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The Caprimulgiformes
Caprimulgiformes
is an order of birds that includes a number of birds with global distribution (except Antarctica). They are generally insectivorous and nocturnal. The order gets its name from the Latin for "goat-milker", an old name based on an erroneous view of the European nightjar's feeding habits.

Contents

1 Systematics 2 Evolution 3 Reproduction 4 See also 5 References

Systematics[edit] The classification of the various birds that make up the order has long been controversial and difficult, particularly in the case of the nightjars. Most taxonomists consider the following families, but some may be polyphenetic in their own distinct orders:

Family Steatornithidae
Steatornithidae
(oilbird) Family Aegothelidae
Aegothelidae
(owlet-nightjars) Family Podargidae
Podargidae
(frogmouths, 15 species in 3 genera) Family Nyctibiidae
Nyctibiidae
(potoos, about 5 species in 1 genus) Family Caprimulgidae

Subfamily Chordeilinae
Chordeilinae
(New World nighthawks) Subfamily Caprimulginae
Caprimulginae
(typical nightjars) Subfamily Eurostopodinae
Eurostopodinae
(eared nightjars)

Traditionally, they were regarded, on morphological grounds, as being midway between the owls (Strigiformes) and the swifts. Like the owls, they are nocturnal hunters with a highly developed sense of sight, and like the swifts they are excellent flyers with small, weak legs. At one time or another, they have been allied with owls, swifts, kingfishers, hoopoes, mousebirds, hornbills, rollers, bee-eaters, woodpeckers, trogons and hummingbirds. Based on analysis of DNA sequence
DNA sequence
data – notably β-fibrinogen intron 7 – Fain and Houde considered the families of the Caprimulgiformes
Caprimulgiformes
to be members of the proposed clade Metaves, which also includes the hoatzin, tropicbirds, sandgrouse, pigeons, kagu, sunbittern, mesites, flamingos, grebes and swifts and hummingbirds.[1] This clade was also found by the expanded study of Ericson et al. (2006), but support was extremely weak.[2] While only the latter study recovered monophyly of the Cypselomorphae (see below) within Metaves, the former was based on only a single locus and could not resolve their relationships according to standard criteria of statistical confidence. No morphological synapomorphies have been found that uniquely unite Metaves
Metaves
(or Caprimulgiformes
Caprimulgiformes
for that matter), but numerous unlinked nuclear genes independently support their monophyly either in majority or whole. Ericson et al. (2006) concluded that if valid, the "Metaves" must originate quite some time before the Paleogene, and they reconciled this with the fossil record.[2] While the relationships of cypselomorphs are a subject of ongoing debate, the phylogeny of the individual lineages is better resolved. Much of the remaining uncertainty regards minor details. Initial mtDNA cytochrome b sequence analysis[3] agreed with earlier morphological[4] and DNA-DNA hybridization[5] studies insofar as that the oilbird and the frogmouths seemed rather distinct. The other lineages appeared to form a clade, but this is now known to have been caused by methodological limitiations. The Aegothelidae
Aegothelidae
(owlet-nightjars) with about a dozen living species in one genus are apparently closer to the Apodiformes; these and the Caprimulgiformes
Caprimulgiformes
are closely related, being grouped together as Cypselomorphae. The oilbird and the frogmouths seem quite distinct among the remaining Caprimulgiformes, but their exact placement cannot be resolved based on osteological data alone.[6] Even the study of Ericson et al. could not properly resolve the oilbird's and frogmouths' relationships beyond the fact that they are quite certainly well distinct. It robustly supported, however, the idea that the owlet-nightjars should be considered closer to Caprimulgiformes, unlike the methodologically weaker studies of Mariaux & Braun (1996)[3] and Fain and Houde (2004).[1] Alternatively, Mayr's phylogenetic taxon Cypselomorphae
Cypselomorphae
might be placed at order rank and substitute the two present orders Caprimulgiformes
Caprimulgiformes
and Apodiformes. Such a group would be fairly uninformative as regards its evolutionary history, as it has to include some very plesiomorphic and some extremely derived lineages (such as hummingbirds) to achieve monophyly.[6] Evolution[edit]

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Paraprefica
Paraprefica
kelleri fossil

The fossil record of caprimulgiform birds (in the loose sense) is rather scant. Nonetheless, it supports the emerging consensus phylogeny well. The genus Paraprefica, probably from the Early Eocene (though this is somewhat uncertain), seems to be a basal form that at times has been allied with the oilbird and the potoos, but cannot be assigned to either with certainty. In the consensus scenario, it would represent a record of the initial divergence of the three lineages. This nicely agrees with fossils suggesting that the basal divergence of the owlet-nightjar and apodiform branch also occurred during that time. In addition, Eocypselus, a Late Paleocene or Early Eocene genus of north-central Europe, cannot be assigned to any one cypselomorph lineage with certainty but appears to be some ancestral form. These Paleogene birds strongly suggest that the two main extant lineages of cypselomorphs separated about 60-55 mya (Selandian-Thanetian), and that some time around the Lutetian- Bartonian boundary, some 40 mya, the common ancestors of Nyctibiidae, Caprimulgidae
Caprimulgidae
and eared nightjars diverged from those of oilbird and frogmouths. Reproduction[edit] Caprimulgiform birds typically lay small clutches: frogmouths and potoos lay only one egg, with exceptions such as the Australian Tawny Frogmouth
Frogmouth
which lay two to three and Marbled Frogmouth
Frogmouth
which lay one to two; nightjars one or two, and the Oilbird
Oilbird
usually three. With the exception of the Oilbird, which nests colonially in tree hollows, caprimulgiform birds do not build a nest but lay their egg or eggs directly onto the ground or branches. Both parents usually incubate, and for camouflage the semialtricial chicks, covered with down at hatching but immobile, are often coloured white like the eggs. Little is known of the life history of many members of the order[7] especially of maximum lifespans and age at first breeding. Most caprimulgiforms are monogamous, with the same pair breeding for many years, though only the eared nightjars typically produce more than a single brood per year. See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Caprimulgiformes.

List of Caprimulgiformes
Caprimulgiformes
by population

References[edit]

^ a b Fain, Matthew G.; Houde, Peter (2004). "Parallel radiations in the primary clades of birds" (PDF). Evolution. 58 (11): 2558–2573. doi:10.1554/04-235. PMID 15612298. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-04-07.  ^ a b Ericson, Per G.P.; Anderson, Cajsa L.; Britton, Tom; Elżanowski, Andrzej; Johansson, Ulf S.; Källersjö, Mari; Ohlson, Jan I.; Parsons, Thomas J.; Zuccon, Dario; Mayr, Gerald (2006). "Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils" (PDF). Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543–547. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. PMC 1834003 . PMID 17148284. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-03-07.  ^ a b Mariaux, Jean; Braun, Michael J. (1996). "A Molecular Phylogenetic Survey of the Nightjars and Allies (Caprimulgiformes) with Special
Special
Emphasis on the Potoos (Nyctibiidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 6 (2): 228–244. doi:10.1006/mpev.1996.0073. PMID 8899725.  ^ Cracraft, Joel (1981). "Toward a phylogenetic classification of the recent birds of the world (Class Aves)" (PDF). Auk. 98 (4): 681–714. JSTOR 4085891.  ^ Sibley, Charles Gald and Ahlquist, Jon Edward (1990): ThePhylogeny and classification of birds. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn., ISBN 0-300-04085-7 ^ a b Mayr, Gerald (2002). "Osteological evidence for paraphyly of the avian order Caprimulgiformes
Caprimulgiformes
(nightjars and allies)". Journal für Ornithologie. 143 (1): 82–97. doi:10.1007/bf02465461.  ^ Cleere, Nigel (2010) Nightjars of the world : potoos, frogmouths, oilbird and owlet-nightjars, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-14857-0

v t e

Birds (class: Aves)

Anatomy

Bird
Bird
anatomy Flight Eggs Feathers Plumage Beak Vision Dactyly Preen gland

Behaviour

Singing Intelligence Migration Sexual selection Lek mating Seabird
Seabird
breeding Incubation Brood parasites Nesting Hybrids

Evolution

Origin of birds Origin of flight Evolution
Evolution
of birds Darwin's finches Seabirds

Fossil
Fossil
birds

Archaeopteryx Omnivoropterygiformes Confuciusornithiformes Enantiornithes Chaoyangiiformes Patagopterygiformes Ambiortiformes Songlingornithiformes Apsaraviformes Gansuiformes Ichthyornithiformes Hesperornithes Lithornithiformes Dinornithiformes Aepyornithiformes Gastornithiformes

Human interaction

Ringing Ornithology Bird
Bird
collections Birdwatching Bird
Bird
feeding Conservation Aviculture Waterfowl hunting Cockfighting Pigeon racing Falconry Pheasantry Egg
Egg
collecting Ornithomancy

Lists

Families and orders Genera Glossary of bird terms List by population Lists by region Recently extinct birds Late Quaternary prehistoric birds Notable birds

Individuals Fictional

Neornithes

Palaeognathae

Struthioniformes (ostriches) Rheiformes (rheas) Tinamiformes (tinamous) Apterygiformes (kiwis) Casuariiformes
Casuariiformes
(emus and cassowaries)

Neognathae

Galloanserae (fowls)

Anseriformes (waterfowls)

Anatidae (ducks)

Anatinae Anserinae

swans true geese

Aythyinae Dendrocygninae Merginae Oxyurinae Plectropterinae Stictonettinae Tadorninae Thalassorninae

Anhimidae

Anhima Chauna

Anseranatidae

Anatalavis Anseranas

Galliformes (landfowls- gamebirds)

Cracidae

Cracinae Oreophasinae Penelopinae

Megapodidae

Aepypodius Alectura Eulipoa Leipoa Macrocephalon Megapodius Talegalla

Numididae

Acryllium Agelastes Guttera Numida

Odontophoridae

Callipepla Colinus Cyrtonyx Dactylortyx Dendrortyx Odontophorus Oreortyx Philortyx Rhynchortyx

Phasianidae

Meleagridinae Perdicinae Phasianinae
Phasianinae
(pheasants and relatives) Tetraoninae

Neoaves

Columbea

Columbimorphae

Columbiformes
Columbiformes
(doves and pigeons) Mesitornithiformes (mesites) Pteroclidiformes (sandgrouses)

Mirandornithes

Phoenicopteriformes (flamingos) Podicipediformes (grebes)

Passerea

Otidimorphae

Cuculiformes (cuckoos) Musophagiformes (turacos) Otidiformes (bustards)

Strisores

Caprimulgiformes
Caprimulgiformes
(nightjars and relatives) Steatornithiformes Podargiformes Apodiformes
Apodiformes
(swifts and hummingbirds)

Opisthocomiformes

Opisthocomiformes
Opisthocomiformes
(hoatzin)

Cursorimorphae

Charadriiformes
Charadriiformes
(gulls and relatives) Gruiformes
Gruiformes
(cranes and relatives)

Phaethontimorphae

Phaethontiformes (tropicbirds) Eurypygiformes
Eurypygiformes
(kagu and sunbittern)

Aequornithes

Gaviiformes (loons or divers) Sphenisciformes (penguins) Procellariiformes
Procellariiformes
(albatrosses and petrels) Ciconiiformes
Ciconiiformes
(storks) Suliformes
Suliformes
(cormorants and relatives) Pelecaniformes
Pelecaniformes
(pelicans and relatives)

Australaves

Cariamiformes
Cariamiformes
(seriemas and relatives) Falconiformes (falcons and relatives) Psittaciformes (parrots) Passeriformes (perching birds)

Afroaves

Cathartiformes
Cathartiformes
(New World vultures and condors) Accipitriformes
Accipitriformes
(eagles and hawks) Strigiformes (owls) Coliiformes (mousebirds) Trogoniformes (trogons and quetzals) Leptosomatiformes (cuckoo roller) Bucerotiformes
Bucerotiformes
(hornbills and hoopoes) Coraciiformes
Coraciiformes
(kingfishers and rollers) Piciformes
Piciformes
(woodpeckers and relatives)

Category Portal Outline

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q26125 EoL: 2921966 EPPO: 1CPMGO Fossilworks: 39410 ITIS: 177949 NCBI: 8902 WoRMS: 196057

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