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The Carabinieri
Carabinieri
(formally Arma dei Carabinieri, " Carabinieri
Carabinieri
Force" or previously Corpo dei Carabinieri
Carabinieri
Reali, "Royal Carabinieri Corps";[1][2][3][4] Italian pronunciation: [karabiˈnjɛːri]) is the fourth Italian military force charged with police duties under the authority of the Ministry of Defense. Carabinieri
Carabinieri
are the national gendarmerie of Italy, policing both military and civilian populations. Carabinieri
Carabinieri
(similar to Polizia di Stato
Polizia di Stato
and Guardia di Finanza) are always "on duty" throughout the national territory including out of service hours, during leave and whilst on vacation, and they are always permitted to carry their assigned weapon as personal equipment (Beretta 92FS pistol). It was originally founded as the police force of the Kingdom of Sardinia, the forerunner of the Kingdom of Italy. During the process of Italian unification, it was appointed the "First Force" of the new national military organisation. Although the Carabinieri
Carabinieri
assisted in the suppression of opposition during the rule of Benito Mussolini, they were also responsible for his downfall and many units were disbanded during World War II
World War II
by Nazi Germany, which resulted in large numbers of Carabinieri
Carabinieri
joining the Italian resistance movement. Since 2001, it has been one of the four Italian Armed Forces.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 1930s and 1940s 1.3 Present day

2 Organization 3 Territorial Organization 4 Specialist and Mobile Units Command Organization

4.1 Mobile Units Division 4.2 Special
Special
forces 4.3 ROS 4.4 Special
Special
Tasks Departments 4.5 Command Unit for environmental, agri-food and forestry protection

5 War service 6 Uniforms 7 Decorations 8 Weapons

8.1 Ordinary weapons 8.2 Special
Special
weapons

9 Vehicles and equipment

9.1 Cars 9.2 Motorcycles 9.3 Aircraft 9.4 Tactical vehicles 9.5 Ships 9.6 Special
Special
Vehicles 9.7 Uniforms

10 See also 11 References 12 External links

History[edit] Early history[edit] Inspired by the French Gendarmerie, the corps was created by King Victor Emmanuel I of Savoy
Victor Emmanuel I of Savoy
with the aim of providing the Kingdom of Sardinia with a police corps. Previously, police duties were managed by the Dragoni di Sardegna Corps, created in 1726 and composed of volunteers. After French soldiers had occupied Turin
Turin
at the end of the 18th century and later abandoned it to the Kingdom of Piedmont, the Royal Carabinieri
Carabinieri
Corps was instituted under the Royal Patents of 13 July 1814.[5] The new force was divided into divisions on the scale of one division for each province. The divisions were further divided into companies and subdivided into lieutenancies, which commanded and coordinated the local police stations and were distributed throughout the national territory in direct contact with the public.[5]

Photo of a Carabiniere around 1875. The 'Medal of Italian Independence' is worn, indicating a veteran of the Risorgimento
Risorgimento
(The Wars for Italian Unification).

In 1868, the Corazzieri
Corazzieri
mounted division was formed – initially as an escort of honour for the sovereign, and since 1946 for the President of the Republic.[5] The Italian unification
Italian unification
saw the number of divisions increased,[5] and on 24 January 1861 the Carabinieri
Carabinieri
were appointed the "First Force" of the new national military organization.[5] In May 1915 Italian troops marched to encompass South Tyrol, territory of their former allies the Austro-Hungarian empire, in the Fronte italiano campaign. The defenders had sufficient time to prepare strong fortifications there, and in the Carso
Carso
theatre to the east, and the Italian regiments, under overall command of General
General
Cadorna, found themselves repeatedly repulsed in harsh fighting. The role of the Carabinieri
Carabinieri
was to act as barrier troops, setting up machine gun posts to control the rear of the attacking regiments and prevent desertion.[6] 1930s and 1940s[edit] During the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
(1922–1943), the Carabinieri
Carabinieri
were one of the police forces entrusted with suppressing opposition in Italy.[7] During the same period, while part of the Italian Africa Police
Italian Africa Police
(mainly in the late 1930s), they were involved in atrocities[8][9][10][10][11][12] in colonial Italian East Africa during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. During World War II
World War II
they fought in their function as military police against the Allied forces, and against Yugoslav partisans
Yugoslav partisans
as part of the Italian occupation force in Yugoslavia. After Mussolini's fall on 25 July 1943, he was arrested by the Carabinieri
Carabinieri
as he left the king's private residence in Rome
Rome
and subsequently imprisoned on Campo Imperatore
Campo Imperatore
by Carabinieri
Carabinieri
forces. After the armistice between Italy
Italy
and the Allies on 3 September 1943 and the country's split into the fascist Italian Social Republic
Italian Social Republic
in the north and the Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
in the south, the Carabinieri
Carabinieri
split into two groups. In southern Italy
Italy
the Carabinieri
Carabinieri
Command for Liberated Italy
Italy
was founded in Bari, mobilizing new units for the Italian war of liberation. These units were attached to the Italian Liberation Corps and the six Italian Combat Groups of the Italian Co-Belligerent Army, fighting with the Allied forces. In northern Italy
Italy
the fascist regime organized the Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana (composed of Carabinieri, former colonial policemen, Guardia di Finanza and customs police), to employ it as a military police and rapid-deployment anti-guerilla force. GNR was later joined (but not taken over) by the Black Brigades
Black Brigades
which should have represented a new militant incarnation of the Fascist party.

Vittorio Miele, Carabinieri

Due to the role the Carabinieri
Carabinieri
had played in the downfall of Mussolini, and since one of the few units which fought the German occupation of Rome
Rome
were the Granatieri di Sardegna regiments and the II Carabinieri
Carabinieri
cadet battalion, the Germans did not view the Carabinieri
Carabinieri
as loyal to the fascist cause[citation needed] and ordered the disbanding of all Carabinieri
Carabinieri
units in Axis-controlled territory on 7 October 1943. As German forces subsequently began to arrest and deport members of the Carabinieri
Carabinieri
to Germany
Germany
for forced labour, large numbers of Carabinieri
Carabinieri
joined the Italian resistance movement. After the war the Carabinieri
Carabinieri
counted at least 2,735 fallen and 6,500 wounded, out of approximately 14,000 who had joined the Resistance in northern and central Italy. In Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
the Carabinieri
Carabinieri
formed a battalion of the Italian partisan Garibaldi Division, which fought alongside the Yugoslav partisans
Yugoslav partisans
against German and Croatian Ustaše Forces. The battalion lost over 80% of its members in combat and was awarded the Silver Medal of Military Valor
Silver Medal of Military Valor
to commemorate the fallen.[13][14] Present day[edit]

Alfa Romeo 159

The Carabinieri
Carabinieri
increased in status and joined the Armed Forces on 31 March 2000.[5] In their history they have made countless heroic actions, but they are today particularly proud of the memory of Vice Brigadiere Salvo D'Acquisto, who was executed by the Germans in Palidoro (near Rome) during World War II. D'Acquisto exchanged his life for the lives of citizens due to be executed in retaliation for the killing of a German soldier; instead, he claimed responsibility and was executed for the offence. In recent years Carabinieri
Carabinieri
units have been dispatched on peacekeeping missions, including Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq. In 2003 twelve Carabinieri
Carabinieri
were killed in a suicide bombing on their base in Nasiriyah, near Basra
Basra
in southern Iraq, in the largest Italian military loss of life in a single action since the Second World War.[15] At the Sea Island Conference of the G8 in 2004, Carabinieri
Carabinieri
were given a mandate to establish a Centre of Excellence for Stability Police Units to spearhead the development of training and doctrinal standards for civilian police units attached to international peacekeeping missions.[16][17] The State Forestry Corps
State Forestry Corps
was dissolved on 31 December 2016 and personnel with forestry police function were militarized and absorbed by the Carabinieri. Organization[edit]

Senior Carabinieri
Carabinieri
General
General
in VM 90
VM 90
during the 2007 "Republic Day" parade in Italy.

Structure Specialist & Mobile Units Command

The corps is headed by the Comando, consisting of the Comandante Generale (a General), the Vice-Comandante Generale ( a Lieutenant General) and the Chief of Staff, all located in Rome. The Chief of Staff directs, coordinates and supervises all activities of the force. It directly supervises the Directors of Administration, Health, Engineering, the motor pool and the Veterinary Commission. On the Deputy Chiefs of Staff depend the National Center for Recruitment and Selection, the Administration National Center and the Legislation Office.[18] Territorial Organization[edit] The Carabinieri
Carabinieri
are organised on a territorial basis for law-enforcement missions. The territorial organization represents the core of the institution; it contains 80 percent of the force and is organized hierarchically in five inter-regional commands, 19 regional commands and 102 provincial commands, 504 Company Commands and approximately 5000 Station Commands (one or more for each Italian city). The territorial organization includes exceptionally a special force unit (100 military employees): Elliported Squadron "Hunters of Calabria", exclusively used against the kidnapping and predominantly Calabrian mafia. Specialist and Mobile Units Command Organization[edit]

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Outside the territorial organisation, the Specialist and Mobile Units Command Palidoro (Comando delle Unità Mobili e Specializzate, based in Rome) controls the Mobile Units Division, the Specialist Units Division and the ROS. Mobile Units Division[edit] See also: Carabinieri
Carabinieri
Mobile Units Division The Carabinieri Mobile Units Division
Carabinieri Mobile Units Division
is located in Treviso
Treviso
and has two brigades tasked with mass manoeuvres during emergencies, defending the nation and participating in military operations abroad. It supports public order and territorial control in urban areas, and contributes to the operations of civil authorities in terms of public safety. 1st Mobile Brigade, whose headquarter is located in Rome
Rome
and includes six Regiments e four Battalions mainly employed in public order tasks. 2nd Mobile Brigade headquartered in Livorno includes the Gruppo di Intervento Speciale
Gruppo di Intervento Speciale
special forces group, the 1st Paratroopers Carabinieri
Carabinieri
Regiment "Tuscania", and the 7th "Trentino-Alto Adige" and 13th "Friuli-Venezia Giulia" regiments, which are mainly engaged in international missions. Special
Special
forces[edit] See also: Gruppo di Intervento Speciale The Gruppo di Intervento Speciale
Gruppo di Intervento Speciale
in one of the four Italian special forces. ROS[edit] The ROS ( Raggruppamento Operativo Speciale
Raggruppamento Operativo Speciale
or Special
Special
Operational Group) is an elite unit founded in 1990 to deal with organised crime (Mafia and others), subversive activities, terrorism and more complex types of crime. An anti-crime section is found in every city and district public prosecutor's office. Special
Special
Tasks Departments[edit]

Corazzieri

Special
Special
Tasks Departments are outside the ordinary organisational framework and are used for special missions: Corazzieri
Corazzieri
(Cuirassiers) are an elite corps and honour guard of the President of the Italian Republic, located in the Quirinal Palace. They are distinguished by their uniforms and height (the minimum height for admission is 1.9 m or 6 ft 3 in). They have almost no other everyday duties, although they may be seen patrolling occasionally. Other departments are in service to constitutional bodies such as the Presidency of the Republic, the Senate, Parliament, the Judiciary, the Prime Minister
Prime Minister
and the National Council of Economy and Labour. Carabinieri
Carabinieri
also perform military police and security duties for the Ministry of Defence, military high commands, the offices of the military judiciary and allied military organisations in Italy
Italy
and abroad. They also have personnel attached to the Department of Public Security in various departments, as well as anti-Mafia and anti-drug investigative task forces. Carabinieri
Carabinieri
officers are charged with surveillance and security at Italian embassies and consulates abroad, performing the same services entrusted to the Marine Corps Embassy Security Group in United States
United States
diplomatic and consular offices. Together with the Polizia di Stato
Polizia di Stato
and the Guardia di Finanza, the Carabinieri
Carabinieri
is also responsible for border control.[19] Command Unit for environmental, agri-food and forestry protection[edit] The specialized Comando unità per la tutela forestale, ambientale e agroalimentare has headquarter located in Rome
Rome
and organized in 15 regional command and approximately 700 Station Commands on the territory. It counts 7,000 personnel involved in contrast of illicit agri-foodstuffs, environmental and biodiversity protection, contrast to poaching, contrast to all criminal organizations that, with their activity, affect the environment. In the Unit there are also 29 NOE (Nucleo Operativo Ecologico), nucleus highly specialized in complex investigations in environmental matters against organized crime. War service[edit]

1st Paratroopers Carabinieri
Carabinieri
Regiment "Tuscania"

The main battles in which the Carabinieri
Carabinieri
took part before World War I are:

Grenoble, July 5, 1815 (baptism of fire) Battle of Pastrengo, 30 April 1848 – the Carabinieri
Carabinieri
Corps was awarded its first Silver Medal of Military Valor Battle of Santa Lucia, 6 May 1848 – the Carabinieri
Carabinieri
Corps was awarded its first Bronze Medal of Military Valor Battle of Custoza, 24–25 July 1848 Battle of Custoza, 24 June 1866 Capture of Rome, 20 September 1870 (together with the Bersaglieri)

For its contributions during the First World War, the Corps was awarded its first Gold Medal of Military Valor In World War II, Carabinieri
Carabinieri
distinguished themselves in the following battles:[14]

Battle of Klisoura on the Greek-Albanian front from 16 to 30 December 1940 Bronze Medal of Military Valor Battle at Cafe Struga on the Albanian-Yugoslav front on 18 April 1941 Battle of Culqualber
Battle of Culqualber
(Ethiopia), 6 August-21 November 1941 – Corps was awarded its second Gold Medal of Military Valor

From 1943 to 1945, the Carabinieri
Carabinieri
were accountable to the Control Commission of the Allied Military Government
Allied Military Government
(AMGOT). Their reorganization and reform was organized by Colonel Arthur Young, a British police officer seconded as Director of Public Safety and Director of Security. Uniforms[edit]

Dress uniform

A female carabiniere in uniform

The Carabinieri
Carabinieri
were issued a distinctive uniform in black with silver braid around the collar and cuffs, edges trimmed in scarlet and epaulettes in silver. The mounted division had white fringes, and the infantry had light blue. Their headgear was a distinctive bicorne, popularly called the lucerna (in use only for historical uniform and ceremonies).[5] They still use a version of the historic uniform today for ceremonies.[5] The full set of different Carabinieri
Carabinieri
uniforms today is presented here (in Italian). Carabinieri
Carabinieri
MP Units wear a dark navy blue beret.

Decorations[edit] The State Color of the Carabinieri
Carabinieri
bears the following decorations:

6 Cavalier Crosses of the Military Order of Italy 3 Gold Medals of Military Valor 3 Gold Medals of Army
Army
Valor 5 Silver Medals of Military Valor 4 Bronze Medals of Military Valor 10 Gold Medals of Civil Valor 1 Silver Medal of Civil Valor 2 War Crosses of Military Valor 4 Gold Medals of Civil Merit 6 Gold Medals of Benemerited Public Security 5 Gold Medals of Benemerited Service to Education, Culture and the Arts 2 Gold Medals of Benemerited Service to the Environment 1 Gold Medal of Service in the Earthquake of 1909 1 Bronze Medal of Civil Defense Excellence 1st Class

Weapons[edit] In response to the many and diverse needs of the Carabinieri, the service provides for the use of various types of weapons that are divided into "ordinary" and "special" weapons and supplied to all staff as follows: Ordinary weapons[edit]

Pistols: Beretta 92
Beretta 92
(the standard service arm) – Beretta 8000
Beretta 8000
for officers Submachine gun: Mod.PM 12 S2 Assault rifle: Beretta AR70/90 Light machine gun: FN Minimi

Special
Special
weapons[edit] Used only by certain departments and under certain circumstances:

Pistol: Beretta 93R Assault rifle: Beretta SC70/90 Assault rifle: M4 carbine Submachine gun: Heckler & Koch MP5 Submachine gun: Steyr TMP Shotgun: Franchi SPAS-15 Sharpshooter: Mauser
Mauser
SP66, MSG-90 Sniper rifle: Accuracy International AWM Machine gun: Beretta MG 42/59

Vehicles and equipment[edit] Until very recently the Italian police (including the Carabinieri) operated only Italian-made vehicles, but that changed with the introduction of Land Rover Defenders and Subarus into service. Normal Carabinieri
Carabinieri
patrol vehicles are dark blue with a white roof, with a red stripe along the side. Carabinieri
Carabinieri
license plates begin with "CC" or previously with "EI" (formerly Esercito Italiano, Italian Army), and a Carabinieri
Carabinieri
car is traditionally called a Gazzella (gazelle). Small or medium-sized cars are used for ordinary patrol work, with larger and more powerful vehicles being used for emergency response, highway patrol, and special services. The vehicles of the Carabinieri military police and mobile units are painted in NATO camouflage scheme as done with the other Italian Armed Forces
Italian Armed Forces
vehicles. Cars[edit]

Carabinieri
Carabinieri
Alfa Romeo 159

Carabinieri
Carabinieri
Land Rover Discovery
Land Rover Discovery
II

Alfa Romeo 156 Alfa Romeo 159 Alfa Romeo Giulia Alfa Romeo Giulia
Alfa Romeo Giulia
(952) Subaru
Subaru
Forester Lancia Kappa Land Rover Freelander Land Rover Defender-90 hard top Land Rover Discovery
Land Rover Discovery
II e III Lotus Evora
Lotus Evora
S Fiat Bravo Fiat Stilo
Fiat Stilo
1.9 JTD Fiat Ducato Fiat Grande Punto Mitsubishi Pajero Isuzu D-Max Nissan Terrano II

Motorcycles[edit]

Carabinieri
Carabinieri
BMW R1100-RTP

Moto Guzzi California
Moto Guzzi California
Cruiser BMW F650GS BMW R1100-RTP

Aircraft[edit]

Carabinieri
Carabinieri
AgustaWestland AW109N

Fixed-wing aircraft

Piaggio P.180 Avanti

Helicopters

AgustaWestland AW109 Agusta-Bell AB 412

Tactical vehicles[edit]

Carabinieri
Carabinieri
Mercedes Unimog
Unimog
3000 – 5000 mobile labs for CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological & nuclear) activity

Carabinieri
Carabinieri
Iveco VM 90P Protected

Land Rover Defender
Land Rover Defender
110 soft top Iveco Daily
Iveco Daily
4x4 40.10WM 4X4 off-road light armored military truck Unimog RG-12 Iveco VM 90T Torpedo Iveco VM 90P Protected Iveco LMV Puma 4x4 Puma 6x6 VCC1 M113

Ships[edit]

Offshore patrol boats

Motovedetta classe 800 Motovedetta classe N700 Motovedetta classe 600

Coastal patrol boats

Motovedetta classe 200 Motovedetta classe 100

Motorboats

Motovedetta classe 300 Motovedetta classe N100 Motovedetta classe T120 Motovedette classe S Battello pneumatico Stinger

Special
Special
Vehicles[edit]

An Italian Carabinieri
Carabinieri
GEM e2 (called the Ovetti – "little eggs") in Carabinieri
Carabinieri
service. Used for patrolling urban areas.

GEMCAR Snowmobile Polaris

Uniforms[edit]

A Carabiniere in everyday uniform

Carabinieri
Carabinieri
with capes

Summer dress

Carabinieri
Carabinieri
at a demonstration in Florence

See also[edit]

Italy
Italy
portal Military history portal Law enforcement portal

Civilian control of the military Gendarmerie Law enforcement in Italy Military police Zaptie Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa Centro Sportivo Carabinieri

References[edit]

^ Paoletti, Ciro (2008). A Military History of Italy. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-98505-9.  ^ Peter G. Stone, Joanne Farchakh Bajjaly, Robert Fisk. The destruction of cultural heritage in Iraq. Boydell & Brewer Ltd, 2008 ^ Richard Heber Wrightson, A History of Modern Italy, from the First French Revolution to the Year 1850. Elibron.com, 2005 ^ A new survey of universal knowledge. 4. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1952.  ^ a b c d e f g h "The ancient Corps of the Royal Carabinieri". Carabinieri. Retrieved 2009-05-20.  ^ Thompson, Mark (2009). The White War. London: Faber. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-5712-2334-3.  ^ The Oxford illustrated history of Italy
Italy
- Google Books. Books.google.com. 1997. ISBN 9780198205272. Retrieved 2009-09-19.  ^ "Massacres and Atrocities of WWII in the Axis Countries". Members.iinet.net.au. Retrieved 2009-09-19.  ^ "Pétros, Ethiopia, Orthodox". Dacb.org. Retrieved 2009-09-19.  ^ a b The history of Ethiopia - Google Books. Books.google.com. 2007. ISBN 9780313322730. Retrieved 2009-09-19.  ^ Haile Selassie's war - Google Books. Books.google.com. 2003-01-01. ISBN 9781902669533. Retrieved 2009-09-19.  ^ "The Pankhurst History Library". Link Ethiopia. Archived from the original on 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2009-09-19.  ^ " Arma dei Carabinieri
Arma dei Carabinieri
- Home - L'Arma - Curiosità - Non tutti sanno che... - R". Carabinieri.it. Retrieved 2009-09-19.  ^ a b " Arma dei Carabinieri
Arma dei Carabinieri
- Home - > - EN - Military Operations". Carabinieri.it. Retrieved 2009-09-19.  ^ " Arma dei Carabinieri
Arma dei Carabinieri
- La strage di Nassiriya". Carabinieri.it. Retrieved 2016-04-17.  ^ Formed Police Units Workshop and Seminar, "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-16. Retrieved 2007-05-15.  Issue Paper No. 2006-04, US Army
Army
Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
and Stability Operations Institute, January 2007. ^ Arcudi, Giovanni & Smith, Michael E. (2013). The European Gendarmerie
Gendarmerie
Force: a solution in search of problems?. European Security 22 (1), 1-20, DOI: 10.1080/09662839.2012.747511. ^ "Organizzazione Centrale". Archived from the original on February 27, 2012. Retrieved July 13, 2012.  ^ List of national services responsible for border control

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Carabinieri.

(in English) Official Carabinieri
Carabinieri
website (in English) FIEP - Italian Carabinieri (in Italian) Carabinieri
Carabinieri
Association website

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Polizia di Stato

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Arma dei Carabinieri

Raggruppamento Operativo Speciale
Raggruppamento Operativo Speciale
(ROS) Gruppo di Intervento Speciale
Gruppo di Intervento Speciale
(GIS) Corazzieri 1st Carabinieri
Carabinieri
Mobile Brigade 2nd Carabinieri
Carabinieri
Mobile Brigade Forestry Carabinieri

Guardia di Finanza

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Others

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Esercito Italiano (Army) Marina Militare (Navy) Aeronautica Militare (Air Force) Arma dei Carabinieri
Arma dei Carabinieri
(Gendarmerie)

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Command

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Carabinieri
Corps

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Police Garrison of Sør-Varanger

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Straż Graniczna Służba Celna

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Force

Members

Gendarmerie
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Partners and observers

Viešojo saugumo tarnyba Jandarma Ge

.