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Caracal
Caracal
distribution

Synonyms[2]

List

C. aharonii (Matschie, 1912) C. bengalensis (J. B. Fischer, 1829) C. berberorum Matschie, 1892 C. coloniae Thomas, 1926 C. corylinus (Matschie, 1912) C. medjerdae (Matschie, 1912) C. melanotis Gray, 1843 C. melanotix Gray, 1843 C. michaelis Heptner, 1945 C. roothi (Roberts, 1926) C. spatzi (Matschie, 1912)

The caracal ( Caracal
Caracal
caracal) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia
Central Asia
and India. The caracal is characterised by a robust build, long legs, a short face, long tufted ears and long canine teeth. Its coat is uniformly reddish tan or sandy, while the ventral parts are lighter with small reddish markings. It reaches 40–50 cm (16–20 in) at the shoulder and weighs 8–18 kg (18–40 lb). It was first scientifically described by German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1777. Eight subspecies are recognised. Typically nocturnal, the caracal is highly secretive and difficult to observe. It is territorial, and lives mainly alone or in pairs. The caracal is a carnivore that typically preys upon small mammals, birds and rodents. It can leap higher than 3 m (9.8 ft) and catch birds in mid-air. It stalks its prey until it is within 5 m (16 ft) of it, after which it runs it down, the prey being killed by a bite to the throat or to the back of the neck. Breeding takes place throughout the year with both sexes becoming sexually mature by the time they are a year old. Gestation lasts between two and three months, resulting in a litter of one to six kittens. Juveniles leave their mothers at nine to ten months, though a few females stay back with their mothers. The average lifespan of the caracal in captivity is nearly 16 years. Caracals have been tamed and used for hunting since the time of ancient Egypt.[3][4]

Contents

1 Taxonomy and etymology 2 Characteristics 3 Ecology and behaviour

3.1 Diet and hunting 3.2 Reproduction

4 Distribution and habitat 5 Threats and conservation 6 In culture 7 References

7.1 Citations 7.2 Bibliography

8 External links

Taxonomy and etymology[edit] The caracal is placed in the family Felidae
Felidae
and subfamily Felinae. The species was first described by German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber as Felis
Felis
caracal in the journal Die Säugetiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen in 1776. In 1843, British zoologist John Edward Gray
John Edward Gray
placed the animal in the genus Caracal.[2] The name "caracal" is composed of two Turkic words: kara, meaning black, and kulak, meaning ear. The first recorded use of this name dates back to 1760.[5] Alternative names for the caracal include gazelle cat, red cat, rooikat, and red[citation needed] or Persian lynx.[6] The "lynx" of the Greeks and Romans was most probably the caracal[7] and the name "lynx" is sometimes still applied to it,[8] but the present-day lynx proper is a separate species.[7] Earlier, the caracal was classified under the genera Felis[9] or Lynx.[6] However, a 2006 phylogenetic study showed that the caracal evolved nearly a million years before the lynx appeared.[10] The caracal is most closely related to the African golden cat
African golden cat
(Profelis aurata, often considered a species of Caracal). These two species, together with the serval (Leptailurus serval), form one of the eight lineages of Felidae. The Caracal
Caracal
lineage came into existence 8.5 mya, and the ancestor of this lineage arrived in Africa
Africa
8.5–5.6 mya.[11][12] It diverged from the serval probably within the last five million years, around the boundary between the Pliocene
Pliocene
and the Pleistocene.[13] Eight subspecies are recognised:[2][14]

North African caracal (C. c. algira) (Wagner, 1841) – Occurs in northern Africa
Africa
(Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia) Common caracal (C. c. caracal) (Schreber, 1776) – Occurs in central and southern Africa
Africa
(South Africa) Namibian caracal (C. c. damarensis) (Roberts, 1926) – Occurs in Namibia Transvaal caracal (C. c. limpopoensis) (Roberts, 1926) – Occurs in Botswana
Botswana
and northern South Africa Gabon
Gabon
caracal (C. c. lucani) (Rochebrune, 1885) – Occurs in northern Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon
Gabon
and Republic of the Congo Nubian caracal (C. c. nubica) (J. B. Fischer, 1829) – Occurs in central Africa
Africa
(Cameroon, Ethiopia, South Sudan
South Sudan
and Sudan) West African caracal (C. c. poecilotis) (Thomas and Hinton, 1921) – Occurs in western and central Africa
Africa
(Senegal, Nigeria, Niger
Niger
and western Sudan) Asiatic caracal (C. c. schmitzi) (Matschie, 1912) – Occurs in Asia (Afghanistan, western India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, southwestern Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Russia, Syria, southern Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, southwestern Uzbekistan)

A 2006 study gave the phylogenetic relationships of the caracal as follows:[10][11]

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
( Catopuma
Catopuma
badia)

Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Caracal

Serval
Serval
(Leptailurus serval)

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal)

African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis)

Margay
Margay
(L. wieldii)

Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita)

Colocolo
Colocolo
(L. colocolo)

Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi)

Kodkod
Kodkod
('L. guigna)

Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus)

Lynx

Characteristics[edit]

A close facial view of a caracal. Note the tufted ears and the black and white facial markings.

The caracal is a slender, moderately sized cat characterised by a robust build, a short face, long canine teeth, tufted ears, and long legs. It reaches nearly 40–50 centimetres (16–20 in) at the shoulder; the head-and-body length is typically 78 centimetres (31 in) for males and 73 centimetres (29 in) for females. While males weigh 12–18 kilograms (26–40 lb), females weigh 8–13 kilograms (18–29 lb). The tan, bushy tail measures 26–34 centimetres (10–13 in), and extends to the hocks.[15][16] The caracal is sexually dimorphic; the females are smaller than the males in most bodily parameters.[17] The prominent facial features include the 4.5 centimetres (1.8 in) long black tufts on the ears, two black stripes from the forehead to the nose, the black outline of the mouth, the distinctive black facial markings, and the white patches surrounding the eyes and the mouth.[17] The eyes appear to be narrowly open due to the lowered upper eyelid, probably an adaptation to shield the eyes from the sun's glare. The ear tufts may start drooping as the animal ages. The coat is uniformly reddish tan or sandy, though black caracals are also known. The underbelly and the insides of the legs are lighter, often with small reddish markings.[17] The fur, soft, short and dense, grows coarser in the summer. The ground hairs (the basal layer of hair covering the coat) are denser in winter than in summer. The length of the guard hairs (the hair extending above the ground hairs) can be up to 3 centimetres (1.2 in) long in winter, but shorten to 2 centimetres (0.8 in) in summer.[18] These features indicate the onset of moulting in the hot season, typically in October and November.[19] The hindlegs are longer than the forelegs, so that the body appears to be sloping downward from the rump.[16][17] Caracals possess distinctive black markings on their faces, and some individuals may have pronounced 'eyebrow' markings. The caracal is often confused with the lynx, as both cats have tufted ears. However, a notable point of difference between the two is that the lynx is spotted and blotched, while the caracal shows no such markings on the coat.[17] The African golden cat
African golden cat
has a similar build as the caracal's, but is darker and lacks the ear tufts. The sympatric serval can be told apart from the caracal by the former's lack of ear tufts, white spots behind the ears, spotted coat, longer legs, longer tail and smaller footprints.[18][20] The skull of the caracal is high and rounded, featuring large auditory bullae, a well-developed supraoccipital crest normal to the sagittal crest, and a strong lower jaw. The caracal has a total of 30 teeth; the dental formula is 3.1.3.13.1.2.1. The deciduous dentition is 3.1.23.1.2. The striking canines are up to 2 centimetres (0.8 in) long, heavy and sharp; these are used to give the killing bite to the prey. The caracal lacks the second upper premolars, and the upper molars are diminutive.[19] The large paws, similar to those of the cheetah,[21] consist of four digits in the hindlegs and five in the forelegs.[18] The first digit of the foreleg remains above the ground and features the dewclaw. The claws, sharp and retractable (able to be drawn in), are larger but less curved in the hindlegs.[18] Ecology and behaviour[edit]

Caracals are efficient climbers.

The caracal is typically nocturnal (active at night), though some activity may be observed during the day as well. However, the cat is so secretive and difficult to observe that its activity at daytime might easily go unnoticed.[19] A study in South Africa
Africa
showed that caracals are most active when air temperature drops below 20 °C (68 °F); activity typically ceases at higher temperatures.[22] A solitary cat, the caracal mainly occurs alone or in pairs; the only group seen is of mothers with their offspring.[16] Females in oestrus will temporarily pair with males. A territorial animal, the caracal marks rocks and vegetation in its territory with urine and probably with dung, which is not covered with soil. Claw scratching is prominent, and dung middens are typically not formed.[18] In Israel, males are found to have territories averaging 220 square kilometres (85 sq mi), while that of females averaged 57 square kilometres (22 sq mi). The male territories vary from 270–1,116 square kilometres (104–431 sq mi) in Saudi Arabia. In Mountain Zebra National Park
Mountain Zebra National Park
(South Africa), the female territories vary between 4 and 6.5 square kilometres (1.5 and 2.5 sq mi). These territories overlap extensively.[17] The conspicuous ear tufts and the facial markings often serve as a method of visual communication; caracals have been observed interacting with each other by moving the head from side to side so that the tufts flicker rapidly. Like other cats, the caracal meows, growls, hisses, spits and purrs.[16] Diet and hunting[edit]

A caracal feeding

A carnivore, the caracal typically preys upon small mammals, birds and rodents. Studies in South Africa
Africa
have reported that it preys on the Cape grysbok, the common duiker, sheep, goats, bush vlei rats, rock hyraxes, hare and birds.[23][24][25] A study in western India
India
showed that rodents comprise a significant portion of the diet.[26] They will feed from a variety of sources, but tend to focus on the most abundant one.[27] Grasses and grapes are taken occasionally to clear their immune system and stomach of any parasites.[28] Larger antelopes such as young kudu, bushbuck, impala, mountain reedbuck and springbok may also be targeted. Mammals generally comprise at least 80 percent of the diet.[18] Lizards, snakes and insects are infrequently eaten.[1] They are notorious for attacking livestock, but rarely attack humans.[21] Its speed and agility make it an efficient hunter, able to take down prey two to three times its size.[1] The powerful hind legs allow it to leap more than 3 metres (10 ft) in the air to catch birds on the wing.[17][29][30] It can even twist and change its direction mid-air.[17] It is an adroit climber.[17] It stalks its prey until it is within 5 metres (16 ft), following which it can launch into a sprint. While large prey such as antelopes are killed by a throat bite, smaller prey are suffocated by a bite on the back of the neck.[17] Kills are consumed immediately, and less commonly dragged to cover. It will return to large kills if undisturbed.[18] It has been observed to begin feeding on antelope kills at the hind parts.[19] It may scavenge at times, though this has not been frequently observed.[23] It often has to compete with foxes, wolves, leopards and hyaena for prey.[21] Reproduction[edit]

Caracal
Caracal
mother and kitten

Both sexes become sexually mature by the time they are a year old; production of gametes begins even earlier at seven to ten months. However, successful mating takes place only at 12 to 15 months. Breeding takes place throughout the year. Oestrus, one to three days long, recurs every two weeks unless the female is pregnant. Females in oestrus show a spike in urine-marking, and form temporary pairs with males. Mating has not been extensively studied; limited number of observations suggest that copulation, that lasts nearly four minutes on an average, begins with the male smelling the areas urine-marked by the female, who rolls on the ground. Following this he approaches and mounts the female. The pair separate after copulation.[17][18] Gestation lasts nearly two to three months, following which a litter consisting of one to six kittens is born. Births generally peak from October to February. Births take place in dense vegetation or deserted burrows of aardvark and porcupines. Kittens are born with their eyes and ears shut and the claws non-retractable (unable to be drawn inside); the coat resembles that of adults, but the abdomen is spotted. Eyes open by ten days, but it takes longer for the vision to become normal. The ears become erect and the claws become retractable by the third or the fourth week. Around the same time the kittens start roaming their birthplace, and start playing among themselves by the fifth or the sixth week. They begin taking solid food around the same time; they have to wait for nearly three months before they make their first kill. As the kittens start moving about by themselves, the mother starts shifting them everyday. All the milk teeth appear in 50 days, and permanent dentition is completed in 10 months. Juveniles begin dispersing at nine to ten months, though a few females stay back with their mothers. The average lifespan of the caracal in captivity is nearly 16 years.[17][21][31] Distribution and habitat[edit]

Caracal
Caracal
inhabit dry areas with some cover.

The caracal inhabits forests, savannas, marshy lowlands, semi-deserts and scrub forests. Dry areas with low rainfall and availability of cover are preferred. In montane habitats such as the Ethiopian Highlands, they occur at altitudes as high as 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) above the sea level.[18] The caracal is widespread across the African continent, the Middle East
Middle East
and the Indian subcontinent. Although the Sahara Desert and the equatorial forests do not figure in its distribution, the caracal occurs in the Saharan ranges of Atlas, Hoggar and Tassili to the northwest and the Aïr to the west. The range has diminished considerably in northern and western Africa.[1] Threats and conservation[edit]

A caracal in the San Diego Zoo

The caracal is categorised as Least Concern
Least Concern
by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN); African populations are listed under CITES Appendix II
CITES Appendix II
while Asian populations come under CITES
CITES
Appendix I. In central, west, north and northeast Africa
Africa
and Asia, the major threat to the survival of the caracal is habitat loss due to agricultural expansion and desertification. Caracal
Caracal
are often killed in retaliation for preying on small livestock. A 1989 survey revealed that the caracal was responsible for the elimination of nearly 5.3 livestock per 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi) per year in the erstwhile Cape Province, South Africa. During 1931–52, the number of caracals killed averaged 2,219 per year in the Karoo. Some tribes kill it for its meat. As of 1996, hunting of caracals is prohibited in Afghanistan, Algeria, Egypt, India, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. However, Namibia
Namibia
and South Africa
Africa
recognise it as a "problem animal" (vermin) and allow its hunting to protect livestock. Caracals occur in a number of protected areas across their range.[1] In culture[edit] The caracal appears to have been religiously significant in the ancient Egyptian culture. It occurs in paintings and as bronze figurines; sculptures were believed to guard the tombs of pharaohs. Embalmed caracals have also been discovered.[32] Caracal
Caracal
ear tufts have been elaborately depicted in some tombs, and referred to as umm risha't ("mother of feathers").[citation needed] Chinese emperors used caracals as gifts. In the 13th and the 14th centuries, Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
rulers bought numerous caracals, cheetahs and tigers from Muslim merchants in the western parts of the empire in return for gold, silver, cash and silk. According to the Ming Shilu, the subsequent Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
continued this practice. Until as recently as the 20th century, the caracal was used in hunts by Indian rulers to hunt small game, while the cheetah was used for larger game.[33] In those times, caracals would be exposed to a flock of pigeons and people would bet on which caracal would kill the largest number of pigeons. This probably gave rise to the expression "to put the cat among the pigeons".[30] The pelt of the caracal is used in making fur coats, while its skin alone does not have much economic significance.[21] References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ a b c d e Avgan, B.; Henschel, P.; Ghoddousi, A. (2016). "Caracal caracal". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2016.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature.  ^ a b c Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 533. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ Faure, E.; Kitchener, A. C. (2009). "An archaeological and historical review of the relationships between felids and people". Anthrozoös. 22 (3): 221–238.  ^ Malek, J. (1997). The cat in ancient Egypt. University of Pennsylvania Press.  ^ "Caracal". Merriam-Webster
Merriam-Webster
Dictionary. Retrieved 18 February 2016.  ^ a b EB (1911), p. 297. ^ a b EB (1878), p. 81. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., Vol. XXV, 1889, p. 81 . ^ EB (1878), p. 80. ^ a b Johnson, W. E. (2006). "The late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: A genetic assessment". Science. 311 (5757): 73–7. Bibcode:2006Sci...311...73J. doi:10.1126/science.1122277. PMID 16400146.  ^ a b Werdelin, L.; Yamaguchi, N.; Johnson, W.E.; O'Brien, S.J. (2010). "Phylogeny and evolution of cats (Felidae)" (PDF). Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids: 59–82.  ^ Johnson, WE; O'Brien, SJ (1997). " Phylogenetic
Phylogenetic
reconstruction of the Felidae
Felidae
using 16S rRNA and NADH-5 mitochondrial genes". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 44 Suppl. 1: S98–116. doi:10.1007/PL00000060. PMID 9071018.  ^ Gittleman, J., ed. (1989). Carnivore
Carnivore
Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution. New York: Cornell University Press.  ^ " Caracal
Caracal
caracal". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 26 March 2016.  ^ Nowak, R.M. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World (6th ed.). Baltimore, Maryland, US: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 810–1. ISBN 978-0-8018-5789-8.  ^ a b c d Estes, R.D. (2004). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates (4th ed.). Berkeley, California, US: University of California Press. pp. 363–5. ISBN 978-0520-080-850.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Sunquist, F.; Sunquist, M. (2002). Wild Cats of the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 38–43. ISBN 978-0-226-77999-7.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Kingdon, J. (1997). The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals (2nd ed.). London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. pp. 174–9. ISBN 978-1472-912-367.  ^ a b c d Skinner, J.D.; Chimimba, C.T. (2006). The Mammals of the Southern African Sub-region (3rd (revised) ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 397–400. ISBN 978-1107-394-056.  ^ Liebenberg, Louis (1990). A Field Guide to the Animal
Animal
Tracks of Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: D. Philip. pp. 257–8. ISBN 978-0864-861-320.  ^ a b c d e Heptner, V.G. (1992). Mammals of the Soviet Union. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. pp. 499–524. ISBN 978-9004-088-764.  ^ Avenant, N.L.; Nel, J.A.J. (1998). "Home-range use, activity, and density of caracal in relation to prey density". African Journal of Ecology. 36 (4): 347–59. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2028.1998.00152.x.  ^ a b Stuart, C.T.; Hickman, G.C. (1991). "Prey of caracal (Felis caracal) in two areas of Cape Province, South Africa". Journal of African Zoology. 105 (5): 373–81.  ^ Palmer, R.; Fairall, N. (1988). " Caracal
Caracal
and African wild cat diet in the Karoo
Karoo
National Park and the implications thereof for hyrax" (PDF). S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res./S.-Afr. Tydskr. Natuurnav. 18 (1): 30–4.  ^ Grobler, J.H. (1981). "Feeding behaviour of the caracal Felis caracal (Schreber 1776) in the Mountain Zebra National Park". South African Journal of Zoology. 16 (4): 259–62. doi:10.1080/02541858.1981.11447764.  ^ Mukherjee, S.; Goyal, S.P.; Johnsingh, A.J.T.; Pitman, M.R.P.L. (2004). "The importance of rodents in the diet of jungle cat (Felis chaus), caracal ( Caracal
Caracal
caracal) and golden jackal ( Canis
Canis
aureus) in Sariska Tiger
Tiger
Reserve, Rajasthan, India" (PDF). Journal of Zoology. 262 (4): 405–11. doi:10.1017/S0952836903004783.  ^ Avenant, N.L.; Nel, J.A.J. (2002). "Among habitat variation in prey availability and use by caracal Felis
Felis
caracal". Mammalian Biology – Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 67 (1): 18–33. doi:10.1078/1616-5047-00002.  ^ Bothma, J.D.P. (1965). "Random observations on the food habits of certain Carnivora
Carnivora
(Mammalia) in southern Africa". Fauna and Flora. 16: 16–22.  ^ Kohn, T.A.; Burroughs, R.; Hartman, M.J.; Noakes, T.D. (2011). "Fiber type and metabolic characteristics of lion ( Panthera
Panthera
leo), caracal ( Caracal
Caracal
caracal) and human skeletal muscle". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 159 (2): 125–33. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2011.02.006. PMID 21320626.  ^ a b Sunquist, F.; Sunquist, M. (2014). The Wild Cat
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Book: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about Cats. Chicago, US: The University of Chicago Press. pp. 87–91. ISBN 978-0226-780-269.  ^ Bernard, R.T.F.; Stuart, C.T. (1986). "Reproduction of the caracal Felis
Felis
caracal from the Cape Province
Cape Province
of South Africa" (PDF). South African Journal of Zoology. 22 (3): 177–82. doi:10.1080/02541858.1987.11448043.  ^ Heptner, V.G., ed. (1992). Mammals of the Soviet Union. Leiden, South Holland, Netherlands: Brill. p. 526. ISBN 978-9004-088-764.  ^ Mair, V.H. (2006). Contact and exchange in the ancient world. Hawai'i, Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. pp. 116–23. ISBN 978-0-8248-2884-4. 

Bibliography[edit]

"The Caracal", Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., Vol. V, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1878, pp. 80–1 . "Caracal", Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed., Vol. V, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1911, pp. 297–8 .

External links[edit]

The dictionary definition of caracal at Wiktionary Data related to Caracal
Caracal
caracal at Wikispecies Media related to Caracal
Caracal
caracal at Wikimedia Commons IUCN
IUCN
Cat
Cat
Specialist Group : Caracal Mammal's Planet: Research – Identification Cats For Africa : Caracal
Caracal
Distribution

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard
Leopard
cat (P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

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portal

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q30847 ADW: Caracal_caracal ARKive: caracal-caracal BioLib: 1933 EoL: 312855 EPPO: KARACA Fossilworks: 224078 GBIF: 2435010 iNaturalist: 42042 ITIS: 552775 IUCN: 3847 MSW: 14000014 NCBI: 61

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