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The CAPETIAN HOUSE OF ANJOU was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet , part of the Capetian dynasty . It is one of three separate royal houses referred to as Angevin, meaning "from Anjou" in France. Founded by Charles I of Naples , a son of Louis VIII of France , the Capetian king first ruled the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
during the 13th century. Later the War of the Sicilian Vespers forced him out of the island of Sicily, leaving him with just the southern half of the Italian Peninsula — the Kingdom of Naples . The house and its various branches would go on to influence much of the history of Southern and Central Europe
Central Europe
during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, until becoming defunct in 1435.

Historically, the House ruled Naples
Naples
and Sicily
Sicily
, parts of Greece , Hungary
Hungary
(and Croatia
Croatia
), and Poland
Poland
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Rise of Charles I and his sons * 2 Charles II and division of the inheritance

* 3 Branching out

* 3.1 Hungary
Hungary
* 3.2 Poland
Poland
* 3.3 Naples
Naples
* 3.4 Taranto
Taranto
* 3.5 Kingdom of Albania
Albania

* 4 Titles

* 4.1 Designation and details

* 4.2 List of monarchs

* 4.2.1 Kingdom of Sicily * 4.2.2 Kingdom of Naples * 4.2.3 Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
* 4.2.4 Kingdom of Poland
Poland

* 5 References * 6 Sources

RISE OF CHARLES I AND HIS SONS

Main articles: Guelphs and Ghibellines and War of the Sicilian Vespers The seated Charles I of Sicily
Sicily
is crowned by Pope Clement IV .

A younger son of House of Capet king Louis VIII of France the Lion, Charles was first given a noble title by his brother Louis IX of France who succeeded to the French throne in 1226. Charles was named Count of Anjou and Maine ; the feudal County of Anjou
Anjou
was a western vassal state of the Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
, which the Capetians had wrested from the House of Plantagenet only a few decades earlier. Charles married the heiress of the County of Provence
County of Provence
named Beatrice of Provence , she was a member of the House of Barcelona ; this meant Charles' holdings were growing as Count of Provence
Count of Provence
. After fighting in the Seventh Crusade
Seventh Crusade
, Charles was offered by Pope Clement IV
Pope Clement IV
the Kingdom of Sicily — which at the time included not only the island of Sicily
Sicily
but also the southern half of the Italian Peninsula . The reason for Charles being offered the kingdom was because of a conflict between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, the latter of whom were represented by the ruling House of Hohenstaufen .

It was at the Battle of Benevento that the Guelph Capetians gained the Sicilian kingdom from the Ghibelline Swabians, this was cemented after victory at Tagliacozzo . In keeping with the political landscape of the period, Charles is described by scholars as shrewd, energetic and highly ambitious. He signed the Treaty of Viterbo in 1267 with Baldwin II of Courtenay and William II of Villehardouin , the political alliance gave many of the rights of the Latin Empire
Latin Empire
to Charles and a marriage alliance for his daughter Beatrice of Sicily
Sicily
. The Byzantines had taken back the city of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1261 and this was a plan to take it back from Michael VIII Palaiologos
Michael VIII Palaiologos
. It also recognised Charles' possession of Corfu
Corfu
and cities in the Balkans such as Durazzo , as well as giving him suzerainty over the Principality of Achaea and sovereignty of the Aegean islands aside from those already held by the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
. For a while Charles was preoccupied helping his French brother in the unsuccessful Eighth Crusade on Tunis
Tunis
. After this he once again focused on Constantinople, but his fleet was wrecked in a freak storm off the coast of Trapani
Trapani
. With the elevation of Pope Gregory X , there was a truce between Charles and Michael in the form of the Council of Lyons , as Christians focused on improving ecumenical relations, with hopes of regaining the Kingdom of Jerusalem
Kingdom of Jerusalem
back from the Muslims. Artistic depiction of the Sicilian Vespers .

Charles had fully solidified his rule over Durazzo by 1272, creating a small Kingdom of Albania
Albania
for himself, out of previously Despotate of Epirus territory; he was well received by local chiefs. A map of the lands ruled by Louis

Charles was driven out of Sicily
Sicily
in 1282, but his successors ruled Naples
Naples
until 1435.

CHARLES II AND DIVISION OF THE INHERITANCE

This House of Anjou
Anjou
included the branches of Anjou- Hungary
Hungary
, which ruled Hungary
Hungary
(1308–1385, 1386–1395) and Poland
Poland
(1370–1399), Anjou- Taranto
Taranto
, which ruled the remnants of the Latin Empire (1313–1374) and Anjou-Durazzo, which ruled Naples
Naples
(1382–1435) and Hungary
Hungary
(1385–1386).

The line became extinct in the male line with the death of King Ladislaus of Naples
Naples
in 1414, and totally extinct with the death of his sister Joanna II in 1435.

BRANCHING OUT

HUNGARY

THIS SECTION IS EMPTY. You can help by adding to it . (May 2016)

POLAND

THIS SECTION IS EMPTY. You can help by adding to it . (May 2016)

NAPLES

THIS SECTION IS EMPTY. You can help by adding to it . (May 2016)

TARANTO

KINGDOM OF ALBANIA

The KINGDOM OF ALBANIA, or Regnum Albaniae , was established by Charles of Anjou
Anjou
in the Albanian territory he conquered from the Despotate of Epirus in 1271. He took the title of "King of Albania" in February 1272. The kingdom extended from the region of Durrës
Durrës
(then known as Dyrrhachium) south along the coast to Butrint
Butrint
. A major attempt to advance further in direction of Constantinople, failed at the Siege of Berat (1280–1281) . A Byzantine counteroffensive soon ensued, which drove the Angevins out of the interior by 1281. The Sicilian Vespers further weakened the position of Charles, and the Kingdom was soon reduced by the Epirotes to a small area around Durrës. The Angevins held out here, however, until 1368, when the city was captured by Karl Thopia . In 1392 Karl Thopia's son surrendered the city and his domains to the Republic of Venice.

TITLES

DESIGNATION AND DETAILS

TITLE HELD DESIGNATION AND DETAILS

Count of Anjou 1246–1299 Awarded to Charles I by his brother. Remained under direct control of the Capetian House of Anjou
Anjou
until passing to another Capetian branch the House of Valois by marriage.

Count of Maine 1246–1309 Awarded to Charles I by his brother. Remained under direct control of the Capetian House of Anjou
Anjou
until passing to another Capetian branch the House of Valois- Anjou
Anjou
by creation of John II of France .

Count of Provence
Count of Provence
1246–1382 Inherited by marriage between Charles I and Beatrice of Provence who held the county. Issueless Joanna I of Naples
Naples
left the county to Louis I of Anjou
Anjou
of the House of Valois-Anjou.

King of Sicily
Sicily
1266–1282 Won the kingdom through conquest.

LIST OF MONARCHS

Kingdom Of Sicily

PORTRAIT NAME FROM UNTIL RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR

Charles I of Sicily
Sicily
6 January 1266 4 September 1282 no direct relation to Manfred of Sicily
Sicily
, won the kingdom through right of conquest .

Kingdom Of Naples

PORTRAIT NAME BRANCH FROM UNTIL RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR

Charles I of Naples Anjou-Sicily 4 September 1282 7 January 1285 the southern half of the Italian Peninsula was part of the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
before the Sicilian Vespers forced Charles out of the island.

Charles II of Naples
Naples
(Charles the Lame) Anjou-Sicily 7 January 1285 5 May 1309 son of Charles I of Naples.

Robert of Naples
Naples
(Robert the Wise) Anjou-Naples 5 May 1309 20 January 1343 son of Charles II of Naples.

Joanna I of Naples
Naples
Anjou-Naples 20 January 1343 12 May 1382 granddaughter of Robert of Naples. Daughter of Charles, Duke of Calabria

Charles III of Naples
Naples
(Charles the Short) Anjou-Durazzo 12 May 1382 24 February 1386 second cousin of Joanna I of Naples, whom he had murdered. Son of Louis of Durazzo .

Ladislaus of Naples
Naples
Anjou-Durazzo 24 February 1386 6 August 1414 son of Charles III of Naples.

Joanna II of Naples Anjou-Durazzo 6 August 1414 2 February 1435 sister of Ladislaus of Naples, daughter of Charles III of Naples.

Kingdom Of Hungary

PORTRAIT NAME BRANCH FROM UNTIL RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR

Charles Robert I of Hungary
Hungary
Anjou-Hungary Spring 1301 16 July 1342 great-grandnephew (first-cousin thrice removed) of Andrew III of Hungary
Hungary
, the last Árpád agnate .

Louis I of Hungary
Hungary
(Louis the Great) Anjou-Hungary 16 July 1342 10 September 1382 son of Charles I of Hungary.

Mary of Hungary
Hungary
Anjou-Hungary 10 September 1382 December 1385 daughter of Louis I of Hungary.

Charles II of Hungary
Hungary
(Charles the Short of Naples) Anjou(-Durazzo) December 1385 24 February 1386 second-cousin once removed of Mary of Hungary; great-grandson of Charles II of Naples
Naples
. Usurped the throne from her.

Mary of Hungary
Hungary
(restored) Anjou-Hungary 24 February 1386 17 May 1395 second-cousin once removed of Charles II of Hungary; great-great granddaughter of Charles II of Naples.

Kingdom Of Poland

PORTRAIT NAME BRANCH FROM UNTIL RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR

Louis of Poland
Poland
(Louis the Great of Hungary) Anjou-Hungary 17 November 1370 10 September 1382 nephew of Casimir III of Poland
Poland
, the last Piast agnate .

Jadwiga of Poland Anjou-Hungary 16 October 1384 17 July 1399 daughter of Louis of Poland.

REFERENCES

Wikimedia Commons has media related to HOUSE OF ANJOU .

* ^ Abulafia, 148. "He reached an agreement with the dispossessed Latin Emperor Baldwin, his son and heir Philip of Courtenay and William of Villehardouin ... The resultant treaties ... signed in the papal palace at Viterbo in May 1267, would have made Charles of Anjou the effective controller of a restored Latin emperor ..." * ^ A B Hazzard, The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, 35. * ^ Abulafia, 533. "The principality of Morea and its dependencies should be transferred to ... granted to Charles suzerainty over the islands of the Aegean, Corfu
Corfu
and all Latin possession in Epiros." * ^ Abulafia, 793. " took charge of Durazzo ..." * ^ A B Hazzard, The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, 37. * ^ Van Antwerp Fine, The Late Medieval Balkans, 184.

SOURCES

* Abulafia, David, ed. (2004). The New Cambridge Medieval History. 5. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-36289-X . * Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-08260-5 . * Geanakoplos, Deno John (1975). "Byzantium and the Crusades, 1261–1354". In Hazard, Harry W. A History of the Crusades, Volume III: The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 27–68. ISBN 0-299-06670-3 .

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Royal houses of Europe

NORDIC COUNTRIES

DENMARK

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FINLAND

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NORWAY

* Fairhair * Knýtlinga * Hardrada * Gille * Sverre * Bjelbo * Estridsen * Griffins * Palatinate-Neumarkt * Bonde * Oldenburg * Holstein-Gottorp * Bernadotte * Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

SWEDEN

* Munsö * Stenkil * Sverker * Eric * Bjelbo * Estridsen * Mecklenburg * Griffins * Palatinate-Neumarkt * Bonde * Oldenburg * Vasa * Palatinate-Zweibrücken * Hesse-Kassel * Holstein-Gottorp * Bernadotte

ICELAND

* Fairhair * Bjelbo * Estridsen * Griffins * Palatinate-Neumarkt * Bonde * Oldenburg * Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

BRITAIN AND IRELAND

ENGLAND

* Mercia * Wuffing * Kent * Sussex * Essex * Bernicia * Deira * Northumbria * Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
* Wessex * Knýtlinga * Normandy * Angevin * Plantagenet * Lancaster * York * Tudor

SCOTLAND

* Fergus * Óengus * Strathclyde * Mann and the Isles * Alpin * Northumbria * Bernicia * Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
* Galloway * Dunkeld * Sverre * Balliol * Bruce * Stuart

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Dál Riata
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Connachta
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Mac Lochlainn
* Ó Conchobhair

GAELIC IRELAND

* Laigin * Síl Conairi * Ulaid * Dáirine * Osraige
Osraige
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Connachta
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Uí Ímair
(Norse) * Uí Ceinnselaig * Dál gCais * Ó Briain * Mac Carthaig * Ó Conchobhair * Ó Ruairc * De Burgh (Norman) * FitzGerald (Norman) * Ó Domhnaill * Ó Néill

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CROATIA

* Trpimirović * Domagojević * Svačić * Ottoman * Luxembourg * Habsburg * Habsburg-Lorraine * Bonaparte * Savoy (disputed)

CYPRUS 2

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GEORGIA 1

* Pharnavazid * Artaxiad * Arsacid * Chosroid * Bagrationi

GREECE

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Komnenos
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Palaiologos
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LITHUANIA

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MOLDAVIA

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Ypsilantis
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MONTENEGRO

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ROMANIA

* House of Basarab
House of Basarab
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Ypsilantis
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SERBIA

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TURKEY 1

* Ottoman

UKRAINE

* Rurikids * Piast * Gediminids * Olshanski * Olelkovich
Olelkovich
* Giray * Romanov * Habsburg-Lorraine

1 Transcontinental country . 2 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe.

WESTERN EUROPE

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Palaiologos
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MONACO

* Grimaldi

NETHERLANDS

* Bonaparte * Orange-Nassau * (Mecklenburg ) * (Lippe )

PORTUGAL

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* Braganza

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SPAIN

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* Bourbon

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CENTRAL EUROPE

AUSTRIA

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BOHEMIA

* Přemyslid * Piast * Luxembourg * Jagiellon * Habsburg * Habsburg-Lorraine

GERMANY

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House of Pomerania
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HUNGARY

* Árpád * Přemyslid * Wittelsbach * Angevin * Luxembourg * Hunyadi * Jagiellon * Szapolyai * Habsburg * Habsburg-Lorraine

LIECHTENSTEIN

* Liechtenstein

POLAND

* Piast * Přemyslid * Samborides * Griffins * Jagiellon * Valois * Báthory * Vasa * Wiśniowiecki * Sobieski * Wettin * Leszczyński

* Poniatowski

After partitions:

* Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov Kingdom of Poland * Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria * Wettin Duchy of Warsaw * Lefebvre Duchy of Gdańsk * Hohenzollern Duchy of Poznań

* v * t * e

Monarchs of Poland
Poland

PIAST DYNASTY

* Piast the Wheelwright * Siemowit
Siemowit
* Lestek * Siemomysł * Mieszko I * Bolesław I the Brave * Bezprym * Mieszko II Lambert * Bolesław the Forgotten * Casimir I the Restorer * Bolesław II the Generous * Władysław I Herman * Zbigniew * Bolesław III Wrymouth

Fragmentation period SUPREME PRINCES

* Władysław II the Exile * Bolesław IV the Curly * Mieszko III the Old * Casimir II the Just * Leszek the White * Władysław III Spindleshanks * Władysław Odonic * Mieszko IV Tanglefoot * Konrad I * Henry I the Bearded * Henry II the Pious * Bolesław V the Chaste * Leszek II the Black * Henryk IV Probus * Przemysł II

SEE AL