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Captain George Vancouver
Vancouver
(22 June 1757 – 10 May 1798) was a British officer of the Royal Navy, best known for his 1791–95 expedition, which explored and charted North America's northwestern Pacific Coast regions, including the coasts of contemporary Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. He also explored the Hawaiian Islands and the southwest coast of Australia. In Canada, Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island
and the city of Vancouver
Vancouver
are named after him, as are Vancouver, Washington, in the United States, Mount Vancouver
Vancouver
on the Yukon/ Alaska
Alaska
border, and New Zealand's sixth highest mountain.[1]

Contents

1 Early life and career 2 Explorations

2.1 Vancouver
Vancouver
Expedition 2.2 Further explorations

3 Later life 4 Death 5 Legacy

5.1 Navigation 5.2 Indigenous peoples 5.3 Namesakes

5.3.1 Ship and cadet units 5.3.2 Places

5.3.2.1 Australia 5.3.2.2 Canada 5.3.2.3 New Zealand 5.3.2.4 United States

5.3.3 Memorials

5.4 250th birthday commemorations

6 Origins of the family name 7 Works by George Vancouver 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Early life and career[edit] George Vancouver
Vancouver
was born in the seaport town of King's Lynn
King's Lynn
(Norfolk, England) on 22 June 1757 as the sixth, and youngest, child of John Jasper Vancouver, a Deputy Collector of Customs, and Bridget Berners. In 1771, at the age of 13, George Vancouver
Vancouver
entered the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
as a "young gentleman", a future candidate for midshipman.[2] He was selected to serve as a midshipman aboard HMS Resolution, on James Cook's second voyage (1772–1775) searching for Terra Australis. He also accompanied Cook's third voyage (1776–1780), this time aboard Resolution's companion ship, HMS Discovery, and was present during the first European sighting and exploration of the Hawaiian Islands.[3] Upon his return to Britain in October 1780, Vancouver
Vancouver
was commissioned as a lieutenant and posted aboard the sloop HMS Martin initially on escort and patrol duty in the English Channel and North Sea. He accompanied the ship when it left Plymouth on 11 February 1782 for the West Indies. On 7 May 1782 he was appointed fourth Lieutenant of the 74-gun ship of the line HMS Fame which was at the time part of the British West Indies Fleet and assigned to patrolling the French-held Leeward Islands. Vancouver returned to England in June 1783.[4] In the late 1780s the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
commissioned an expedition to the Pacific Northwest. The 1789 Nootka Crisis
Nootka Crisis
developed, and Spain and Britain came close to war over ownership of the Nootka Sound
Nootka Sound
on contemporary Vancouver
Vancouver
Island, and of greater importance, the right to colonise and settle the Pacific Northwest coast. Henry Roberts had recently taken command of the survey ship HMS Discovery (a new vessel named in honour of the ship on Cook's voyage), which was to be used on another round-the-world voyage, and Roberts selected Vancouver as his first lieutenant, but they were then diverted to other warships due to the crisis. Vancouver
Vancouver
went with Joseph Whidbey
Joseph Whidbey
to the 74-gun ship of the line HMS Courageux. When the first Nootka Convention ended the crisis in 1790, Vancouver
Vancouver
was given command of Discovery to take possession of Nootka Sound
Nootka Sound
and to survey the coasts.[5][6] Explorations[edit]

Life-sized gilded statue of George Vancouver
Vancouver
on the British Columbia Parliament Buildings in Victoria, British Columbia

Vancouver
Vancouver
Expedition[edit] Main article: Vancouver
Vancouver
Expedition Departing England with two ships, HMS Discovery and HMS Chatham, on 1 April 1791, Vancouver
Vancouver
commanded an expedition charged with exploring the Pacific region. In its first year the expedition travelled to Cape Town, Australia, New Zealand, Tahiti, and Hawaii, collecting botanical samples and surveying coastlines along the way. He formally claimed at Possession Point, King George Sound
King George Sound
Western Australia, now the town of Albany, Western Australia
Albany, Western Australia
for the British. Proceeding to North America, Vancouver
Vancouver
followed the coasts of present-day Oregon
Oregon
and Washington northward. In April 1792 he encountered American Captain Robert Gray off the coast of Oregon
Oregon
just prior to Gray's sailing up the Columbia River. Vancouver
Vancouver
entered the Strait of Juan de Fuca, between Vancouver
Vancouver
Island and the Washington state mainland on 29 April 1792. His orders included a survey of every inlet and outlet on the west coast of the mainland, all the way north to Alaska. Most of this work was in small craft propelled by both sail and oar; manoeuvring larger sail-powered vessels in uncharted waters was generally impractical and dangerous. Vancouver
Vancouver
named many features after his officers, friends, associates, and his ship Discovery, including:

Mount Baker
Mount Baker
– after Discovery's 3rd Lieutenant Joseph Baker, the first on the expedition to spot it Mount St. Helens
Mount St. Helens
– after his friend, Alleyne Fitzherbert, 1st Baron St Helens Puget Sound
Puget Sound
– after Discovery's 2nd lieutenant Peter Puget,[7] who explored its southern reaches. Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
– after his friend, Rear Admiral Peter Rainier. Port Gardner
Port Gardner
and Port Susan, Washington – after his former commander Vice Admiral Sir Alan Gardner and his wife Lady Susan. Whidbey Island
Whidbey Island
– after naval engineer Joseph Whidbey. Discovery Passage, Discovery Island, Discovery Bay and Port Discovery.

Vancouver
Vancouver
was the second European to enter Burrard Inlet
Burrard Inlet
on 13 June 1792, naming it after his friend Sir Harry Burrard. It is the present day main harbour area of the City of Vancouver
Vancouver
beyond Stanley Park. George Vancouver
Vancouver
surveyed Howe Sound
Howe Sound
and Jervis Inlet
Jervis Inlet
over the next nine days.[8] Then, on his 35th birthday on 22 June 1792, he returned to Point Grey, the present day location of the University of British Columbia. Here he unexpectedly met a Spanish expedition led by Dionisio Alcalá Galiano
Dionisio Alcalá Galiano
and Cayetano Valdés y Flores. Vancouver
Vancouver
was "mortified" (his word) to learn they already had a crude chart of the Strait of Georgia based on the 1791 exploratory voyage of José María Narváez the year before, under command of Francisco de Eliza. For three weeks they cooperatively explored the Georgia Strait
Georgia Strait
and the Discovery Islands
Discovery Islands
area before sailing separately towards Nootka Sound. After the summer surveying season ended, in August 1792, Vancouver went to Nootka, then the region's most important harbour, on contemporary Vancouver
Vancouver
Island. Here he was to receive any British buildings and lands returned by the Spanish from claims by Francisco de Eliza for the Spanish crown. The Spanish commander, Juan Francisco Bodega y Quadra, was very cordial and he and Vancouver
Vancouver
exchanged the maps they had made, but no agreement was reached; they decided to await further instructions. At this time, they decided to name the large island on which Nootka was now proven to be located as Quadra and Vancouver
Vancouver
Island. Years later, as Spanish influence declined, the name was shortened to simply Vancouver
Vancouver
Island.[9] While at Nootka Sound
Nootka Sound
Vancouver
Vancouver
acquired Robert Gray's chart of the lower Columbia River. Gray had entered the river during the summer before sailing to Nootka Sound
Nootka Sound
for repairs. Vancouver
Vancouver
realised the importance of verifying Gray's information and conducting a more thorough survey. In October 1792, he sent Lieutenant William Robert Broughton with several boats up the Columbia River. Broughton got as far as the Columbia River
Columbia River
Gorge, sighting and naming Mount Hood.[10] Vancouver
Vancouver
sailed south along the coast of Spanish Alta California, visiting Chumash villages at Point Conception
Point Conception
and near Mission San Buenaventura.[11] Vancouver
Vancouver
spent the winter in continuing exploration of the Sandwich Islands, the contemporary islands of Hawaii. Further explorations[edit] The next year, 1793, he returned to British Columbia
British Columbia
and proceeded further north, unknowingly missing the overland explorer Alexander Mackenzie by only 48 days. He got to 56°30'N, having explored north from Point Menzies in Burke Channel to the northwest coast of Prince of Wales Island. He sailed around the latter island, as well as circumnavigating Revillagigedo Island
Revillagigedo Island
and charting parts of the coasts of Mitkof, Zarembo, Etolin, Wrangell, Kuiu and Kupreanof Islands.[12] With worsening weather, he sailed south to Alta California, hoping to find Bodega y Quadra and fulfil his territorial mission, but the Spaniard was not there. He again spent the winter in the Sandwich Islands. In 1794, he first went to Cook Inlet, the northernmost point of his exploration, and from there followed the coast south. Boat parties charted the east coasts of Chichagof and Baranof Islands, circumnavigated Admiralty Island, explored to the head of Lynn Canal, and charted the rest of Kuiu Island
Kuiu Island
and nearly all of Kupreanof Island.[12] He then set sail for Great Britain by way of Cape Horn, returning in September 1795, thus completing a circumnavigation of South America. Later life[edit]

In The Caneing in Conduit Street (1796), James Gillray
James Gillray
caricatured Pitt's streetcorner assault on Vancouver.

Impressed by the view from Richmond Hill, Vancouver
Vancouver
retired to Petersham, London.[13] Vancouver
Vancouver
faced difficulties when he returned home to England. The accomplished and politically well-connected naturalist Archibald Menzies complained that his servant had been pressed into service during a shipboard emergency; sailing master Joseph Whidbey
Joseph Whidbey
had a competing claim for pay as expedition astronomer; and Thomas Pitt, 2nd Baron Camelford, whom Vancouver
Vancouver
had disciplined for numerous infractions and eventually sent home in disgrace, proceeded to harass him publicly and privately. Pitt's allies, including his cousin, Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger, attacked Vancouver
Vancouver
in the press. Thomas Pitt took a more direct approach; on 29 August 1796 he sent Vancouver
Vancouver
a letter heaping many insults on the head of his former captain, and challenging him to a duel. Vancouver
Vancouver
gravely replied that he was unable "in a private capacity to answer for his public conduct in his official duty," and offered instead to submit to formal examination by flag officers. Pitt chose instead to stalk Vancouver, ultimately assaulting him on a London street corner. The terms of their subsequent legal dispute required both parties to keep the peace, but nothing stopped Vancouver's civilian brother Charles from interposing and giving Pitt blow after blow until onlookers restrained the attacker. Charges and counter-charges flew in the press, with the wealthy Camelford faction having the greater firepower until Vancouver, ailing from his long naval service, died. Death[edit] Vancouver, one of Britain's greatest explorers and navigators, died in obscurity on 10 May 1798 at the age of 40, less than three years after completing his voyages and expeditions.[14] No official cause of death was stated, as the medical records pertaining to Vancouver
Vancouver
were destroyed; one doctor named John Naish claimed Vancouver
Vancouver
died from kidney failure, while others believed it was a hyperthyroid condition.[15] His grave is in the churchyard of St Peter's Church, Petersham, in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, England.[16] The Hudson's Bay Company
The Hudson's Bay Company
placed a memorial plaque in the church in 1841.[17] His grave in Portland stone, renovated in the 1960s, is now Grade II listed in view of its historical associations.[17][18] Legacy[edit] Navigation[edit] Vancouver
Vancouver
determined that the Northwest Passage
Northwest Passage
did not exist at the latitudes that had long been suggested. His charts of the North American northwest coast were so extremely accurate that they served as the key reference for coastal navigation for generations. Robin Fisher, the academic Vice-President of Mount Royal University
Mount Royal University
in Calgary and author of two books on Vancouver, states:

He put the northwest coast on the map...He drew up a map of the north-west coast that was accurate to the 9th degree, to the point it was still being used into the modern day as a navigational aid. That's unusual for a map from that early a time.[19]

However, Vancouver
Vancouver
failed to discover two of the largest and most important rivers on the Pacific coast, the Fraser River
Fraser River
and the Columbia River. He also missed the Skeena River
Skeena River
near Prince Rupert in northern British Columbia. Vancouver
Vancouver
did eventually learn of the river before he finished his survey—from Robert Gray, captain of the American merchant ship that conducted the first Euroamerican sailing of the Columbia River
Columbia River
on 11 May 1792, after first sighting it on an earlier voyage in 1788. However it and the Fraser River
Fraser River
never made it onto Vancouver's charts. Stephen R. Bown, noted in Mercator's World magazine (November/December 1999) that:

How Vancouver
Vancouver
could have missed these rivers while accurately charting hundreds of comparatively insignificant inlets, islands, and streams is hard to fathom. What is certain is that his failure to spot the Columbia had great implications for the future political development of the Pacific Northwest....[20][21]

While it is difficult to comprehend how Vancouver
Vancouver
missed the Fraser River, much of this river's delta was subject to flooding and summer freshet which prevented the captain from spotting any of its great channels as he sailed the entire shoreline from Point Roberts, Washington to Point Grey in 1792.[22] The Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest, with the 1791 Francisco de Eliza
Francisco de Eliza
expedition preceding Vancouver
Vancouver
by a year, had also missed the Fraser River although they knew from its muddy plume that there was a major river located nearby.[22] Indigenous peoples[edit] Vancouver
Vancouver
generally established a good rapport with both Indigenous peoples and European trappers. Historical records show Vancouver enjoyed good relations with native leaders both in Hawaii – where King Kamehameha I
Kamehameha I
ceded Hawaii to Vancouver
Vancouver
in 1794 – as well as the Pacific Northwest and California.[23] Vancouver's journals exhibit a high degree of sensitivity to natives. He wrote of meeting the Chumash people,[11] and of his exploration of a small island on the Californian coast on which an important burial site was marked by a sepulchre of "peculiar character" lined with boards and fragments of military instruments lying near a square box covered with mats.[23] Vancouver
Vancouver
states:

This we naturally conjectured contained the remains of some person of consequence, and it much excited the curiosity of some of our party; but as further examination could not possibly have served any useful purpose, and might have given umbrage and pain to the friends of the deceased, should it be their custom to visit the repositories of their dead, I did not think it right that it should be disturbed.[23]

Vancouver
Vancouver
also displayed contempt in his journals towards unscrupulous western traders who provided guns to natives by writing:

I am extremely concerned to be compelled to state here, that many of the traders from the civilised world have not only pursued a line of conduct, diametrically opposite to the true principles of justice in their commercial dealings, but have fomented discords, and stirred up contentions, between the different tribes, in order to increase the demand for these destructive engines... They have been likewise eager to instruct the natives in the use of European arms of all descriptions; and have shewn by their own example, that they consider gain as the only object of pursuit; and whether this be acquired by fair and honourable means, or otherwise, so long as the advantage is secured, the manner how it is obtained seems to have been, with too many of them, but a very secondary consideration.[23]

Robin Fisher notes that Vancouver's "relationships with aboriginal groups were generally peaceful; indeed, his detailed survey would not have been possible if they had been hostile."[23] While there were hostile incidents at the end of Vancouver's last season – the most serious of which involved a clash with Tlingits at Behm Canal in southeast Alaska
Alaska
in 1794 – these were the exceptions to Vancouver's exploration of the US and Canadian Northwest coast.[23] Despite a long history of warfare between Britain and Spain, Vancouver maintained excellent relations with his Spanish counterparts and even fêted a Spanish sea captain aboard his ship Discovery during his 1792 trip to the Vancouver
Vancouver
region.[19] Namesakes[edit] Ship and cadet units[edit]

HMCS Vancouver
Vancouver
Halifax-class frigate of the Royal Canadian Navy TS Vancouver, Australian Navy Cadets 47 RCSCC CAPTAIN VANCOUVER, Royal Canadian Sea Cadets
Royal Canadian Sea Cadets
[1]

Places[edit] Many places around the world have been named after George Vancouver, including: Australia[edit]

Vancouver
Vancouver
Peninsula, Cape Vancouver
Vancouver
and Vancouver
Vancouver
Breakers in King George Sound, Western Australia

Canada[edit]

Mount Vancouver, in Yukon
Yukon
and neighbouring Alaska, eighth highest mountain in Canada Vancouver, British Columbia, a major city on the mainland in southwestern British Columbia, the province's largest city

Vancouver
Vancouver
Maritime Museum

Vancouver
Vancouver
Bay, British Columbia, in Jervis Inlet, East of Powell River, named after Vancouver
Vancouver
when Capt. George H. Richards resurveyed the area in 1860. Vancouver
Vancouver
Island, in British Columbia
British Columbia
off the southwest coast of the mainland. North America's largest Pacific Island and location of the provincial capital at Victoria on its southern tip.

New Zealand[edit]

Mount Vancouver, the sixth highest mountain in New Zealand. Vancouver
Vancouver
Arm of Breaksea Sound, Fiordland, South Island

United States[edit]

Vancouver, Washington, a city in southwest Washington across the Columbia River
Columbia River
from Portland, Oregon

Fort Vancouver, a Hudson's Bay Company trading post established in 1825

Memorials[edit]

Grave of George Vancouver
Vancouver
in the churchyard of St Peter's Church, Petersham, London

Statue of George Vancouver
Vancouver
in King's Lynn

Statues of Vancouver
Vancouver
are located in his birthplace of King's Lynn, in front of Vancouver
Vancouver
City Hall, and on top of the dome of the British Columbia Parliament Buildings. The Vancouver
Vancouver
Quarter Shopping Centre bears his name in King's Lynn. British Rail Class 365
British Rail Class 365
unit 365 514 "Captain George Vancouver" operates on the route between King's Lynn
King's Lynn
and London. Canada Post
Canada Post
issued a pair of 14-cent stamps to mark the 200th anniversary of Captain Cook's arrival at Nootka Sound
Nootka Sound
on Vancouver Island on 26 April 1978. George Vancouver
Vancouver
was a crewman on this voyage. Gate to the Northwest Passage, a commemorative statue by Vancouver artist Alan Chung Hung was commissioned by Parks Canada
Parks Canada
and installed at the mouth of False Creek
False Creek
in Vanier Park
Vanier Park
near the Vancouver
Vancouver
Maritime Museum in 1980. Canada Post
Canada Post
issued a 37-cent stamp inscribed Vancouver
Vancouver
Explores the Coast on 17 March 1988. It was one of a set of four stamps issued to honour Exploration of Canada – Recognizers. The George Vancouver
Vancouver
Rose, named in his honour and hybridised by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Virgin Trains
Virgin Trains
British Rail Class 221
British Rail Class 221
unit 221129 was named in his honour but has since been de-named on transfer to Cross Country. A commemorative monument is located on the beach in North Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, commemorating George Vancouver's contribution of coffee and root vegetables to the islands of Hawaii, inscribed by Pierre Elliot Trudeau 2 December 1967.

Many collections were made on the voyage: one was donated by Archibald Menzies to the British Museum 1796; another made by surgeon George Goodman Hewett (1765–1834) was donated by A. W. Franks
A. W. Franks
to the British Museum in 1891. An account of these has been published.[24] 250th birthday commemorations[edit]

1980 Commemorative Statue to Capt. George Vancouver
Vancouver
by Vancouver artist Alan Chung Hung

Canada Post
Canada Post
issued a $1.55 postage stamp to commemorate the 250th anniversary of Vancouver's birth, on 22 June 2007. The stamp has an embossed image of Vancouver
Vancouver
seen from behind as he gazes forward towards a mountainous coastline. This may be the first Canadian stamp not to show the subject's face.[25] The City of Vancouver
Vancouver
in Canada organised a celebration to commemorate the 250th anniversary of Vancouver's birth, in June 2007 at the Vancouver
Vancouver
Maritime Museum.[26] The one-hour festivities included the presentation of a massive 63 by 114 centimetre carrot cake, the firing of a gun salute by the Royal Canadian Artillery's 15th Field Regiment and a performance by the Vancouver
Vancouver
Firefighter's Band.[26] Vancouver's then-mayor, Sam Sullivan, officially declared 22 June 2007 to be "George Day".[26] The Musqueam
Musqueam
(xʷməθkʷəy̓əm) Elder sɁəyeɬəq (Larry Grant) attended the festivities and acknowledged that some of his people might disapprove of his presence, but also noted:

Many people don't feel aboriginal people should be celebrating this occasion...I believe it has helped the world and that's part of who we are. That's the legacy of our people. We're generous to a fault. The legacy is strong and a good one, in the sense that without the first nations working with the colonials, it [B.C.] wouldn't have been part of Canada to begin with and Britain would be the poorer for it.[26]

Origins of the family name[edit] There has been some debate about the origins of the Vancouver
Vancouver
name. It is now commonly accepted that the name Vancouver
Vancouver
derives from the expression van Coevorden, meaning "(originating) from Coevorden", a city in the northeast of the Netherlands. This city is apparently named after the "Coeverden" family of the 13th–15th century.[27] In the 16th century, a number of businessmen from the Coevorden
Coevorden
area (and the rest of the Netherlands) moved to England. Some of them were known as Van Coeverden. Others adopted the surname Oxford, as in oxen fording (a river), which is approximately the English translation of Coevorden. However, it is not the exact name of the noble family mentioned in the history books that claim Vancouver's noble lineage: that name was Coeverden not Coevorden. In the 1970s, Adrien Mansvelt, a former consul general of the Netherlands based in Vancouver, published a collation of information in both historical and genealogical journals and in the Vancouver
Vancouver
Sun newspaper.[28][29][30] Mansvelt's theory was later presented by the city during the Expo 86
Expo 86
World's Fair, as historical fact. The information was then used by historian W. Kaye Lamb in his book A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and Round the World, 1791–1795 (1984).[31] W. Kaye Lamb, in summarising Mansvelt's 1973 research, observes evidence of close family ties between the Vancouver
Vancouver
family of Britain and the Van Coeverden
Van Coeverden
family of the Netherlands as well as George Vancouver's own words from his diaries in referring to his Dutch ancestry:

As the name Vancouver
Vancouver
suggests, the Vancouvers were of Dutch origin. They were descended from the titled van Coeverden family, one of the oldest in the Netherlands. By the twelfth century, and for many years thereafter, their castle at Coevorden, in the Province of Drenthe, was an important fortress on the eastern frontier. George Vancouver
Vancouver
was aware of this. In July 1794, he named the Lynn Canal
Lynn Canal
"after the place of my nativity" and Point Couverden (which he spelt incorrectly) "after the seat of my ancestors". Vancouver's great grandfather, Reint Wolter van Couverden, was probably the first of the line to establish an English connection. While serving as a squire at one of the German courts he met Johanna (Jane) Lilingston, an English girl who was one of the ladies in waiting. They were married in 1699. Their son, Lucas Hendrik van Couverden, married Vancouver's grandmother, Sarah. In his later years he probably anglicized his name and spent most of his time in England. By the eighteenth century, the estates of the van Couverdens were mostly in the Province of Overijssel, and some of the family were living in Vollenhove, on the Zuider Zee. The English and Dutch branches kept in touch, and in 1798 (the date of Vancouver's death) George Vancouver's brother Charles would marry a kinswoman, Louise Josephine van Couverden, of Vollenhove. Both were great-grandchildren of Reint Wolter van Couverden."[32]

In 2006 John Robson, a librarian at the University of Waikato, conducted his own research into George Vancouver's ancestry, which he published in an article published in the British Columbia
British Columbia
History journal.[33] Robson theorises that Vancouver's forebears may have been Flemish rather than Dutch; he believes that Vancouver
Vancouver
is descended from the Vangover family of Ipswich
Ipswich
and Colchester
Colchester
in Suffolk. Those towns had a significant Flemish population in the 16th and 17th centuries.[34] George Vancouver
Vancouver
named the south point of what is now Couverden Island, Alaska, as Point Couverden during his exploration of the North American Pacific coast, in honour of his family's hometown of Coevorden.[35] It is located at the western point of entry to Lynn Canal in southeastern Alaska.[36] Works by George Vancouver[edit] The Admiralty instructed Vancouver
Vancouver
to publish a narrative of his voyage which he started to write in early 1796 in Petersham. At the time of his death the manuscript covered the period up to mid-1795. The work, A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean, and Round the World, was completed by his brother John and published in three volumes in the autumn of 1798.[37] A second edition was published in 1801 in six volumes.[15][38]

Volume 1: Google Books: Vol. 1 (alternative link Vol 1); Internet Archive: Vol. 1, Volume 2: Google Books: Vol. 2; Internet Archive: Vol. 2, Volume 3: Google Books: Vol 3; Internet Archive: Vol. 3.

A modern annotated edition (1984) by W. Kaye Lamb was renamed The Voyage of George Vancouver
Vancouver
1791–1795, and published in four volumes by the Hakluyt Society
Hakluyt Society
of London, England. See also[edit]

European and American voyages of scientific exploration

References[edit]

^ Reed, A. W. (2010). Peter Dowling, ed. Place Names of New Zealand. Rosedale, North Shore: Raupo. p. 430. ISBN 9780143204107.  ^ Landauer, Lyndall Baker (2013). "George Vancouver". In Magill, Frank N. Dictionary of World Biography: The 17th and 18th Centuries. 4. London: Routledge. p. 1355. ISBN 9781135924140.  ^ "Chart of the NW Coast of America and Part of the NE of Asia with the Track of his Majesty's Sloops 'Resolution' and 'Discovery' from May to October 1778". World Digital Library. 1778. Retrieved 27 June 2013.  ^ Sue Bigelow (20 June 2013). "Captain George Vancouver: original documents". City of Vancouver
Vancouver
Archives.  ^ King, Robert J. (2010). "George Vancouver
Vancouver
and the contemplated settlement at Nootka Sound". The Great Circle. 32 (1): 6–34.  ^ Allen, Richard Edward (1982). A Pictorial History of Vancouver, Book 1. Josten's Publications.  ^ Wing, Robert; Newell, Gordon (1979). Peter Puget: Lieutenant on the Vancouver
Vancouver
Expedition, fighting British naval officer, the man for whom Puget Sound
Puget Sound
was named. Gray Beard Publishing. ISBN 0-933686-00-5.  ^ Little, Gary. George Vancouver
Vancouver
(1757–2007). 250th Birth Anniversary, Survey of the Southwest Coast of BC, June 1792 ^ The Voyage of George Vancouver
Vancouver
1791–1795, Volume 1. W. Kaye Lamb (ed.). Hakluyt Society. 1984. ISBN 978-0-904180-17-6. p. 247 ^ Etulain, Richard W. (2004). Western Lives: A Biographical History Of The American West. UNM Press. pp. 97–101. ISBN 978-0-8263-3472-5.  ^ a b McLendon, Sally and Johnson, John R. (1999). Cultural Affiliation and Lineal Descent of Chumash Peoples in the Channel Islands and the Santa Monica Mountains Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History pp. 139–40 (98–99) Accessed 18 June 2010 ^ a b Vancouver, George; Vancouver, John (1801). A voyage of discovery to the North Pacific ocean, and round the world. London: J. Stockdale.  ^ "Three Intrepid Explorers, Discovery Richmond". Retrieved 30 January 2014.  ^ Cave, Edward ("Sylvanus Urban") (1798). "Obituary of Remarkable Persons with Biographical Anecdotes". The Gentleman's Magazine, and Historical Chronicle. 68. London: John Nichols. p. 447.  ^ a b "George Vancouver
Vancouver
(1757–1798) part five: after the voyage". The Captain Cook Society.  ^ Capt George Vancouver
Vancouver
at Find a Grave ^ a b Boyes, Valerie; Wintersinger, Natascha (2014). Encountering the Unchartered and Back – three explorers: Ball, Vancouver
Vancouver
and Burton. Museum of Richmond. pp. 9–10.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Tomb of Captain George Vancouver
Vancouver
in the Churchyard of St Peter's Church". National Heritage List for England. English Heritage. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ a b Pynn, Larry (30 May 2007) "Charting the Coast", The Vancouver Sun, p.B3 ^ Brown, Stephen R. (1999). "In the Most Faithful Manner". Mercator's World. 4 (6). Archived from the original on 19 June 2003.  ^ "Vancouver". BC Geographical Names.  ^ a b Hume, Stephen (17 November 2007) "The Birth of Modern British Columbia Part 7", The Vancouver
Vancouver
Sun, p. D9 ^ a b c d e f Pynn, Larry "Peaceful Encounters" (29 May 2007), The Vancouver
Vancouver
Sun, p. B3 ^ King, J. C. H. (1994). "Vancouver's Ethnography: A Preliminary Description of Five Inventories from the Voyage of 1791–95". J Hist Collections. 6 (1): 35–38. doi:10.1093/jhc/6.1.35.  ^ Pynn, Larry (24 May 2007) Mystery man: The Canada Post
Canada Post
stamp honouring Captain George Vancouver
Vancouver
has created a buzz with collectors Archived 10 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Vancouver
Vancouver
Sun ^ a b c d Pynn, Larry (23 June 2007) "Native elder embraces captain's legacy", The Vancouver
Vancouver
Sun, p. B9 ^ G.H. Anderson (1923). Vancouver
Vancouver
and his Great Voyage – The Story of a Norfolk Sailor. King's Lynn: Thew & Son – via State Library of Victoria.  ^ Mansvelt, Adrien (February 1975) "The Vancouver
Vancouver
– Van Coeverden Controversy". The British Columbia
British Columbia
Genealogist Vol 4 No. 1,2,3 ^ Mansvelt, Adrien (February 1973). "Vancouver: A lost branch of the van Coeverden Family" (PDF). BC Historical News. British Columbia Historical Association. 6 (2): 20–23.  ^ Mansvelt, Adrien (1 September 1973) "Solving the Captain Vancouver mystery" and "The Original Vancouver
Vancouver
in Old Holland", The Vancouver Sun ^ Lamb, W. Kaye A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and Round the World, 1791–1795. London, Printed for G.G. and J. Robinson ^ The Voyage of George Vancouver
Vancouver
1791–1795, Volume 1. W. Kaye Lamb (ed.). Hakluyt Society. 1984. ISBN 978-0-904180-17-6. p. 3 ^ Robson, John (2006). "Origins of the Vancouver
Vancouver
Name" (PDF). British Columbia History. British Columbia
British Columbia
Historical Federation. 39 (4): 23–24. ISSN 1710-7881.  ^ Baecklandt, David, "Was George Vancouver
Vancouver
Flemish?", The Brussels Journal, 21 February 2010. ^ History of Metropolitan Vancouver; chuckdavis.ca ^ Couverden Island. dnr.state.ak.us ^ "Review of new books". The Scots Magazine. 1 September 1799. pp. 33–38 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ "Vancouver's voyage round the world". London Courier and Evening Gazette. 7 November 1801. p. 1 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 

Further reading[edit]

Madness, Betrayal and the Lash: The Epic Voyage of Captain George Vancouver
Vancouver
by Stephen R. Bown. Published by Douglas & McIntyre 2008. Vancouver
Vancouver
A Life: 1757–1798 by George Godwin. Published by D. Appleton and Company, 1931. Adventures in Two Hemispheres Including Captain Vancouver's Voyage by James Stirrat Marshall and Carrie Marshall. Published by Telex Printing Service, 1955. The Life and Voyages of Captain George Vancouver
Vancouver
by Bern Anderson. Published by University of Washington Press, 1966. Captain Vancouver: A Portrait of His Life by Alison Gifford. Published by St. James Press, 1986. Journal of the Voyages of the H.M.S. Discovery and Chatham by Thomas Manby. Published by Ye Galleon Press, 1988. Vancouver's Voyage: Charting the Northwest Coast, 1791–1795 by Robin Fisher and Gary Fiegehen. Published by Douglas & McIntyre, 1992. On Stormy Seas, The Triumphs and Torments of Captain George Vancouver by B. Guild Gillespie. Published by Horsdal & Schubart, 1992. Captain Vancouver: North-West Navigator by E.C. Coleman. Published by Tempus, 2007. Sailing with Vancouver: A Modern Sea Dog, Antique Charts and a Voyage Through Time by Sam McKinney. Published by Touchwood Editions, 2004. The Early Exploration of Inland Washington Waters: Journals and Logs from Six Expeditions, 1786–1792 edited by Richard W. Blumenthal. Published by McFarland & Company, 2004. A Discovery Journal: George Vancouver's First Survey Season – 1792 by John E. Roberts. Published by Trafford Publishing, 2005. With Vancouver
Vancouver
in Inland Washington Waters: Journals of 12 Crewmen April–June 1792 edited by Richard W. Blumenthal. Published by McFarland & Company, 2007.  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Vancouver, George". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.   Laughton, John Knox (1899). "Vancouver, George". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 58. London: Smith, Elder & Co.  David, Andrew C. F. "Vancouver, George (1757–1798)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
Dictionary of National Biography
(online ed.). Oxford
Oxford
University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/28062.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to George Vancouver.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: George Vancouver

Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online George Vancouver
Vancouver
(1757–1798), Explorer, illustrations in the National Portrait Gallery. The True Meaning of Vancouver
Vancouver
– Etymology of his name. interactive Google map showing the path Vancouver
Vancouver
followed during his 11-day survey of the southwest coast of British Columbia Coevorden: What connection does Vancouver
Vancouver
have with Coevorden, an industrial town of about 20,000 in the northeast Netherlands?- The History of Metropolitan Vancouver
Vancouver
website. (Retrieved on 11 June 2007)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 73975823 LCCN: n50045029 ISNI: 0000 0000 8394 1930 GND: 119121581 SELIBR: 347702 SUDOC: 028542096 BNF: cb12687910m (data) NLA: 35577298 BNE: XX1473

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