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The CAPTAINCY GENERAL OF SANTO DOMINGO was the first colony in the New World
New World
and was claimed for Spain
Spain
. The island was originally named "La Española " (Hispaniola) by Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
. From 1511, the courts of the colony were placed under the jurisdiction of the Royal Audiencia of Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
. In the 17th century, after years of struggles with the French , the Spanish lost the western third of the island. The Spanish remained in control of the eastern two-thirds of the island, which later became part of the Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
.

The colony of Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
played a significant role in the establishment of Spanish colonies in the New World
New World
serving as a headquarters for Spanish conquistadors on their way to the conquest of the Americas
Americas
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Arrival of the Europeans

* 1.1 African enslavement

* 2 1540–1795

* 2.1 French acquisition and the Haitian Revolution
Haitian Revolution

* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading

ARRIVAL OF THE EUROPEANS

Columbus reached the island on his first voyage, on December 5, 1492, naming it La Española. Believing that the Europeans were in some way supernatural, the Taínos welcomed them with all the honors available. This was a totally different society from the one the Europeans came from. Guacanagarí , the chief who hosted Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
and his men, treated them kindly and provided them with everything they desired. Yet the Taínos' allegedly "egalitarian" system clashed with the Europeans' feudalist system, with more rigid class structures. This led the Europeans to believe the Taínos to be either weak or misleading, and they began to treat the tribes with more violence. Columbus tried to temper this when he and his men departed from Ayiti —as the Taínos called the island—and they left on a good note.

Columbus had cemented a firm alliance with Guacanagarix, who was a powerful chief on the island. After the shipwrecking of the Santa María , Columbus decided to establish a small fort with a garrison of men that could help him lay claim to this possession. The fort was called La Navidad , since the events of the shipwrecking and the founding of the fort occurred on Christmas Day. The garrison, in spite of all the wealth and beauty on the island, was wracked by divisions that evolved into conflict amongst these first Europeans. The more rapacious ones began to terrorize the Taíno, Ciguayo and Macorix tribesmen up to the point of trying to take their women. Viewed as weak by the Spaniards and even some of his own people, Guacanagarix tried to come to an accommodation with the Spaniards, who saw his appeasement as the actions of someone who submitted. They treated him with contempt and even took some of his wives. The powerful cacique of the Maguana, Caonabo, could brook no further affronts and attacked the Europeans, destroying La Navidad. Guacanagarix was dismayed by this turn of events but did not try too hard to aid these guamikena, probably hoping that the troublesome outsiders would never return. However, they did return.

In 1493, Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
came back to the island on his second voyage and founded the first Spanish colony in the New World, the city of Isabella. In 1496, his brother Bartholomew Columbus
Bartholomew Columbus
established the settlement of Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
de Guzmán on the southern coast, which became the new capital. An estimated 400,000 Tainos living on the island were soon enslaved to work in gold mines. As a consequence of oppression, forced labor, hunger, disease, and mass killings, it is estimated that by 1508 that number had been reduced to around 60,000. By 1535, only a few dozen were still alive.

During this period, the Spanish leadership changed hands several times. When Columbus departed on another exploration, Francisco de Bobadilla became governor. Settlers' charges against Columbus of mismanagement added to the tumultuous political situation. In 1502, Nicolás de Ovando replaced de Bobadilla as governor, with an ambitious plan to expand Spanish influence in the region. It was he who dealt most brutally with the Taínos.

One rebel, however, successfully fought back. Enriquillo , leading a group of those who had fled to the mountains, attacked the Spanish repeatedly for fourteen years. Finally, the Spanish offered him a peace treaty. In addition, they gave Enriquillo and his followers their own city in 1534. The city did not last long, however; several years after its establishment, a slave rebellion burned it to the ground, killing anyone who stayed behind.

AFRICAN ENSLAVEMENT

Inspection and sale of African slaves.

In 1501, the Spanish monarchs, Ferdinand I and Isabella , first granted permission to the colonists of the Caribbean to import African slaves , which began arriving to the island in 1503. In 1510, the first sizable shipment, consisting of 250 Black Ladinos , arrived in Hispaniola
Hispaniola
from Spain. Eight years later African-born slaves arrived in the West Indies
West Indies
. Sugar cane
Sugar cane
was introduced to Hispaniola
Hispaniola
from the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
, and the first sugar mill in the New World
New World
was established in 1516. The need for a labor force to meet the growing demands of sugar cane cultivation led to an exponential increase in the importation of slaves over the following two decades. The sugar mill owners soon formed a new colonial elite, and initially convinced the Spanish king to allow them to elect the members of the Real Audiencia from their ranks. Poorer colonists subsisted by hunting the herds of wild cattle that roamed throughout the island and selling their hides.

The first major slave revolt in the Americas
Americas
occurred in Santo Domingo during 1522, when enslaved Muslims
Muslims
of the Wolof nation led an uprising in the sugar plantation of admiral Don Diego Colon
Diego Colon
, son of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
. Many of these insurgents managed to escape to the mountains where they formed independent maroon communities.

1540–1795

While sugar cane dramatically increased Spain's earnings on the island, large numbers of the newly imported slaves fled into the nearly impassable mountain ranges in the island's interior, joining the growing communities of cimarrónes-literally, 'wild animals'. By the 1530s, cimarron bands had become so numerous that in rural areas the Spaniards could only safely travel outside their plantations in large armed groups. By the 1540s, the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
had become overrun with English, French and Dutch pirates. In 1541 Spain
Spain
authorized the construction of Santo Domingo's fortified wall, and decided to restrict sea travel to enormous, well-armed convoys. In another move, which would destroy Hispaniola
Hispaniola
's sugar industry, Havana
Havana
, more strategically located in relation to the Gulf Stream , was selected as the designated stopping point for the merchant flotas , which had a royal monopoly on commerce with the Americas. In 1564, the island's main inland cities Santiago de los Caballeros and Concepción de la Vega were destroyed by an earthquake.

FRENCH ACQUISITION AND THE HAITIAN REVOLUTION

See also: Saint-Domingue
Saint-Domingue

With the conquest of the Spanish Main , Hispaniola
Hispaniola
slowly declined. Many Spanish colonists left for the silver-mines of the American mainland , while new immigrants from Spain
Spain
bypassed the island. Agriculture dwindled, new imports of slaves ceased, and white colonists, free blacks and slaves alike lived in poverty , weakening the racial hierarchy and aiding miscegenation , which resulted in a population of predominantly mixed Spaniard, African, and Taino descent. Except for the city of Santo Domingo, which managed to maintain some legal exports, Dominican ports were forced to rely on contraband trade, which, along with livestock, became the sole source of livelihood for the island dwellers. In 1586, Sir Francis Drake captured the city of Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
, collecting a ransom for its return to Spanish rule.

In 1605, Spain, unhappy that Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
was facilitating trade between its other colonies and other European powers, attacked vast parts of the colony's northern and western regions, forcibly resettling their inhabitants closer to the city of Santo Domingo. This action, known as the devastaciones, proved disastrous; more than half of the resettled colonists died of starvation or disease. French and English buccaneers took advantage of Spain's retreat into a corner of Hispaniola
Hispaniola
to settle the island of Tortuga in 1629, which France established direct control over in 1640, reorganizing it into an official colony and expanding to the north coast of Hispaniola
Hispaniola
itself. Spain
Spain
ceded the western end of the island to France
France
in 1697, under the Treaty of Ryswick
Treaty of Ryswick
. In 1655, Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
dispatched a fleet, commanded by Admiral Sir William Penn , to conquer the colony. After being defeated at Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
on April 30, the English retreated, taking the island of Jamaica
Jamaica
instead.

The House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
replaced the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
in Spain
Spain
in 1700 and introduced economic reforms that gradually began to revive trade in Santo Domingo. The crown progressively relaxed the rigid controls and restrictions on commerce between Spain
Spain
and the colonies and among the colonies. The last flotas sailed in 1737; the monopoly port system was abolished shortly thereafter. By the middle of the century, the population was bolstered by emigration from the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
, resettling the northern part of the colony and planting tobacco in the Cibao Valley , and importation of slaves was renewed. The population of Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
grew from about 6,000 in 1737 to approximately 125,000 in 1790. Of this number, about 40,000 were white landowners, about 25,000 were black or mulatto freedmen, and some 60,000 were slaves. However, it remained poor and neglected, particularly in contrast with neighboring French Saint-Domingue, which became the wealthiest colony in the New World. As restrictions on colonial trade were relaxed, the colonial elites of St. Domingue offered the principal market for Santo Domingo's exports of beef, hides, mahogany and tobacco.

With the outbreak of the Haitian Revolution
Haitian Revolution
, the rich urban families linked to the colonial bureaucracy fled the island, while most of the rural hateros (cattle ranchers) remained, even though they lost their principal market. Spain
Spain
saw in the unrest an opportunity to seize all, or part, of the western region of the island in an alliance of convenience with the British and the rebellious slaves. They were defeated by the forces of the black Jacobin General Toussaint L\'Ouverture , and in 1795, France
France
gained control of the whole island under the Treaties of Basel . This period called the Era de Francia
Era de Francia
, lasted until 1809 until being recaptured by Spain.

SEE ALSO

* Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
portal * New Spain
Spain
portal

* List of colonial governors of Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
* Timeline of Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
* History of the Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
* Spanish colonization of the Americas
Americas
* French Colony
Colony
of Saint-Domingue
Saint-Domingue

REFERENCES

* ^ " Hispaniola
Hispaniola
Article". Britannica.com. Retrieved 4 January 2014.

* ^ " Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
2014". Retrieved 24 April 2014. * ^ Hartlyn, Jonathan (1998). The Struggle for Democratic Politics in the Dominican Republic. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 25. ISBN 0-8078-4707-0 . * ^ Sharpe, Peter (1998-10-26). "Sugar Cane: Past and Present". Archived from the original on 2008-05-18. Retrieved 2008-07-15. * ^ Knight, Franklin W. (1990). The Caribbean: The Genesis of a Fragmented Nationalism (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 54. ISBN 0-19-505440-7 . * ^ Harvey, Sean (2006). The Rough Guide to the Dominican Republic (3rd ed.). New York: Rough Guides. p. 352. ISBN 1-84353-497-5 . * ^ "Dominican Republic—The First Colony". U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 2008-07-15.

FURTHER READING

* "Santo Domingo". Encyclopædia Metropolitana . 18. London: B. Fellowes et al. 1845.

* v * t * e

Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
articles

HISTORY

* Cacicazgo * Captaincy General of Santo Domingo * Colonial governors * Atlantic slave trade * Maroons * Era de Francia
Era de Francia
* Spanish reconquest * España Boba
España Boba
* Unification of Hispaniola
Hispaniola
* La Trinitaria * War of Independence * Dominican Restoration War * U.S. occupation 1916–24 * Trujillo Era (Rafael and Héctor Trujillo
Héctor Trujillo
) * Parsley Massacre
Parsley Massacre
* Dominican Civil War
Dominican Civil War

GEOGRAPHY

* Cities * Ciudad Colonial * Hispaniola
Hispaniola
* Islands * Mountains * Municipalities * Protected areas * Provinces * Regions * Rivers * Wildlife

POLITICS

* Cabinet

* Congress

* Senate * Chamber of Deputies

* Constitution * Elections * Foreign relations

* Human rights

* LGBT

* Law

* enforcement

* Military * Politics * Political parties * President

ECONOMY

* Peso (currency)

* Banks

* Central Bank

* Companies * Energy * Telecommunications * Tourism * Transport

SOCIETY

* Crime * Demographics * Education * Health * Language * Religion * Water and sanitation

CULTURE

* Anthem * Cinema * Coat of arms * Cuisine * Flag * Literature * Music * People * Sports

* Outline * Index

* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire

TIMELINE

* Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
* Habsburgs * Golden Age * Encomiendas * New Laws in favour of the indigenous * Expulsion of the Moriscos * Eighty Years\' War * Portuguese Restoration War * Bourbons * Napoleonic invasion * Independence of Spanish continental Americas
Americas
* Liberal constitution * Carlist Wars * Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
* German–Spanish Treaty (1899) * Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
* Independence of Morocco ( Western Sahara conflict )

TERRITORIES

* Kingdoms of Naples , Sicily and Sardinia * Milan * Union with Holy Roman Empire * Netherlands * Franche-Comté * Portugal * Philippines * East Pacific (Guam, Mariana, Caroline, Palau, Marshall, Micronesia, Moluccas) * Northern Taiwan * Tidore
Tidore
* Florida * New Spain
Spain
(Western United States, Mexico, Central America, Spanish Caribbean) * Spanish Louisiana * Coastal Alaska * Haiti
Haiti
* Belize * Jamaica
Jamaica
* Trinidad and Tobago * Venezuela, Northern and Western Guyana * New Granada (Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, a northernmost portion of Brazilian Amazon) * Peru (Peru, Acre) * Río de la Plata (Argentina, Paraguay, Charcas (Bolivia), Banda Oriental (Uruguay), Falkland Islands ) * Chile * Equatorial Guinea * Spanish North Africa
Africa
( Ifni , Cape Juby , Spanish Morocco and Western Sahara )

ADMINISTRATION

* Council of the Indies * Cabildo * Trial of residence * Laws of the Indies * Royal Decree of Graces * Exequatur * Papal bull
Papal bull
* School of Salamanca

ADMINISTRATIVE SUBDIVISIONS

VICEROYALTIES

* New Spain
Spain
* New Granada * Perú * Río de la Plata

AUDIENCIAS

* Bogotá * Buenos Aires * Caracas * Charcas * Concepción * Cusco * Guadalajara * Guatemala * Lima * Manila * Mexico * Panamá * Quito * Santiago * Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo

CAPTAINCIES GENERAL

* Chile * Cuba * Guatemala * Philippines * Puerto Rico * Santo Domingo * Venezuela * Yucatán * Provincias Internas

GOVERNORATES

* Castilla de Oro * Cuba * New Andalusia (1501–1513) * New Andalusia * New Castile * New Toledo * Paraguay * Río de la Plata

ECONOMY

CURRENCIES

* Dollar * Real * Maravedí * Escudo * Columnario

TRADE

* Manila galleon
Manila galleon
* Spanish treasure fleet
Spanish treasure fleet
* Casa de Contratación * Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas * Camino Real de Tierra Adentro

MILITARY

ARMIES

* Tercio
Tercio
* Army of Flanders * Spanish Armada
Spanish Armada
* Indian auxiliaries * Legión

WARRIORS

* Duke of Alba * Antonio de Leyva * Martín de Goiti * Alfonso d\'Avalos * García de Toledo Osorio * Duke of Savoy * Álvaro de Bazán the Elder * John of Austria * Charles Bonaventure de Longueval * Pedro de Zubiaur * Ambrosio Spinola * Bernardo de Gálvez
Bernardo de Gálvez

SAILORS

* Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
* Pinzón brothers * Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
* Juan Sebastián Elcano
Juan Sebastián Elcano
* Juan de la Cosa * Juan Ponce de León
Juan Ponce de León
* Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi
* Pedro Menéndez de Avilés * Sebastián de Ocampo * Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
* Alonso de Ojeda
Alonso de Ojeda
* Vasco Núñez de Balboa * Alonso de Salazar * Andrés de Urdaneta * Antonio de Ulloa
Antonio de Ulloa
* Ruy López de Villalobos * Diego Columbus * Alonso de Ercilla * Nicolás de Ovando * Juan de Ayala * Sebastián Vizcaíno * Juan Fernández * Felipe González de Ahedo

CONQUISTADORS

* Hernán Cortés * Francisco Pizarro * Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada * Hernán Pérez de Quesada * Francisco Vázquez de Coronado
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado
* Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar * Pedro de Valdivia
Pedro de Valdivia
* Pedro de Alvarado
Pedro de Alvarado
* Martín de Ursúa * Diego de Almagro * Pánfilo de Narváez * Diego de Mazariegos * Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera

BATTLES

OLD WORLD

WON

* Bicocca * Landriano * Pavia * Tunis * Mühlberg * St. Quentin * Gravelines * Malta * Lepanto * Antwerp * Azores * Siege of Mons * Gembloux * Siege of Ostend * English Armada * Cape Celidonia * White Mountain * Siege of Breda * Nördlingen * Valenciennes * Siege of Ceuta * Bitonto * Bailén * Vitoria * Tetouan * Alhucemas

LOST

* Capo d\'Orso * Preveza * Siege of Castelnuovo * Algiers * Ceresole * Djerba * Tunis * Spanish Armada
Spanish Armada
* Leiden * Rocroi * Downs * Passaro * Trafalgar * Somosierra * Annual

NEW WORLD

WON

* Siege of Tenochtitlan * Cajamarca * Cuzco * Bogotá savanna * Reynogüelén * Penco * Guadalupe Island * San Juan * Cartagena de Indias * Cuerno Verde * Pensacola

LOST

* La Noche Triste * Tucapel * Chacabuco * Carabobo * Ayacucho * Guam * Santiago de Cuba * Manila Bay * Asomante

SPANISH COLONIZATIONS

* Canary Islands
Canary Islands
* Aztec

* Maya

* Chiapas * Yucatán * Guatemala * Petén

* El Salvador * Honduras * Nicaragua * Chibchan Nations * Colombia * Peru * Chile

OTHER CIVIL TOPICS

* Spanish missions in the Americas
Americas
* Architecture * Mesoamerican codices * Cusco painting tradition * Indochristian painting in New Spain
Spain
* Quito painting tradition * Colonial universities in Latin America * Colonial universities in the Philippines * General Archive of the Indies * Colonial Spanish Horse * Castas * Old inquisition * Slavery in Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
* British and American slaves granted their freedom by Spain
Spain

* v * t * e

History of the Caribbean

GREATER ANTILLES

* Cayman Islands * Cuba * Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
* Haiti
Haiti
* Jamaica
Jamaica
* Puerto Rico

LEEWARD ANTILLES

* Aruba * Bonaire * Curaçao * Federal Dependencies of Venezuela

LEEWARD ISLANDS

* Anguilla * Antigua and Barbuda * British Virgin Islands * Guadeloupe * Montserrat * Saba * Saint Barthélemy * Saint Martin * U.S. Virgin Islands * Saint Kitts and Nevis * Sint Eustatius * Sint Maarten

WINDWARD ISLANDS

* Dominica * Grenada * Martinique * Saint Lucia * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

OTHER ISLANDS

* Barbados * Bahamas * Trinidad and Tobago * Turks and Caicos Islands

CONTINENTAL COASTS

* Belize * Bermuda * Colombia * Costa Rica * French Guiana * Guatemala * Guyana * Honduras * Mexico * Nicaragua * Panama * Suriname * Venezuela

* v * t * e

History of North America
History of North America

SOVEREIGN STATES

* Antigua and Barbuda * Bahamas * Barbados * Belize * Canada * Costa Rica * Cuba * Dominica * Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
* El Salvador * Grenada * Guatemala * Haiti
Haiti
* Honduras * Jamaica
Jamaica
* Mexico * Nicaragua * Panama * Saint Kitts and Nevis * Saint Lucia * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Trinidad and Tobago * United States

Dependencies and other territories

* Anguilla * Aruba * Bermuda * Bonaire * British Virgin Islands * Cayman Islands * Curaçao * Greenland * Guadeloupe * Martinique * Montserrat * Navassa Island * Puerto Rico * Saint Barthélemy * Saint Martin * Saint Pierre and Miquelon * Saba * Sint Eustatius * Sint Maarten * Turks and Caicos Islands * United States Virgi

.