0-300-16426-8.  ^ a b c Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). How Rome
Rome
Fell: death of a superpower. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-300-16426-8.  ^ a b c Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). How Rome
Rome
Fell: death of a superpower. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 70–71. ISBN 978-0-300-16426-8.  ^ a b Varner, Eric, R. (2004). Mutilation and transformation: damnatio memoriae and Roman imperial portraiture. Brill Academic. p. 168. ISBN 90-04-13577-4.  ^ a b c d e f Dunstan, William, E. (2011). Ancient Rome. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7.  ^ a b c Boatwright, Mary Taliaferro; Gargola, Daniel J; Talbert, Richard J. A. (2004). The Romans, from village to empire. Oxford University Press. p. 413. ISBN 0-19-511875-8.  ^ Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. p. 25. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.  ^ a b c Brauer, G. (1967). The Decadent Emperors: Power and Depravity in Third-Century Rome. p. 75.  ^ a b c Christopher, Matthew (2015). An Invincible Beast: Understanding the Hellenistic Pike Phalanx in Action. Casemate Publishers. p. 403.  ^ Morgan, Robert (2016). History of the Coptic Orthodox People and the Church of Egypt. FriesenPress. p. 31. ISBN 1-4602-8027-X.  ^ Fisher, Warren (2010). The Illustrated History of the Roman Empire: From Caesar's Crossing the Rhine (49 Bc) to Empire's Fall, 476 Ad. AuthorHouse. p. 86. ISBN 1-4490-7739-0.  ^ a b Melton, Gordon, J. (2014). Faiths Across Time: 5000 Years of Religious History. p. 338.  ^ Boatwright, Mary Taliaferro; Gargola, Daniel J; Talbert, Richard J. A. (2004). The Romans, from village to empire. Oxford University Press. pp. 413–414. ISBN 0-19-511875-8.  ^ a b c Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). How Rome
Rome
fell: death of a superpower. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-300-16426-8.  ^ Dunstan, William (2011). Ancient Rome. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. p. 399. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7.  ^ Dunstan, William (2011). Ancient Rome. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. p. 404. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7.  ^ Grant, Michael (1996). The Severans: the Changed Roman Empire. Psychology Press. p. 46.  ^ a b c Tuori, Kaius (2016). "Judge Julia Domna? A Historical Mystery and the Emergence of Imperial Legal Administration". The Journal of Legal History. 37: 180–197. doi:10.1080/01440365.2016.1191590.  ^ Grant, Michael (1996). The Severans: the Changed Roman Empire. Psychology Press. p. 42.  ^ Southern, Patricia (2015). The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from Severus to Constantine. Routledge. pp. 68–69. ISBN 1-317-49694-9.  ^ Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. p. 21. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.  ^ a b c d Castex, Jean (2008). Architecture of Italy. Greenwood Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-313-32086-1.  ^ Oetelaar, Taylor (2014). "Reconstructing the Baths of Caracalla". Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage.  ^ Castex, Jean (2008). Architecture of Italy. Greenwood Press. pp. 5–6. ISBN 0-313-32086-1.  ^ Rowan, Clare (2012). Under Divine Auspices: Divine Ideology and the Visualisation of Imperial Power in the Severan Period. Cambridge University Press. pp. 137–139. ISBN 1-107-02012-3.  ^ Rowan, Clare (2012). Under Divine Auspices: Divine Ideology and the Visualisation of Imperial Power in the Severan Period. Cambridge University Press. pp. 142–143. ISBN 1-107-02012-3.  ^ Lim, Richard (2010). The Edinburgh Companion to Ancient Greece and Rome: Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press. p. 114.  ^ Hekster, Olivier; Zair, Nicholas (2008). Debates and Documents in Ancient History: Rome
Rome
and its Empire, AD 193–284. EUP. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-7486-2992-3.  ^ Levine, Lee (1975). Caesarea Under Roman Rule. Brill Archive. p. 195. ISBN 90-04-04013-7.  ^ Benario, Herbert (1954). "The Dediticii of the Constitutio Antoniniana". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. 85: 188. doi:10.2307/283475.  ^ Cairns, John (2007). Beyond Dogmatics: Law and Society in the Roman World: Law and Society in the Roman World. Edinburgh University Press. p. 42. ISBN 0-7486-3177-1.  ^ Whittock, Martyn John; Whittock, Martyn (1991). The Roman Empire. Heinemann. p. 28. ISBN 0-435-31274-X.  ^ Johnson, Allan; Coleman-Norton, Paul; Bourne, Frank; Pharr, Clyde (1961). Ancient Roman Statutes: A Translation with Introduction, Commentary, Glossary, and Index. The Lawbook Exchange. p. 266. ISBN 1-58477-291-3.  ^ Zoch, Paul (2000). Ancient Rome: An Introductory History. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 91. ISBN 0-8061-3287-6.  ^ Lavan, Myles (2016). "The Spread of Roman Citizenship, 14–212 CE: Quantification in the face of high uncertainty". Past and Present (230). doi:10.1093/pastj/gtv043.  ^ a b c Hekster, Olivier; Zair, Nicholas (2008). Debates and Documents in Ancient History: Rome
Rome
and its Empire, AD 193–284. EUP. pp. 47–48. ISBN 978-0-7486-2992-3.  ^ Hekster, Olivier; Zair, Nicholas (2004). Debates and Documents in Ancient History: Rome
Rome
and its Empire, AD 193–284. EUP. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-7486-2992-3.  ^ a b Hekster, Olivier; Zair, Nicholas (2008). Debates and Documents in Ancient History: Rome
Rome
and its Empire, AD 193–284. EUP. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-0-7486-2992-3.  ^ a b Rowan, Clare (2012). Under Divine Auspices: Divine Ideology and the Visualisation of Imperial Power in the Severan Period. Cambridge University Press. p. 127. ISBN 1-107-02012-3.  ^ Hekster, Olivier; Zair, Nicholas (2008). Debates and Documents in Ancient History: Rome
Rome
and its Empire, AD 193–284. EUP. pp. 49–50. ISBN 978-0-7486-2992-3.  ^ Oman, C. (1916). "The Decline and Fall of the Denarius
Denarius
in the Third Century A.D.". Royal Numismatic Society.  ^ Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. pp. 130–131. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.  ^ a b Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. p. 123. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.  ^ a b Bergeron, David (2007–2008). "Roman Antoninianus". Bank of Canada Review.  ^ Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. p. 139. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.  ^ Harl, Kenneth (1996). Coinage in the Roman Economy, 300 B.C. to A.D. 700. JHU Press. p. 128. ISBN 0-801-85291-9.  ^ a b c d e Dunstan, William, E. (2011). Ancient Rome. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. pp. 406–407. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7.  ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). How Rome
Rome
Fell: death of a superpower. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-300-16426-8.  ^ Ando, Clifford (2012). Imperial Rome
Rome
AD 193 to 284: The Critical Century. Edinburgh University Press. p. 63. ISBN 0-7486-5534-4.  ^ Hekster, Olivier; Zair, Nicholas (2008). Debates and Documents in Ancient History: Rome
Rome
and its Empire, AD 193–284. EUP. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-7486-2992-3.  ^ Metropolitan Museum of Art: Portrait head of the Emperor Caracalla". acc. no. 40.11.1a ^ Herodian of Antioch. History of the Roman Empire. pp. 4.7.3.  ^ Dio, Cassius (n.d.). Roman History. pp. 78.11.1.  ^ Varner, Eric, R. (2004). Mutilation and transformation: damnatio memoriae and Roman imperial portraiture. Brill Academic. p. 169. ISBN 90-04-13577-4.  ^ a b Pangerl, Andreas (2013). Porträttypen des Caracalla
Caracalla
und des Geta auf Römischen Reichsprägungen – Definition eines neuen Caesartyps des Caracalla
Caracalla
und eines neuen Augustustyps des Geta. Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt des RGZM Mainz 43. pp. 99–116.  ^ Manders, Erika (2012). Impact of Empire: Coining Images of Power: Patterns in the Representation of Roman Emperors on Imperial Coinage, A.D. 193–284. Brill Academic. p. 251.  ^ Manders, Erika (2012). Impact of Empire: Coining Images of Power: Patterns in the Representation of Roman Emperors on Imperial Coinage, A.D. 193–284. Brill Academic. pp. 251–252.  ^ Varner, Eric (2004). Mutilation and transformation: damnatio memoriae and Roman imperial portraiture. Brill Academic. p. 184. ISBN 90-04-13577-4.  ^ a b c d Manders, Erika (2012). Impact of Empire: Coining Images of Power: Patterns in the Representation of Roman Emperors on Imperial Coinage, A.D. 193–284. Brill Academic. p. 226. ISBN 978-90-04-18970-6.  ^ a b Manders, Erika (2012). Impact of Empire: Coining Images of Power: Patterns in the Representation of Roman Emperors in Imperial Coinage, A.D. 193–284. Brill Academic. p. 227. ISBN 978-90-04-18970-6.  ^ Tuck, Steven L. (2014). A History of Roman Art. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-4443-3026-7.  ^ a b Mehl, Andreas (2011). Roman Historiography. John Wiley & Sons. p. 171.  ^ Breisach, Ernst (2008). Historiography: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Third Edition. University of Chicago Press. p. 75. ISBN 0-226-07284-3.  ^ Hadas, Moses (2013). History of Latin Literature. Columbia University Press. p. 355. ISBN 0-231-51487-5.  ^ Leistner, M. W. L. (1966). The Greater Roman Historians. University of California Press. p. 180.  ^ Schäfer, Peter (2003). The Bar Kokhba War Reconsidered: New Perspectives on the Second Jewish Revolt Against Rome. Mohr Siebeck. p. 55. ISBN 3-16-148076-7.  ^ Scott, Andrew G. (2015). Cassius Dio, Caracalla, and the Senate. De Gruyter Publishers. p. 157.  ^ a b c d Rowan, Clare (2012). Under Divine Auspices: Divine Ideology and the Visualisation of Imperial Power in the Severan Period. Cambridge University Press. p. 113.  ^ Rowan, Clare (2012). Under Divine Auspices: Divine Ideology and the Visualisation of Imperial Power in the Severan Period. Cambridge University Press. p. 114.  ^ Ashley, Mike (2012). The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens. Hachette UK. p. B21;P80. ISBN 1-4721-0113-8.  ^ Wood, Susan (2010). " Caracalla
Caracalla
and the French Revolution: A Roman tyrant in eighteenth-century iconography". Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome.  ^ a b Sillar, Shamus (2001). Quinquennium in provinciis: Caracalla
Caracalla
and Imperial Administration 212–217. pp. iii.  ^ Agnew, John; Bidwell, Walter (1844). The Eclectic Magazine: Foreign Literature, Volume 2. Leavitt, Throw and Company. p. 217.  ^ Magie, David (1950). Roman Rule in Asia Minor. Princeton University Press. p. 683.  ^ Sillar, Shamus (2001). Quinquennium in provinciis: Caracalla
Caracalla
and Imperial Administration 212–217. p. 127.  ^ Ando, Clifford (2012). Imperial Rome
Rome
AD 193 to 284: The Critical Century. Edinburgh University Press. p. 57. ISBN 0-7486-5534-4.  ^ Sillar, Shamus (2001). Quinquennium in provinciis: Caracalla
Caracalla
and Imperial Administration 212–217. pp. 46–47.  ^ Asante, Molefi K.; Ismail, Shaza (2016). "Interrogating the African Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
Caracalla: Claiming and Reclaiming an African Leader". Journal of Black Studies. 47: 41–52. doi:10.1177/0021934715611376. 

Sources[edit]

Agnew, John, Bidwell, Walter (1844). The Eclectic Magazine: Foreign Literature, Volume 2. Leavitt, Throw and Company.  Ando, Clifford (2012). Imperial Rome
Rome
AD 193 to 284: The Critical Century. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-5534-4.  Asante, Molefi K., Shaza, Ismail (2016). "Interrogating the African Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
Caracalla: Claiming and Reclaiming an African Leader". Journal of Black Studies. 47: 41–52. doi:10.1177/0021934715611376.  Ashley, Mike (2012). The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens. Hachette UK. ISBN 1-4721-0113-8.  Benario, Herbert (1954). "The Dediticii of the Constitutio Antoniniana". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. 85: 188. doi:10.2307/283475.  Bergeron, David (2007–2008). "Roman Antoninianus". Bank of Canada Review.  Boatwright, Mary Taliaferro; Gargola, Daniel, J; Talbert, Richard J.A (2004). The Romans, from village to empire. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511875-8.  Brauer, G (1967). The Decadent Emperors: Power and Depravity in Third-Century Rome.  Breisach, Ernst (2008). Historiography: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Third Edition. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-07284-3.  Cairns, John (2007). Beyond Dogmatics: Law and Society in the Roman World: Law and Society in the Roman World. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-3177-1.  Castex, Jean (2008). Architecture of Italy. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-32086-1.  Dio, Cassius. (n.d.). Roman History Dunstan, William (2011). AncientRome. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7.  Fisher, Warren (2010). The Illustrated History of the Roman Empire: From Caesar's Crossing the Rhine (49 Bc) to Empire's Fall, 476 Ad. AuthorHouse. ISBN 1-4490-7739-0.  Gagarin, Michael (2009). Ancient Greece and Rome. Oxford University Press.  Geoffrey of Monmouth. (n.d.) Regum Historia Britanniae Gibbon, Edward. (1776). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume 1 Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). How Rome
Rome
fell: death of a superpower. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-16426-8.  Grant, Michael (1996). The Severans: the Changed Roman Empire. Psychology Press.  Hadas, Moses (2013). History of Latin Literature. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-51487-5.  Harl, Kenneth (1996). Coinage in the Roman Economy, 300 B.C. to A.D. 700. JHU Press. p. 128. ISBN 0-801-85291-9.  Hekster, Olivier; Zair, Nicholas (2008). Debates and Documents in Ancient History: Rome
Rome
and its Empire. EUP. ISBN 978-0-7486-2992-3.  Herodian of Antioch. (n.d.) History of the Roman Empire Johnson, Allan; Coleman-Norton, Paul; Bourne, Frank; Pharr, Clyde (1961). Ancient Roman Statutes: A Translation with Introduction, Commentary, Glossary, and Index. The Lawbook Exchange. ISBN 1-58477-291-3.  Lavan, Myles (2016). "The Spread of Roman Citizenship, 14–212 CE: Quantification in the Face of High Uncertainty". Past and Present. 230: 3–46. doi:10.1093/pastj/gtv043.  Leistner, M. W. L. (1966). The Greater Roman Historians. University of California Press.  Levine, Lee (1975). Caesarea Under Roman Rule. Brill Archive. ISBN 90-04-04013-7.  Lim, Richard (2010). The Edinburgh Companion to Ancient Rome
Rome
and Greece: Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press.  Magie, David (1950). Roman Rule in Asia Minor. Princeton University Press.  Manders, Erika (2012). Impact of Empire: Coining Images of Power: Patterns in the Representation of Roman Emperors on Imperial Coinage, A.D. 193–284. Brill Academic. ISBN 978-90-04-18970-6.  Matthew, Christopher (2015). An Invincible Beast: Understanding the Hellenistic Pike Phalanx in Action. Casemate Publishers.  Mehl, Andres (2011). Roman Historiography. John Wiley & Sons.  Melton, Gordon, J. (2014). Faiths Across Time: 5000 Years of Religious History.  Mennen, Inge (2011). Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193–284. Impact of Empire. Volume 12. Brill Academic. OCLC 859895124.  Morgan, Robert (2016). History of the Coptic Orthodox People and the Church of Egypt. FriesenPress. ISBN 1-4602-8027-X.  Oman, C (1916). The Decline and Fall of the Denarius
Denarius
in the Third Century A.D. Royal Numismatic Society.  Oetelaar, Taylor (2014). "Reconstructing the Baths of Caracalla". Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural History.  Pangerl, Andreas (2013). Porträttypen des Caracalla
Caracalla
und des Geta auf Römischen Reichsprägungen – Definition eines neuen Caesartyps des Caracalla
Caracalla
und eines neuen Augustustyps des Geta. RGZM Mainz.  Rowan, Clare (2012). Under Divine Auspices: Divine Ideology and the Visualisation of Imperial Power in the Severan Period. Cambridge University Press.  Schäfer, Peter (2003). The Bar Kokhba War Reconsidered: New Perspectives on the Second Jewish Revolt Against Rome. Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 3-16-148076-7.  Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. ISBN 0-549-89041-6. OCLC 430652279.  Scott, Andrew G. (2015). Cassius Dio, Caracalla
Caracalla
and the Senate. De Gruyters.  Sillar, Shamus (2001). Quinquennium in provinciis: Caracalla
Caracalla
and Imperial Administration 212–217.  Tuck, Steven L. (2014). A History of Roman Art. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4443-3026-7.  Southern, Patricia (2015). The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from Severus to Constantine. Routledge. ISBN 1-317-49694-9.  Tabbernee, William; Lampe, Peter (2008). Pepouza and Tymion: The Discovery and Archaeological Exploration of a Lost Ancient City and an Imperial Estate. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-020859-8.  Tuori, Kaius (2016). "Judge Julia Domna? A Historical Mystery and the Emergence of Imperial Legal Administration". The Journal of Legal History. 37: 180–197. doi:10.1080/01440365.2016.1191590.  Varner, Eric (2004). Mutilation and transformation: damnatio memoriae and Roman imperial portraiture. Brill Academic. ISBN 90-04-13577-4.  Whittock, Martyn John; Whittock, Martyn (1991). The Roman Empire. Heinemann. p. 28. ISBN 0-435-31274-X.  Wood, Susan (2010). " Caracalla
Caracalla
and the French Revolution: A Roman tyrant in eighteenth-century iconography". Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome.  Zoch, Paul (2000). Ancient Rome: An Introductory History. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 91. ISBN 0-8061-3287-6. 

External links[edit]

Life of Caracalla
Caracalla
(Historia Augusta at LacusCurtius: Latin text and English translation) Aurelius Victor, Epitome de Caesaribus 21 (translation). For information on the caracallus garment, see William Smith Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities: "Caracalla" Roman Currency of the Principate, from Tulane University: http://www.tulane.edu/~august/handouts/601cprin.htm#_ftnref1

Caracalla Severan dynasty Born: 4 April 188  Died: 8 April 217

Regnal titles

Preceded by Septimius Severus Roman Emperor 198–217 with Septimius Severus (198–211) and Geta (209–211) Succeeded by Macrinus

Political offices

Preceded by Lucius Annius Fabianus, Marcus Nonius Arrius Mucianus Consul
Consul
of the Roman Empire 202 with Septimius Severus Succeeded by Titus
Titus
Murrenius Severus, Gaius Cassius Regallianus

Preceded by Lucius Fabius Cilo, Marcus Annius Flavius Libo Consul
Consul
of the Roman Empire 205 with Publius Septimius Geta Succeeded by Marcus Nummius Umbrius Primus Senecio Albinus, Lucius Fulvius Gavius Numisius Petronius Aemilianus

Preceded by Lucius Annius Maximus, Gaius Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
Aper Consul
Consul
of the Roman Empire 208 with Publius Septimius Geta Succeeded by Lucius Aurelius Commodus
Commodus
Pompeianus, Quintus Hedius Lollianus Plautius Avitus

Preceded by Pompeianus, Gaius Julius Camilius Asper Consul
Consul
of the Roman Empire 213 with Balbinus Succeeded by Lucius Valerius Messalla Apollinaris, Gaius Octavius Appius Suetrius Sabinus

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Maxentius
Maxentius
(West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Licinius
Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 88672215 LCCN: n82207265 ISNI: 0000 0001 0922 8229 GND: 118667041 SUDOC: 027685144 BNF: cb11967505w (dat

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