Vancouver (22 June 1757 – 10 May 1798) was a British
officer of the Royal Navy, best known for his 1791–95 expedition,
which explored and charted North America's northwestern Pacific Coast
regions, including the coasts of contemporary Alaska, British
Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. He also explored the Hawaiian
Islands and the southwest coast of Australia.
Vancouver Island and the city of
Vancouver are named after
him, as are Vancouver, Washington, in the United States, Mount
Vancouver on the Yukon/
Alaska border, and New Zealand's sixth highest
1 Early life and career
2.2 Further explorations
3 Later life
5.2 Indigenous peoples
5.3.1 Ship and cadet units
220.127.116.11 New Zealand
18.104.22.168 United States
5.4 250th birthday commemorations
6 Origins of the family name
7 Works by George Vancouver
8 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Early life and career
Vancouver was born in the seaport town of
King's Lynn (Norfolk,
England) on 22 June 1757 as the sixth, and youngest, child of John
Jasper Vancouver, a Deputy Collector of Customs, and Bridget Berners.
In 1771, at the age of 13, George
Vancouver entered the
Royal Navy as
a "young gentleman", a future candidate for midshipman. He was
selected to serve as a midshipman aboard HMS Resolution, on James
Cook's second voyage (1772–1775) searching for Terra Australis. He
also accompanied Cook's third voyage (1776–1780), this time aboard
Resolution's companion ship, HMS Discovery, and was present
during the first European sighting and exploration of the Hawaiian
Islands. Upon his return to Britain in October 1780,
commissioned as a lieutenant and posted aboard the sloop
HMS Martin initially on escort and patrol duty in the English
Channel and North Sea. He accompanied the ship when it left Plymouth
on 11 February 1782 for the West Indies. On 7 May 1782 he was
appointed fourth Lieutenant of the 74-gun ship of the line HMS Fame
which was at the time part of the British West Indies Fleet and
assigned to patrolling the French-held Leeward Islands. Vancouver
returned to England in June 1783.
In the late 1780s the
Spanish Empire commissioned an expedition to the
Pacific Northwest. The 1789
Nootka Crisis developed, and Spain and
Britain came close to war over ownership of the
Nootka Sound on
Vancouver Island, and of greater importance, the right to
colonise and settle the Pacific Northwest coast. Henry Roberts had
recently taken command of the survey ship HMS Discovery (a new
vessel named in honour of the ship on Cook's voyage), which was to be
used on another round-the-world voyage, and Roberts selected Vancouver
as his first lieutenant, but they were then diverted to other warships
due to the crisis.
Vancouver went with
Joseph Whidbey to the 74-gun
ship of the line HMS Courageux. When the first Nootka Convention
ended the crisis in 1790,
Vancouver was given command of Discovery to
take possession of
Nootka Sound and to survey the coasts.
Life-sized gilded statue of George
Vancouver on the British Columbia
Parliament Buildings in Victoria, British Columbia
Departing England with two ships, HMS Discovery and HMS Chatham,
on 1 April 1791,
Vancouver commanded an expedition charged with
exploring the Pacific region. In its first year the expedition
travelled to Cape Town, Australia, New Zealand, Tahiti, and Hawaii,
collecting botanical samples and surveying coastlines along the way.
He formally claimed at Possession Point,
King George Sound
King George Sound Western
Australia, now the town of
Albany, Western Australia
Albany, Western Australia for the British.
Proceeding to North America,
Vancouver followed the coasts of
Oregon and Washington northward. In April 1792 he
encountered American Captain Robert Gray off the coast of
prior to Gray's sailing up the Columbia River.
Vancouver entered the Strait of Juan de Fuca, between
and the Washington state mainland on 29 April 1792. His orders
included a survey of every inlet and outlet on the west coast of the
mainland, all the way north to Alaska. Most of this work was in small
craft propelled by both sail and oar; manoeuvring larger sail-powered
vessels in uncharted waters was generally impractical and dangerous.
Vancouver named many features after his officers, friends, associates,
and his ship Discovery, including:
Mount Baker – after Discovery's 3rd Lieutenant Joseph Baker, the
first on the expedition to spot it
Mount St. Helens
Mount St. Helens – after his friend, Alleyne Fitzherbert, 1st Baron
Puget Sound – after Discovery's 2nd lieutenant Peter Puget, who
explored its southern reaches.
Mount Rainier – after his friend, Rear Admiral Peter Rainier.
Port Gardner and Port Susan, Washington – after his former commander
Vice Admiral Sir Alan Gardner and his wife Lady Susan.
Whidbey Island – after naval engineer Joseph Whidbey.
Discovery Passage, Discovery Island, Discovery Bay and Port Discovery.
Vancouver was the second European to enter
Burrard Inlet on 13 June
1792, naming it after his friend Sir Harry Burrard. It is the present
day main harbour area of the City of
Vancouver beyond Stanley Park.
Howe Sound and
Jervis Inlet over the next
nine days. Then, on his 35th birthday on 22 June 1792, he returned
to Point Grey, the present day location of the University of British
Columbia. Here he unexpectedly met a Spanish expedition led by
Dionisio Alcalá Galiano
Dionisio Alcalá Galiano and Cayetano Valdés y Flores.
"mortified" (his word) to learn they already had a crude chart of the
Strait of Georgia based on the 1791 exploratory voyage of José María
Narváez the year before, under command of Francisco de Eliza. For
three weeks they cooperatively explored the
Georgia Strait and the
Discovery Islands area before sailing separately towards Nootka Sound.
After the summer surveying season ended, in August 1792, Vancouver
went to Nootka, then the region's most important harbour, on
Vancouver Island. Here he was to receive any British
buildings and lands returned by the Spanish from claims by Francisco
de Eliza for the Spanish crown. The Spanish commander, Juan Francisco
Bodega y Quadra, was very cordial and he and
Vancouver exchanged the
maps they had made, but no agreement was reached; they decided to
await further instructions. At this time, they decided to name the
large island on which Nootka was now proven to be located as Quadra
Vancouver Island. Years later, as Spanish influence declined, the
name was shortened to simply
Vancouver acquired Robert Gray's chart of the
lower Columbia River. Gray had entered the river during the summer
before sailing to
Nootka Sound for repairs.
Vancouver realised the
importance of verifying Gray's information and conducting a more
thorough survey. In October 1792, he sent Lieutenant William Robert
Broughton with several boats up the Columbia River. Broughton got as
far as the
Columbia River Gorge, sighting and naming Mount Hood.
Vancouver sailed south along the coast of Spanish Alta California,
visiting Chumash villages at
Point Conception and near Mission San
Vancouver spent the winter in continuing exploration
of the Sandwich Islands, the contemporary islands of Hawaii.
The next year, 1793, he returned to
British Columbia and proceeded
further north, unknowingly missing the overland explorer Alexander
Mackenzie by only 48 days. He got to 56°30'N, having explored north
from Point Menzies in Burke Channel to the northwest coast of Prince
of Wales Island. He sailed around the latter island, as well as
Revillagigedo Island and charting parts of the coasts
of Mitkof, Zarembo, Etolin, Wrangell, Kuiu and Kupreanof Islands.
With worsening weather, he sailed south to Alta California, hoping to
find Bodega y Quadra and fulfil his territorial mission, but the
Spaniard was not there. He again spent the winter in the Sandwich
In 1794, he first went to Cook Inlet, the northernmost point of his
exploration, and from there followed the coast south. Boat parties
charted the east coasts of Chichagof and Baranof Islands,
circumnavigated Admiralty Island, explored to the head of Lynn Canal,
and charted the rest of
Kuiu Island and nearly all of Kupreanof
Island. He then set sail for Great Britain by way of Cape Horn,
returning in September 1795, thus completing a circumnavigation of
In The Caneing in Conduit Street (1796),
James Gillray caricatured
Pitt's streetcorner assault on Vancouver.
Impressed by the view from Richmond Hill,
Vancouver retired to
Vancouver faced difficulties when he returned home to England. The
accomplished and politically well-connected naturalist Archibald
Menzies complained that his servant had been pressed into service
during a shipboard emergency; sailing master
Joseph Whidbey had a
competing claim for pay as expedition astronomer; and Thomas Pitt, 2nd
Baron Camelford, whom
Vancouver had disciplined for numerous
infractions and eventually sent home in disgrace, proceeded to harass
him publicly and privately.
Pitt's allies, including his cousin, Prime Minister William Pitt the
Vancouver in the press. Thomas Pitt took a more
direct approach; on 29 August 1796 he sent
Vancouver a letter heaping
many insults on the head of his former captain, and challenging him to
Vancouver gravely replied that he was unable "in a private
capacity to answer for his public conduct in his official duty," and
offered instead to submit to formal examination by flag officers. Pitt
chose instead to stalk Vancouver, ultimately assaulting him on a
London street corner. The terms of their subsequent legal dispute
required both parties to keep the peace, but nothing stopped
Vancouver's civilian brother Charles from interposing and giving Pitt
blow after blow until onlookers restrained the attacker. Charges and
counter-charges flew in the press, with the wealthy Camelford faction
having the greater firepower until Vancouver, ailing from his long
naval service, died.
Vancouver, one of Britain's greatest explorers and navigators, died in
obscurity on 10 May 1798 at the age of 40, less than three years after
completing his voyages and expeditions. No official cause of death
was stated, as the medical records pertaining to
destroyed; one doctor named John Naish claimed
Vancouver died from
kidney failure, while others believed it was a hyperthyroid
condition. His grave is in the churchyard of St Peter's Church,
Petersham, in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, England.
The Hudson's Bay Company
The Hudson's Bay Company placed a memorial plaque in the church in
1841. His grave in Portland stone, renovated in the 1960s, is now
Grade II listed in view of its historical associations.
Vancouver determined that the
Northwest Passage did not exist at the
latitudes that had long been suggested. His charts of the North
American northwest coast were so extremely accurate that they served
as the key reference for coastal navigation for generations. Robin
Fisher, the academic Vice-President of
Mount Royal University
Mount Royal University in
Calgary and author of two books on Vancouver, states:
He put the northwest coast on the map...He drew up a map of the
north-west coast that was accurate to the 9th degree, to the point it
was still being used into the modern day as a navigational aid. That's
unusual for a map from that early a time.
Vancouver failed to discover two of the largest and most
important rivers on the Pacific coast, the
Fraser River and the
Columbia River. He also missed the
Skeena River near Prince Rupert in
northern British Columbia.
Vancouver did eventually learn of the river
before he finished his survey—from Robert Gray, captain of the
American merchant ship that conducted the first Euroamerican sailing
Columbia River on 11 May 1792, after first sighting it on an
earlier voyage in 1788. However it and the
Fraser River never made it
onto Vancouver's charts. Stephen R. Bown, noted in Mercator's World
magazine (November/December 1999) that:
Vancouver could have missed these rivers while accurately charting
hundreds of comparatively insignificant inlets, islands, and streams
is hard to fathom. What is certain is that his failure to spot the
Columbia had great implications for the future political development
of the Pacific Northwest....
While it is difficult to comprehend how
Vancouver missed the Fraser
River, much of this river's delta was subject to flooding and summer
freshet which prevented the captain from spotting any of its great
channels as he sailed the entire shoreline from Point Roberts,
Washington to Point Grey in 1792. The Spanish expeditions to the
Pacific Northwest, with the 1791
Francisco de Eliza
Francisco de Eliza expedition
Vancouver by a year, had also missed the Fraser River
although they knew from its muddy plume that there was a major river
Vancouver generally established a good rapport with both Indigenous
peoples and European trappers. Historical records show Vancouver
enjoyed good relations with native leaders both in Hawaii – where
Kamehameha I ceded Hawaii to
Vancouver in 1794 – as well as the
Pacific Northwest and California. Vancouver's journals exhibit a
high degree of sensitivity to natives. He wrote of meeting the Chumash
people, and of his exploration of a small island on the
Californian coast on which an important burial site was marked by a
sepulchre of "peculiar character" lined with boards and fragments of
military instruments lying near a square box covered with mats.
This we naturally conjectured contained the remains of some person of
consequence, and it much excited the curiosity of some of our party;
but as further examination could not possibly have served any useful
purpose, and might have given umbrage and pain to the friends of the
deceased, should it be their custom to visit the repositories of their
dead, I did not think it right that it should be disturbed.
Vancouver also displayed contempt in his journals towards unscrupulous
western traders who provided guns to natives by writing:
I am extremely concerned to be compelled to state here, that many of
the traders from the civilised world have not only pursued a line of
conduct, diametrically opposite to the true principles of justice in
their commercial dealings, but have fomented discords, and stirred up
contentions, between the different tribes, in order to increase the
demand for these destructive engines... They have been likewise eager
to instruct the natives in the use of European arms of all
descriptions; and have shewn by their own example, that they consider
gain as the only object of pursuit; and whether this be acquired by
fair and honourable means, or otherwise, so long as the advantage is
secured, the manner how it is obtained seems to have been, with too
many of them, but a very secondary consideration.
Robin Fisher notes that Vancouver's "relationships with aboriginal
groups were generally peaceful; indeed, his detailed survey would not
have been possible if they had been hostile." While there were
hostile incidents at the end of Vancouver's last season – the most
serious of which involved a clash with Tlingits at
Behm Canal in
Alaska in 1794 – these were the exceptions to Vancouver's
exploration of the US and Canadian Northwest coast.
Despite a long history of warfare between Britain and Spain, Vancouver
maintained excellent relations with his Spanish counterparts and even
fêted a Spanish sea captain aboard his ship Discovery during his 1792
trip to the
Ship and cadet units
Vancouver Halifax-class frigate of the Royal Canadian Navy
TS Vancouver, Australian Navy Cadets
47 RCSCC CAPTAIN VANCOUVER,
Royal Canadian Sea Cadets
Royal Canadian Sea Cadets 
Many places around the world have been named after George Vancouver,
Vancouver Peninsula, Cape
Vancouver Breakers in King
George Sound, Western Australia
Mount Vancouver, in
Yukon and neighbouring Alaska, eighth highest
mountain in Canada
Vancouver, British Columbia, a major city on the mainland in
southwestern British Columbia, the province's largest city
Vancouver Maritime Museum
Vancouver Bay, British Columbia, in Jervis Inlet, East of Powell
River, named after
Vancouver when Capt. George H. Richards resurveyed
the area in 1860.
Vancouver Island, in
British Columbia off the southwest coast of the
mainland. North America's largest Pacific Island and location of the
provincial capital at Victoria on its southern tip.
Mount Vancouver, the sixth highest mountain in New Zealand.
Vancouver Arm of Breaksea Sound, Fiordland, South Island
Vancouver, Washington, a city in southwest Washington across the
Columbia River from Portland, Oregon
Fort Vancouver, a Hudson's Bay Company trading post established in
Grave of George
Vancouver in the churchyard of St Peter's Church,
Statue of George
Vancouver in King's Lynn
Vancouver are located in his birthplace of King's Lynn, in
Vancouver City Hall, and on top of the dome of the British
Columbia Parliament Buildings.
Vancouver Quarter Shopping Centre bears his name in King's Lynn.
British Rail Class 365
British Rail Class 365 unit 365 514 "Captain George Vancouver"
operates on the route between
King's Lynn and London.
Canada Post issued a pair of 14-cent stamps to mark the 200th
anniversary of Captain Cook's arrival at
Nootka Sound on Vancouver
Island on 26 April 1978. George
Vancouver was a crewman on this
Gate to the Northwest Passage, a commemorative statue by Vancouver
artist Alan Chung Hung was commissioned by
Parks Canada and installed
at the mouth of
False Creek in
Vanier Park near the
Museum in 1980.
Canada Post issued a 37-cent stamp inscribed
Vancouver Explores the
Coast on 17 March 1988. It was one of a set of four stamps issued to
honour Exploration of Canada – Recognizers.
Vancouver Rose, named in his honour and hybridised by
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.
British Rail Class 221
British Rail Class 221 unit 221129 was named in his
honour but has since been de-named on transfer to Cross Country.
A commemorative monument is located on the beach in North Kihei, Maui,
Hawaii, commemorating George Vancouver's contribution of coffee and
root vegetables to the islands of Hawaii, inscribed by Pierre Elliot
Trudeau 2 December 1967.
Many collections were made on the voyage: one was donated by Archibald
Menzies to the British Museum 1796; another made by surgeon George
Goodman Hewett (1765–1834) was donated by
A. W. Franks
A. W. Franks to the
British Museum in 1891. An account of these has been published.
250th birthday commemorations
1980 Commemorative Statue to Capt. George
Vancouver by Vancouver
artist Alan Chung Hung
Canada Post issued a $1.55 postage stamp to commemorate the 250th
anniversary of Vancouver's birth, on 22 June 2007. The stamp has an
embossed image of
Vancouver seen from behind as he gazes forward
towards a mountainous coastline. This may be the first Canadian stamp
not to show the subject's face.
The City of
Vancouver in Canada organised a celebration to commemorate
the 250th anniversary of Vancouver's birth, in June 2007 at the
Vancouver Maritime Museum. The one-hour festivities included the
presentation of a massive 63 by 114 centimetre carrot cake, the firing
of a gun salute by the Royal Canadian Artillery's 15th Field Regiment
and a performance by the
Vancouver Firefighter's Band. Vancouver's
then-mayor, Sam Sullivan, officially declared 22 June 2007 to be
Musqueam (xʷməθkʷəy̓əm) Elder sɁəyeɬəq (Larry Grant)
attended the festivities and acknowledged that some of his people
might disapprove of his presence, but also noted:
Many people don't feel aboriginal people should be celebrating this
occasion...I believe it has helped the world and that's part of who we
are. That's the legacy of our people. We're generous to a fault. The
legacy is strong and a good one, in the sense that without the first
nations working with the colonials, it [B.C.] wouldn't have been part
of Canada to begin with and Britain would be the poorer for it.
Origins of the family name
There has been some debate about the origins of the
Vancouver name. It
is now commonly accepted that the name
Vancouver derives from the
expression van Coevorden, meaning "(originating) from Coevorden", a
city in the northeast of the Netherlands. This city is apparently
named after the "Coeverden" family of the 13th–15th century.
In the 16th century, a number of businessmen from the
(and the rest of the Netherlands) moved to England. Some of them were
known as Van Coeverden. Others adopted the surname Oxford, as in oxen
fording (a river), which is approximately the English translation of
Coevorden. However, it is not the exact name of the noble family
mentioned in the history books that claim Vancouver's noble lineage:
that name was Coeverden not Coevorden.
In the 1970s, Adrien Mansvelt, a former consul general of the
Netherlands based in Vancouver, published a collation of information
in both historical and genealogical journals and in the
newspaper. Mansvelt's theory was later presented by the
city during the
Expo 86 World's Fair, as historical fact. The
information was then used by historian
W. Kaye Lamb in his book A
Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and Round the World,
W. Kaye Lamb, in summarising Mansvelt's 1973 research, observes
evidence of close family ties between the
Vancouver family of Britain
Van Coeverden family of the Netherlands as well as George
Vancouver's own words from his diaries in referring to his Dutch
As the name
Vancouver suggests, the Vancouvers were of Dutch origin.
They were descended from the titled van Coeverden family, one of the
oldest in the Netherlands. By the twelfth century, and for many years
thereafter, their castle at Coevorden, in the Province of Drenthe, was
an important fortress on the eastern frontier. George
aware of this. In July 1794, he named the
Lynn Canal "after the place
of my nativity" and Point Couverden (which he spelt incorrectly)
"after the seat of my ancestors". Vancouver's great grandfather, Reint
Wolter van Couverden, was probably the first of the line to establish
an English connection. While serving as a squire at one of the German
courts he met Johanna (Jane) Lilingston, an English girl who was one
of the ladies in waiting. They were married in 1699. Their son, Lucas
Hendrik van Couverden, married Vancouver's grandmother, Sarah. In his
later years he probably anglicized his name and spent most of his time
in England. By the eighteenth century, the estates of the van
Couverdens were mostly in the Province of Overijssel, and some of the
family were living in Vollenhove, on the Zuider Zee. The English and
Dutch branches kept in touch, and in 1798 (the date of Vancouver's
death) George Vancouver's brother Charles would marry a kinswoman,
Louise Josephine van Couverden, of Vollenhove. Both were
great-grandchildren of Reint Wolter van Couverden."
In 2006 John Robson, a librarian at the University of Waikato,
conducted his own research into George Vancouver's ancestry, which he
published in an article published in the
British Columbia History
journal. Robson theorises that Vancouver's forebears may have been
Flemish rather than Dutch; he believes that
Vancouver is descended
from the Vangover family of
Colchester in Suffolk. Those
towns had a significant Flemish population in the 16th and 17th
Vancouver named the south point of what is now Couverden
Island, Alaska, as Point Couverden during his exploration of the North
American Pacific coast, in honour of his family's hometown of
Coevorden. It is located at the western point of entry to Lynn
Canal in southeastern Alaska.
Works by George Vancouver
The Admiralty instructed
Vancouver to publish a narrative of his
voyage which he started to write in early 1796 in Petersham. At the
time of his death the manuscript covered the period up to mid-1795.
The work, A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean, and Round
the World, was completed by his brother John and published in three
volumes in the autumn of 1798. A second edition was published in
1801 in six volumes.
Volume 1: Google Books: Vol. 1 (alternative link Vol 1); Internet
Archive: Vol. 1,
Volume 2: Google Books: Vol. 2; Internet Archive: Vol. 2,
Volume 3: Google Books: Vol 3; Internet Archive: Vol. 3.
A modern annotated edition (1984) by
W. Kaye Lamb was renamed The
Voyage of George
Vancouver 1791–1795, and published in four volumes
Hakluyt Society of London, England.
European and American voyages of scientific exploration
^ Reed, A. W. (2010). Peter Dowling, ed. Place Names of New Zealand.
Rosedale, North Shore: Raupo. p. 430.
^ Landauer, Lyndall Baker (2013). "George Vancouver". In Magill, Frank
N. Dictionary of World Biography: The 17th and 18th Centuries. 4.
London: Routledge. p. 1355. ISBN 9781135924140.
^ "Chart of the NW Coast of America and Part of the NE of Asia with
the Track of his Majesty's Sloops 'Resolution' and 'Discovery' from
May to October 1778". World Digital Library. 1778. Retrieved 27 June
^ Sue Bigelow (20 June 2013). "Captain George Vancouver: original
documents". City of
^ King, Robert J. (2010). "George
Vancouver and the contemplated
settlement at Nootka Sound". The Great Circle. 32 (1): 6–34.
^ Allen, Richard Edward (1982). A Pictorial History of Vancouver, Book
1. Josten's Publications.
^ Wing, Robert; Newell, Gordon (1979). Peter Puget: Lieutenant on the
Vancouver Expedition, fighting British naval officer, the man for whom
Puget Sound was named. Gray Beard Publishing.
^ Little, Gary. George
Vancouver (1757–2007). 250th Birth
Anniversary, Survey of the Southwest Coast of BC, June 1792
^ The Voyage of George
Vancouver 1791–1795, Volume 1. W. Kaye Lamb
(ed.). Hakluyt Society. 1984. ISBN 978-0-904180-17-6. p. 247
^ Etulain, Richard W. (2004). Western Lives: A Biographical History Of
The American West. UNM Press. pp. 97–101.
^ a b McLendon, Sally and Johnson, John R. (1999). Cultural
Affiliation and Lineal Descent of Chumash Peoples in the Channel
Islands and the Santa Monica Mountains Santa Barbara Museum of Natural
History pp. 139–40 (98–99) Accessed 18 June 2010
^ a b Vancouver, George; Vancouver, John (1801). A voyage of discovery
to the North Pacific ocean, and round the world. London: J.
^ "Three Intrepid Explorers, Discovery Richmond". Retrieved 30 January
^ Cave, Edward ("Sylvanus Urban") (1798). "Obituary of Remarkable
Persons with Biographical Anecdotes". The Gentleman's Magazine, and
Historical Chronicle. 68. London: John Nichols. p. 447.
^ a b "George
Vancouver (1757–1798) part five: after the voyage".
The Captain Cook Society.
^ Capt George
Vancouver at Find a Grave
^ a b Boyes, Valerie; Wintersinger, Natascha (2014). Encountering the
Unchartered and Back – three explorers: Ball,
Vancouver and Burton.
Museum of Richmond. pp. 9–10. access-date= requires
^ "Tomb of Captain George
Vancouver in the Churchyard of St Peter's
Church". National Heritage List for England. English Heritage.
Retrieved 3 March 2014.
^ a b Pynn, Larry (30 May 2007) "Charting the Coast", The Vancouver
^ Brown, Stephen R. (1999). "In the Most Faithful Manner". Mercator's
World. 4 (6). Archived from the original on 19 June 2003.
^ "Vancouver". BC Geographical Names.
^ a b Hume, Stephen (17 November 2007) "The Birth of Modern British
Columbia Part 7", The
Vancouver Sun, p. D9
^ a b c d e f Pynn, Larry "Peaceful Encounters" (29 May 2007), The
Vancouver Sun, p. B3
^ King, J. C. H. (1994). "Vancouver's Ethnography: A Preliminary
Description of Five Inventories from the Voyage of 1791–95". J Hist
Collections. 6 (1): 35–38. doi:10.1093/jhc/6.1.35.
^ Pynn, Larry (24 May 2007) Mystery man: The
Canada Post stamp
honouring Captain George
Vancouver has created a buzz with collectors
Archived 10 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine.,
^ a b c d Pynn, Larry (23 June 2007) "Native elder embraces captain's
Vancouver Sun, p. B9
^ G.H. Anderson (1923).
Vancouver and his Great Voyage – The Story
of a Norfolk Sailor. King's Lynn: Thew & Son – via State Library
^ Mansvelt, Adrien (February 1975) "The
Vancouver – Van Coeverden
British Columbia Genealogist Vol 4 No. 1,2,3
^ Mansvelt, Adrien (February 1973). "Vancouver: A lost branch of the
van Coeverden Family" (PDF). BC Historical News. British Columbia
Historical Association. 6 (2): 20–23.
^ Mansvelt, Adrien (1 September 1973) "Solving the Captain Vancouver
mystery" and "The Original
Vancouver in Old Holland", The Vancouver
^ Lamb, W. Kaye A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and
Round the World, 1791–1795. London, Printed for G.G. and J. Robinson
^ The Voyage of George
Vancouver 1791–1795, Volume 1. W. Kaye Lamb
(ed.). Hakluyt Society. 1984. ISBN 978-0-904180-17-6. p. 3
^ Robson, John (2006). "Origins of the
Vancouver Name" (PDF). British
British Columbia Historical Federation. 39 (4):
23–24. ISSN 1710-7881.
^ Baecklandt, David, "Was George
Vancouver Flemish?", The Brussels
Journal, 21 February 2010.
^ History of Metropolitan Vancouver; chuckdavis.ca
^ Couverden Island. dnr.state.ak.us
^ "Review of new books". The Scots Magazine. 1 September 1799.
pp. 33–38 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription
^ "Vancouver's voyage round the world". London Courier and Evening
Gazette. 7 November 1801. p. 1 – via British Newspaper Archive.
(Subscription required (help)).
Madness, Betrayal and the Lash: The Epic Voyage of Captain George
Vancouver by Stephen R. Bown. Published by Douglas & McIntyre
Vancouver A Life: 1757–1798 by George Godwin. Published by D.
Appleton and Company, 1931.
Adventures in Two Hemispheres Including Captain Vancouver's Voyage by
James Stirrat Marshall and Carrie Marshall. Published by Telex
Printing Service, 1955.
The Life and Voyages of Captain George
Vancouver by Bern Anderson.
Published by University of Washington Press, 1966.
Captain Vancouver: A Portrait of His Life by Alison Gifford. Published
by St. James Press, 1986.
Journal of the Voyages of the H.M.S. Discovery and Chatham by Thomas
Manby. Published by Ye Galleon Press, 1988.
Vancouver's Voyage: Charting the Northwest Coast, 1791–1795 by Robin
Fisher and Gary Fiegehen. Published by Douglas & McIntyre, 1992.
On Stormy Seas, The Triumphs and Torments of Captain George Vancouver
by B. Guild Gillespie. Published by Horsdal & Schubart, 1992.
Captain Vancouver: North-West Navigator by E.C. Coleman. Published by
Sailing with Vancouver: A Modern Sea Dog, Antique Charts and a Voyage
Through Time by Sam McKinney. Published by Touchwood Editions, 2004.
The Early Exploration of Inland Washington Waters: Journals and Logs
from Six Expeditions, 1786–1792 edited by Richard W. Blumenthal.
Published by McFarland & Company, 2004.
A Discovery Journal: George Vancouver's First Survey Season – 1792
by John E. Roberts. Published by Trafford Publishing, 2005.
Vancouver in Inland Washington Waters: Journals of 12 Crewmen
April–June 1792 edited by Richard W. Blumenthal. Published by
McFarland & Company, 2007.
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Vancouver, George". Encyclopædia
Britannica. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Laughton, John Knox (1899). "Vancouver, George". In Lee, Sidney.
Dictionary of National Biography. 58. London: Smith, Elder &
David, Andrew C. F. "Vancouver, George (1757–1798)". Oxford
Dictionary of National Biography
Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.).
Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/28062. (Subscription or UK public
library membership required.)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to George Vancouver.
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
Vancouver (1757–1798), Explorer, illustrations in the
National Portrait Gallery.
The True Meaning of
Vancouver – Etymology of his name.
interactive Google map showing the path
Vancouver followed during his
11-day survey of the southwest coast of British Columbia
Coevorden: What connection does
Vancouver have with Coevorden, an
industrial town of about 20,000 in the northeast Netherlands?- The
History of Metropolitan
Vancouver website. (Retrieved on 11 June 2007)
ISNI: 0000 0000 8394 1930
BNF: cb12687910m (data)