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The Capetian House of Anjou
Anjou
was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet, part of the Capetian dynasty. It is one of three separate royal houses referred to as Angevin, meaning "from Anjou" in France. Founded by Charles I of Naples, the youngest son of Louis VIII of France, the Capetian king first ruled the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
during the 13th century. Later the War of the Sicilian Vespers forced him out of the island of Sicily, leaving him with the southern half of the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
— the Kingdom of Naples. The house and its various branches would go on to influence much of the history of Southern and Central Europe
Central Europe
during the Middle Ages, until becoming defunct in 1435. Historically, the House ruled the counties of Anjou, Maine, Touraine, Provence and Forcalquier, the principalities of Achaea and Taranto, and the kingdoms of Sicily, Naples, Hungary, Croatia, Albania, and Poland.

Contents

1 Rise of Charles I and his sons 2 Charles II and division of the inheritance 3 Branching out

3.1 Hungary 3.2 Poland 3.3 Naples 3.4 Taranto 3.5 Kingdom of Albania

4 Titles

4.1 Designation and details 4.2 List of monarchs

4.2.1 Kingdom of Sicily 4.2.2 Kingdom of Naples 4.2.3 Kingdom of Hungary 4.2.4 Kingdom of Poland

5 References 6 Sources 7 External links

Rise of Charles I and his sons[edit] Main articles: Guelphs and Ghibellines
Guelphs and Ghibellines
and War of the Sicilian Vespers

The seated Charles I of Sicily
Charles I of Sicily
is crowned by Pope Clement IV.

A younger son of House of Capet
House of Capet
king Louis VIII of France
Louis VIII of France
the Lion, Charles was first given a noble title by his brother Louis IX of France who succeeded to the French throne in 1226. Charles was named Count of Anjou
Count of Anjou
and Maine; the feudal County of Anjou
Anjou
was a western vassal state of the Kingdom of France, which the Capetians had wrested from the House of Plantagenet
House of Plantagenet
only a few decades earlier. Charles married the heiress of the County of Provence
County of Provence
named Beatrice of Provence, she was a member of the House of Barcelona; this meant Charles' holdings were growing as Count of Provence. After fighting in the Seventh Crusade, Charles was offered by Pope Clement IV
Pope Clement IV
the Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
— which at the time included not only the island of Sicily
Sicily
but also the southern half of the Italian Peninsula. The reason for Charles being offered the kingdom was because of a conflict between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire, the latter of whom were represented by the ruling House of Hohenstaufen.[citation needed] It was at the Battle of Benevento
Battle of Benevento
that the Guelph Capetians gained the Sicilian kingdom from the Ghibelline Swabians, this was cemented after victory at Tagliacozzo. In keeping with the political landscape of the period, Charles is described by scholars as shrewd, energetic and highly ambitious. He signed the Treaty of Viterbo in 1267 with Baldwin II of Courtenay and William II of Villehardouin,[1] the political alliance gave many of the rights of the Latin Empire
Latin Empire
to Charles and a marriage alliance for his daughter Beatrice of Sicily.[2] The Byzantines had taken back the city of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1261 and this was a plan to take it back from Michael VIII Palaiologos.[2] It also recognised Charles' possession of Corfu
Corfu
and cities in the Balkans such as Durazzo, as well as giving him suzerainty over the Principality of Achaea and sovereignty of the Aegean islands
Aegean islands
aside from those already held by the Republic of Venice.[3][4] For a while Charles was preoccupied helping his French brother in the unsuccessful Eighth Crusade on Tunis. After this he once again focused on Constantinople, but his fleet was wrecked in a freak storm off the coast of Trapani.[5] With the elevation of Pope Gregory X, there was a truce between Charles and Michael in the form of the Council of Lyons, as Christians focused on improving ecumenical relations, with hopes of regaining the Kingdom of Jerusalem
Kingdom of Jerusalem
back from the Muslims.[5]

Artistic depiction of the Sicilian Vespers.

Charles had fully solidified his rule over Durazzo by 1272, creating a small Kingdom of Albania
Albania
for himself, out of previously Despotate of Epirus territory; he was well received by local chiefs.[6]

A map of the lands ruled by Louis

Charles was driven out of Sicily
Sicily
in 1282, but his successors ruled Naples until 1435.[citation needed] Charles II and division of the inheritance[edit] This House of Anjou
Anjou
included the branches of Anjou-Hungary, which ruled Hungary (1308–1385, 1386–1395) and Poland (1370–1399), Anjou-Taranto, which ruled the remnants of the Latin Empire (1313–1374) and Anjou-Durazzo, which ruled Naples (1382–1435) and Hungary (1385–1386). The senior line of the House of Anjou-Durazzo became extinct in the male line with the death of King Ladislaus of Naples in 1414, and totally extinct with the death of his sister Joanna II in 1435. Branching out[edit] Hungary[edit]

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (May 2016)

Poland[edit]

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Naples[edit]

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Taranto[edit] Kingdom of Albania[edit] The Kingdom of Albania, or Regnum Albaniae, was established by Charles of Anjou
Anjou
in the Albanian territory he conquered from the Despotate of Epirus in 1271. He took the title of "King of Albania" in February 1272. The kingdom extended from the region of Durrës
Durrës
(then known as Dyrrhachium) south along the coast to Butrint. A major attempt to advance further in direction of Constantinople, failed at the Siege of Berat (1280–1281). A Byzantine counteroffensive soon ensued, which drove the Angevins out of the interior by 1281. The Sicilian Vespers further weakened the position of Charles, and the Kingdom was soon reduced by the Epirotes to a small area around Durrës. The Angevins held out here, however, until 1368, when the city was captured by Karl Thopia. In 1392 Karl Thopia's son surrendered the city and his domains to the Republic of Venice.[citation needed] Titles[edit] Designation and details[edit]

Title Held Designation and details

Count of Anjou 1246–1299 Awarded to Charles I by his brother. Remained under direct control of the Capetian House of Anjou
Anjou
until passing to another Capetian branch the House of Valois
House of Valois
by marriage.

Count of Maine 1246–1309 Awarded to Charles I by his brother. Remained under direct control of the Capetian House of Anjou
Anjou
until passing to another Capetian branch the House of Valois- Anjou
Anjou
by creation of John II of France.

Count of Provence 1246–1382 Inherited by marriage between Charles I and Beatrice of Provence
Beatrice of Provence
who held the county. Issueless Joanna I of Naples left the county to Louis I of Anjou
Anjou
of the House of Valois-Anjou.

King of Sicily 1266–1282 Won the kingdom through conquest.

List of monarchs[edit] Kingdom of Sicily[edit]

Portrait Name From Until Relationship with predecessor

Charles I of Sicily 6 January 1266 4 September 1282 no direct relation to Manfred of Sicily, won the kingdom through right of conquest.

Kingdom of Naples[edit]

Portrait Name Branch From Until Relationship with predecessor

Charles I of Naples Anjou-Sicily 4 September 1282 7 January 1285 the southern half of the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
was part of the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
before the Sicilian Vespers
Sicilian Vespers
forced Charles out of the island.

Charles II of Naples (Charles the Lame) Anjou-Sicily 7 January 1285 5 May 1309 son of Charles I of Naples.

Robert of Naples (Robert the Wise) Anjou-Naples 5 May 1309 20 January 1343 son of Charles II of Naples.

Joanna I of Naples Anjou-Naples 20 January 1343 12 May 1382 granddaughter of Robert of Naples. Daughter of Charles, Duke of Calabria

Charles III of Naples (Charles the Short) Anjou-Durazzo 12 May 1382 24 February 1386 second cousin of Joanna I of Naples, whom he had murdered. Son of Louis of Durazzo.

Ladislaus of Naples Anjou-Durazzo 24 February 1386 6 August 1414 son of Charles III of Naples.

Joanna II of Naples Anjou-Durazzo 6 August 1414 2 February 1435 sister of Ladislaus of Naples, daughter of Charles III of Naples.

Kingdom of Hungary[edit]

Portrait Name Branch From Until Relationship with predecessor

Charles Robert I of Hungary Anjou-Hungary Spring 1301 16 July 1342 great-grandnephew (first-cousin thrice removed) of Andrew III of Hungary, the last Árpád agnate.

Louis I of Hungary (Louis the Great) Anjou-Hungary 16 July 1342 10 September 1382 son of Charles I of Hungary.

Mary of Hungary Anjou-Hungary 10 September 1382 December 1385 daughter of Louis I of Hungary.

Charles II of Hungary (Charles the Short of Naples) Anjou(-Durazzo) December 1385 24 February 1386 second-cousin once removed of Mary of Hungary; great-grandson of Charles II of Naples. Usurped the throne from her.

Mary of Hungary (restored) Anjou-Hungary 24 February 1386 17 May 1395 second-cousin once removed of Charles II of Hungary; great-great granddaughter of Charles II of Naples.

Kingdom of Poland[edit]

Portrait Name Branch From Until Relationship with predecessor

Louis of Poland (Louis the Great of Hungary) Anjou-Hungary 17 November 1370 10 September 1382 nephew of Casimir III of Poland, the last Piast agnate.

Jadwiga of Poland Anjou-Hungary 16 October 1384 17 July 1399 daughter of Louis of Poland.

References[edit]

^ Abulafia, 148. "He reached an agreement with the dispossessed Latin Emperor Baldwin, his son and heir Philip of Courtenay and William of Villehardouin ... The resultant treaties ... signed in the papal palace at Viterbo in May 1267, would have made Charles of Anjou
Anjou
the effective controller of a restored Latin emperor ..." ^ a b Hazzard, The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, 35. ^ Abulafia, 533. "The principality of Morea and its dependencies should be transferred to [Charles of Anjou] ... granted to Charles suzerainty over the islands of the Aegean, Corfu
Corfu
and all Latin possession in Epiros." ^ Abulafia, 793. "[Charles of Anjou] took charge of Durazzo ..." ^ a b Hazzard, The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, 37. ^ Van Antwerp Fine, The Late Medieval Balkans, 184.

Sources[edit]

Abulafia, David, ed. (2004). The New Cambridge Medieval History. 5. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-36289-X.  Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-08260-5.  Geanakoplos, Deno John (1975). "Byzantium and the Crusades, 1261–1354". In Hazard, Harry W. A History of the Crusades, Volume III: The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 27–68. ISBN 0-299-06670-3. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to House of Anjou.

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Romania

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Fragmentation period

Supreme Princes

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See also

Dukes of Silesia Dukes of Greater Poland Dukes of Little Poland Dukes of Masovia Dukes of Cuyavia Dukes of Sieradz-Łęczyca Dukes of Gdańsk Pomerania Dukes of Pomerania

Přemyslid dynasty

Wenceslaus II Wenceslaus III

Restored Piast dynasty

Władysław I the Elbow-high Casimir III the Great

Capet- Anjou
Anjou
dynasty

Louis I the Hungarian Jadwiga

Jagiellonian dynasty

Władysław II Jagiełło Władysław III of Varna Casimir IV John I Albert Alexander Sigismund I the Old Sigismund II Augustus

Elective monarchy

Henry of Valois Anna Jagiellon Stephen Báthory Sigismund III Vasa Władysław IV Vasa John II Casimir Vasa Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki John III Sobieski August II the Strong Stanisław I August III the Saxon Stanisław August Poniatowski

Italics indicates monarchs of questioned historicity or e

.