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The CAPTAINCY GENERAL OF GUATEMALA (Spanish : _Capitanía General de Guatemala_), also known as the KINGDOM OF GUATEMALA (Spanish: _Reino de Guatemala_), was an administrative division of the Spanish Empire in Central America
Central America
, including the present-day nations of Costa Rica
Costa Rica
, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
, Honduras
Honduras
, El Salvador
El Salvador
, Belize
Belize
and Guatemala
Guatemala
, and the Mexican state of Chiapas
Chiapas
. The governor-captain general was also president of the Royal Audiencia of Guatemala .

CONTENTS

* 1 Antecedents

* 1.1 Moving of the capital * 1.2 Role of the church

* 2 Establishment * 3 Independence * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links

ANTECEDENTS

Main article: Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Guatemala

The colonization of the area that became the future Captaincy General began in 1524. In the north, the brothers Gonzalo and Pedro de Alvarado , Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés
and others headed various expeditions into Guatemala
Guatemala
and Honduras. In the south Francisco Hernández de Córdoba , acting under the auspices of Pedrarias Dávila in Panama
Panama
, moved into what is today Nicaragua.

MOVING OF THE CAPITAL

The colonial coat of arms of Antigua Guatemala
Antigua Guatemala
and Guatemala City .

The capital of Guatemala
Guatemala
has moved many times over the centuries. On 27 July 1524, Pedro de Alvarado declared the Kaqchikel city, Iximche , as the first regional capital, styled _Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala
Guatemala
_ ("St. James of the Knights of Guatemala"). However, hostilities between the Spaniards and the Kaqchikel soon made the city uninhabitable.

In 1526, the Spanish founded a new capital settlement at Tecpán Guatemala
Guatemala
, _Tecpán_ being the Nahuatl
Nahuatl
word for "palace". Tecpán is sometimes called the "first" capital because of its status as the first permanent Spanish military center. The Spaniards soon abandoned Tecpán due to continuous Kaqchikel attacks that made defense of the city untenable.

In 1527, the capital was moved yet again to the Almolonga Valley to the east, being refounded on the site of today's San Miguel Escobar district of Ciudad Vieja , near Antigua Guatemala
Antigua Guatemala
. This settlement was destroyed by a catastrophic lahar from Volcan de Agua in 1541, and the survivors had no choice but to abandon the site.

In 1543, the capital was again refounded several kilometres away at Antigua Guatemala
Antigua Guatemala
. Over the next two centuries, this city would become one of the richest of the New World capitals. However, it too was destroyed, this time by a devastating series of earthquakes, and the city was ordered abandoned in 1776.

The final and current capital is the modern-day Guatemala City
Guatemala City
.

ROLE OF THE CHURCH

The Church played an important role in the administration of the overseas possessions of the Spanish crown. The first dioceses were established in León, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and Guatemala
Guatemala
in 1534. Another diocese was created in Chiapas
Chiapas
in 1539. The dioceses of Guatemala
Guatemala
and Chiapas were suffragan to the Archdiocese of Seville , until 1546 when they are placed under the Archdiocese of Mexico . The Diocese of León was made suffragan to Archdiocese of Lima in 1546. Another short-lived diocese was set up in Verapaz, Guatemala
Guatemala
in 1559. Along the Caribbean coast, there were several attempts to establish a diocese in Honduras—which finally succeeded in 1561 with the Diocese of Comayagua —which was placed under the Archdiocese of Santo Domingo .

In 1543 the territory of the kingdom was defined with the establishment of the Audiencia of Guatemala
Guatemala
, which took most of Central America
Central America
as its jurisdiction. This _audiencia_, along with the one in Lima , took over the territory of the first Audiencia of Panama . It was the first institution to define Central America
Central America
(with the exception of Panama) as a region within the Spanish Empire.

ESTABLISHMENT

The Fort of San Fernando Omoa
Omoa
. Built by the Spaniards to defend against pirates.

In 1609 the area became a captaincy general , when the governor and _Audiencia_ president was also granted the title of captain general to deal with foreign threats to the area from the Caribbean, granting the area autonomy in administrative and military matters. Around the same time Habsburg Spain created other captaincies general in Puerto Rico (1580), Cuba (1607) and Yucatán (1617).

In the 17th century a process of uniting the church hierarchy of Central America
Central America
also began. The dioceses of Comayagua and León were made suffragan to the Archdiocese of Mexico in 1620 and 1647, respectively. Finally in the 18th century Guatemala
Guatemala
was raised to an Archdiocese in 1743 and the dioceses of León, Chiapas
Chiapas
and Comayagua are made suffragan to it, giving the region unity and autonomy in religious matters.

As part of the Bourbon Reforms in 1786 the crown established a series of intendancies in the area, which replaced most of the older _corregimientos _. The intendants were granted broad fiscal powers and were charged with promoting the local economy. The new intendancies were San Salvador (El Salvador), Ciudad Real (Chiapas), Comayagua (Honduras), and León (Nicaragua).

The governor-captain general-president of Guatemala
Guatemala
became the _superintendente general_ of the territory and functioned as de facto intendant of Guatemala
Guatemala
proper. The agricultural, southern region of Costa Rica
Costa Rica
remained under a civil and military governor with fiscal oversight of only military expenses; the expenses of the civil government were handled by the intendant of León. These intendancies helped shape local political identity and provided the basis of the future nations of Central America.

INDEPENDENCE

With the removal of Ferdinand VII during the Peninsular War , independence movements broke out in the intendancies of San Salvador and León in 1811, which were quickly suppressed. In 1812 the Cádiz Cortes divided the region into two provinces: _Guatemala_ (consisting of Guatemala, Belize, Chiapas, Honduras
Honduras
and El Salvador) and _ Nicaragua
Nicaragua
y Costa Rica_. These provinces existed from 1812 to 1814 and once again from 1820 to 1821, the period during which the Spanish Constitution of 1812 was in effect. The two provinces elected seven deputies to the Cortes during the first period.

The _jefe político superior_ (governor) of Guatemala
Guatemala
remained the Captain General of Central America
Central America
and Chiapas. The Captaincy General ended in 1821 with the signing of the Act of Independence of Central America , after which the regional elite supported the Plan of Iguala and joined the First Mexican Empire
First Mexican Empire
. With the exception of Chiapas, the region peacefully seceded from Mexico in July 1823, establishing the United Provinces of Central America
Central America
. While the region remained politically cohesive for a short time, centrifugal forces soon pulled the individual provinces apart by 1842.

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ "Guatemala" (Archived 2009-10-31). Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2008. 1997–2008, Microsoft Corporation. * ^ Schele & Mathews 1999, p.297. Recinos 1998, p.101. Guillemín 1965, p.10. * ^ Schele ">

* v * t * e

Guatemala
Guatemala
articles

HISTORY

* Spanish conquest * New Granada * Captaincy General * Federal Republic of Central America * Ten Years of Spring (1944–1954) * 1954 coup d\'état * Civil War (1960–1996) * 1976 earthquake

GEOGRAPHY

* Biodiversity * Biosphere reserves * Cities * Earthquakes * Ecoregions * Fauna * Flora * Islands * Lakes * National parks * Ramsar sites * Rivers * Volcanism * Water resources * World Heritage Sites

POLITICS

* Administrative divisions * Congress * Constitution * Elections * Foreign relations * Law enforcement * Military * Political parties * Presidents

ECONOMY

* Central bank * Coffee * Currency * Telecommunications * Tourism * Transport

SOCIETY

* Crime * Demographics * Education * Languages * LGBT rights * Religion * Water supply and sanitation

CULTURE

* Anthem * Cuisine * Flag * Literature * Media * Music * National emblem * Public holidays

* Outline * Index * Bibliography

* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire

TIMELINE

* Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
* Habsburgs * Golden Age * Encomiendas * New Laws in favour of the indigenous * Expulsion of the Moriscos * Eighty Years\' War * Portuguese Restoration War * Bourbons * Napoleonic invasion * Independence of Spanish continental Americas * Liberal constitution * Carlist Wars * Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
* German–Spanish Treaty (1899) * Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
* Independence of Morocco ( Western Sahara conflict )

TERRITORIES

* Kingdoms of Naples , Sicily and Sardinia * Milan * Union with Holy Roman Empire * Netherlands * Franche-Comté * Portugal * Philippines * East Pacific (Guam, Mariana, Caroline, Palau, Marshall, Micronesia, Moluccas) * Northern Taiwan * Tidore * Florida * New Spain (Western United States, Mexico, Central America, Spanish Caribbean) * Spanish Louisiana * Coastal Alaska * Haiti * Belize
Belize
* Jamaica * Trinidad and Tobago * Venezuela, Northern and Western Guyana * New Granada (Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, a northernmost portion of Brazilian Amazon) * Peru (Peru, Acre) * Río de la Plata (Argentina, Paraguay, Charcas (Bolivia), Banda Oriental (Uruguay), Falkland Islands ) * Chile * Equatorial Guinea * Spanish North Africa ( Ifni , Cape Juby , Spanish Morocco and Western Sahara )

ADMINISTRATION

* Council of the Indies * Cabildo * Trial of residence * Laws of the Indies * Royal Decree of Graces * Exequatur
Exequatur
* Papal bull * School of Salamanca

ADMINISTRATIVE SUBDIVISIONS

VICEROYALTIES

* New Spain * New Granada * Perú * Río de la Plata

AUDIENCIAS

* Bogotá * Buenos Aires * Caracas * Charcas * Concepción * Cusco * Guadalajara * Guatemala
Guatemala
* Lima * Manila * Mexico * Panamá * Quito * Santiago * Santo Domingo

CAPTAINCIES GENERAL

* Chile * Cuba * Guatemala * Philippines * Puerto Rico * Santo Domingo * Venezuela * Yucatán * Provincias Internas

GOVERNORATES

* Castilla de Oro * Cuba * New Andalusia (1501–1513) * New Andalusia * New Castile * New Toledo * Paraguay * Río de la Plata

ECONOMY

CURRENCIES

* Dollar * Real * Maravedí * Escudo * Columnario

TRADE

* Manila galleon * Spanish treasure fleet * Casa de Contratación * Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas * Camino Real de Tierra Adentro

MILITARY

ARMIES

* Tercio
Tercio
* Army of Flanders * Spanish Armada
Spanish Armada
* Indian auxiliaries
Indian auxiliaries
* Legión

WARRIORS

* Duke of Alba * Antonio de Leyva * Martín de Goiti * Alfonso d\'Avalos * García de Toledo Osorio * Duke of Savoy * Álvaro de Bazán the Elder * John of Austria
John of Austria
* Charles Bonaventure de Longueval * Pedro de Zubiaur * Ambrosio Spinola * Bernardo de Gálvez

SAILORS

* Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
* Pinzón brothers * Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
* Juan Sebastián Elcano * Juan de la Cosa
Juan de la Cosa
* Juan Ponce de León * Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi
* Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
* Sebastián de Ocampo * Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
* Alonso de Ojeda * Vasco Núñez de Balboa * Alonso de Salazar * Andrés de Urdaneta * Antonio de Ulloa * Ruy López de Villalobos * Diego Columbus * Alonso de Ercilla * Nicolás de Ovando * Juan de Ayala * Sebastián Vizcaíno * Juan Fernández * Felipe González de Ahedo

CONQUISTADORS

* Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés
* Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
* Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada * Hernán Pérez de Quesada * Francisco Vázquez de Coronado * Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar * Pedro de Valdivia
Pedro de Valdivia
* Pedro de Alvarado * Martín de Ursúa * Diego de Almagro * Pánfilo de Narváez * Diego de Mazariegos * Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera

BATTLES

OLD WORLD

WON

* Bicocca * Landriano * Pavia * Tunis * Mühlberg * St. Quentin * Gravelines * Malta * Lepanto * Antwerp * Azores * Siege of Mons * Gembloux * Siege of Ostend * English Armada
English Armada
* Cape Celidonia * White Mountain * Siege of Breda * Nördlingen * Valenciennes * Siege of Ceuta * Bitonto * Bailén * Vitoria * Tetouan * Alhucemas

LOST

* Capo d\'Orso * Preveza * Siege of Castelnuovo * Algiers * Ceresole * Djerba * Tunis * Spanish Armada
Spanish Armada
* Leiden * Rocroi * Downs * Passaro * Trafalgar * Somosierra * Annual

NEW WORLD

WON

* Siege of Tenochtitlan * Cajamarca * Cuzco * Bogotá savanna * Reynogüelén * Penco * Guadalupe Island * San Juan * Cartagena de Indias * Cuerno Verde * Pensacola

LOST

* La Noche Triste * Tucapel * Chacabuco * Carabobo * Ayacucho * Guam * Santiago de Cuba * Manila Bay * Asomante

SPANISH COLONIZATIONS

* Canary Islands * Aztec

* Maya

* Chiapas
Chiapas
* Yucatán * Guatemala
Guatemala
* Petén

* El Salvador
El Salvador
* Honduras
Honduras
* Nicaragua
Nicaragua
* Chibchan Nations * Colombia * Peru * Chile

OTHER CIVIL TOPICS

* Spanish missions in the Americas * Architecture * Mesoamerican codices * Cusco painting tradition * Indochristian painting in New Spain * Quito painting tradition * Colonial universities in Latin Americ