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CAPE VERDEAN CREOLE is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken on the islands of Cape Verde
Cape Verde
. It is the native language of virtually all Cape Verdeans and is used as a second language by the Cape Verdean diaspora .

The language has particular importance for creolistics studies since it is the oldest (still-spoken) creole. It is the most widely spoken Portuguese-based creole language.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name * 2 Origins * 3 Status * 4 Writing system * 5 Vocabulary

* 6 Phonology

* 6.1 Vowels

* 6.2 Consonants and semi-vowels

* 6.2.1 First-person singular

* 7 Grammar

* 7.1 Sentence structure

* 7.2 Nouns

* 7.2.1 Gender inflection * 7.2.2 Number inflection

* 7.3 Personal pronouns

* 7.4 Verbs

* 7.4.1 Regular verbs * 7.4.2 Irregular verbs * 7.4.3 Passive * 7.4.4 Negative

* 7.5 Adjectives * 7.6 Determiners * 7.7 Designatives

* 8 Dialects

* 8.1 Sotavento * 8.2 Barlavento

* 9 Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
examples

* 9.1 Example 1 (Santiago variant) * 9.2 Example 2 (São Vicente variant) * 9.3 Example 3

* 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Bibliography * 13 External links

NAME

The current designation of this language is "Cape Verdean Creole". However, in everyday usage the language is simply called "Creole" by its speakers. The names "Cape Verdean" (_cabo-verdiano_ in Portuguese, _kabuverdianu_ in Cape Verdean Creole) and "Cape Verdean language" (_língua cabo-verdiana_ in Portuguese, _língua kabuverdianu_ in Sotavento Creole and _língua kabverdian_ in Barlavento Creole) have been proposed for whenever the language will be standardized.

ORIGINS

_ Mornas – cantigas crioulas_ by Eugénio Tavares, one of the first books with creole texts.

The history of Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
is hard to trace due to a lack of written documentation and to ostracism during the Portuguese administration of Cape Verde.

There are presently three theories about the formation of Creole. The monogenetic theory claims that the creole was formed by the Portuguese by simplifying the Portuguese language
Portuguese language
in order to make it accessible to African slaves. That is the point of view of authors like Prudent, Waldman, Chaudenson, Lopes da Silva. Authors like Adam and Quint argue that Creole was formed by African slaves using the grammar of Western African languages and replacing the African lexicon with the Portuguese one. Linguists like Chomsky and Bickerton argue that Creole was formed spontaneously, not by slaves from continental Africa, but by the population born in the islands, using the grammar with which all human beings are born; this would explain how creoles localized several miles away have similar grammatical structures , even though they have a different lexical basis.

According to A. Carreira, Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
was formed from a Portuguese pidgin , on the island of Santiago, starting from the 15th century. That pidgin was then transported to the west coast of Africa by the _lançados _. From there, that pidgin diverged into two proto-Creoles , one that was the base of all Cape Verdean Creoles, and another that was the base of the Guinea-Bissau Creole .

Cross referencing information regarding the settlement of each island with the linguistic comparisons, it is possible to conjecture some conclusions. The spreading of Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
within the islands was done in three phases:

* In a first phase, the island of Santiago was occupied (2nd half of the 15th century), followed by Fogo (end of the 16th century). * In a second phase, the island of São Nicolau was occupied (mostly in the 2nd half of the 17th century), followed by Santo Antão (mostly in the 2nd half of the 17th century). * In a third phase, the remaining islands were occupied by settlers from the first islands: Brava was occupied by population from Fogo (mostly in the beginning of the 18th century), Boa Vista by population from São Nicolau and Santiago (mostly in the 1st half of the 18th century), Maio by population from Santiago and Boa Vista (mostly in the 2nd half of the 18th century), São Vicente by population from Santo Antão and São Nicolau (mostly in the 19th century), Sal by population from São Nicolau and Boa Vista (mostly in the 19th century).

STATUS

Diglossia: announcement (law) in Portuguese; commercial in Creole.

In spite of Creole being the first language of nearly all the population in Cape Verde, Portuguese is still the official language . As Portuguese is used in everyday life (at school, in administration, in official acts, in relations with foreign countries, etc.), Portuguese and Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
live in a state of diglossia . Due to this overall presence of Portuguese, a decreolization process occurs for all the different Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
variants.

Check in this fictional text: Santiago variant: Quêl mudjêr cú quêm m’ encôntra ónti stába priocupáda púrqui êl sqêci dí sês minínus nâ scóla, í cándu êl bâi procurâ-’s êl câ olhâ-’s. Alguêm lembrâ-’l quí sês minínus sâ tâ pricisába dí material pâ úm pesquisa, entõ êl bâi encontrâ-’s nâ biblioteca tâ procúra úqui ês cría. Pâ gradêci â túdu quêm djudâ-’l, êl cumêça tâ fála, tâ flâ cômu êl stába contênti di fúndu di curaçãu. São Vicente variant: Quêl m’djêr c’ quêm m’ encontrá ônt’ táva priocupáda púrq’ êl sq’cê d’ sês m’nín’s nâ scóla, í cónd’ êl bái procurá-’s êl câ olhá-’s. Alguêm lembrá-’l qu’ sês m’nín’s táva tâ pr’cisá d’ material pâ úm pesquisa, entõ êl bâi encontrá-’s nâ biblioteca tâ procurá úq’ ês cría. Pâ gradecê â túd’ quêm j’dá-’l, êl c’meçá tâ fála, tâ dzê côm’ êl táva contênt’ d’ fúnd’ d’ curaçãu. Translation to Portuguese: Aquela mulher com quem eu encontrei-me ontem estava preocupada porque ela esqueceu-se das suas crianças na escola, e quando ela foi procurá-las ela não as viu. Alguém lembrou-lhe que as suas crianças estavam a precisar de material para uma pesquisa, então ela foi encontrá-las na biblioteca a procurar o que elas queriam. Para agradecer a todos os que ajudaram-na, ela começou a falar, dizendo como ela estava contente do fundo do coração. Translation to English: That woman with whom I met yesterday was worried because she forgot her children at school, and when she went to seek them she didn’t see them. Someone reminded her that her children were needing some material for a research, and so she found them at the library searching what they needed. To thank to everyone who helped her, she started speaking, telling how she was glad from the bottom of her heart.

In this text, several situations of decreolization / Portuguese intromission can be noted:

* _cú quêm_ / _c’ quêm_ – Portuguese order of words _com quem_; * _encôntra_ / _encontrá_ – Portuguese lexicon, in Creole it would be more commonly _átcha_ / _otchá_; * _priocupáda_ – Portuguese lexicon, in Creole it would be more commonly _fadigáda_; * _púrqui_ / _púrq’_ – Portuguese lexicon, in Creole it would be more commonly _pamódi_ / _pamód’_; * _sês minínus_ / _sês m’nín’s_ – Portuguese influence (plural marker on both words); * _procurâ-’s_ / _procurá-’s_ – Portuguese lexicon, in Creole it would be more commonly _spiâ-’s_ / _spiá-’s_; * _olhâ-’s_ / _olhá-’s_ – Portuguese phonetics (intromission of the phoneme /ʎ/); * _quí_ / _qu’_ – Portuguese lexicon, the integrant conjunction in Creole is _’mâ_; * _sâ tâ pricisába_ / _táva ta pr’cisá_ – Portuguese lexicon, in Creole it would be more commonly _sâ tâ mestêba_ / _táva tâ mestê_; * _material_, _pesquisa_, _biblioteca_ – words pretty uncommon in a basilect; if they are Portuguese words used when speaking Creole they should be pronounced in Portuguese and written in italic or between quotation marks; * _úqui_ / _úq’_ – intromission of Portuguese _o que_; * _gradêci â_ / _gradecê â_ – wrong preposition, the Portuguese preposition “_a_” does not exist in Creole; * _fála_ – this form (from contemporary Portuguese _falar_) is only used in São Vicente and Santo Antão, in the other islands the word is _papiâ_ (from old Portuguese _papear_); * _cômu_ / _côm’_ – intromission of Portuguese _como_; * _curaçãu_ – Portuguese phonetics (reduction of the phoneme /o/ to /u/ and Portuguese pronunciation /ɐ̃w/ instead of Creole /õ/);

The same text “corrected”: Santiago variant: Quêl mudjêr quí m’ encôntra cú êl ónti stába fadigáda pamódi êl sqêci sês minínu nâ scóla, í cándu quí êl bâi spiâ-’s êl câ odjâ-’s. Alguêm lembrâ-’l ’ma sês minínu sâ tâ mestêba «material» pâ úm «pesquisa», entõ êl bâi atchâ-’s nâ «biblioteca» tâ spía cusê quí ês cría. Pâ gradêci pâ túdu quêm quí djudâ-’l, êl cumêça tâ pâpia, tâ flâ módi quí êl stába contênti di fúndu di coraçõ. São Vicente variant: Quêl m’djêr qu’ m’ encontrá má’ êl ônt’ táva fadigáda pamód’ êl sq’cê sês m’nín’ nâ scóla, í cónd’ êl bái spiá-’s êl câ oiá-’s. Alguêm lembrá-’l ’mâ sês m’nín’ táva tâ mestê «material» pâ úm «pesquisa», entõ êl bâi otchá-’s nâ «biblioteca» tâ spiá c’sê qu’ ês cría. Pâ gradecê pâ túd’ quêm qu’ j’dá-’l, êl c’meçá tâ fála, tâ dzê qu’ manêra qu’ êl táva contênt’ d’ fúnd’ d’ coraçõ.

As a consequence there is a continuum between basilectal and acrolectal varieties.

In spite of Creole not being officialized, there exists a governmental directive that puts forth the necessary conditions for the officialization of Creole. This officialization has not yet occurred, mostly because the language is not yet standardized , for several reasons:

* There is significant dialectal fragmentation. Speakers are reluctant to speak a variant that is not their own. * Absence of rules to establish which is the right form (and also the right spelling) to be adopted for each word. For example, for the word corresponding to the Portuguese word _algibeira_ (“pocket”), A. Fernandes records the forms _algibêra_, _agibêra_, _albigêra_, _aljubêra_, _alj’bêra_, _gilbêra_, _julbêra_, _lijbêra_. * Absence of rules to establish which are the lexical limits to be adopted. It is frequent for speakers of Creole, when writing, to join different grammatical classes. For ex.: _pâm..._ instead of _pâ m’..._ “for me to...”. * Absence of rules to establish which are the grammatical structures to be adopted. It is not just about dialectal differences; even within a single variant there are fluctuations. For ex.: in the Santiago variant, when there are two sentences and one is subordinated to the other, there is a tense agreement in the verbs (_bú cría pâ m’ dába_ “you wanted me to give” – both _cría_ and _dába_ are past tense), but some speakers do not practice it (_bú cría pâ m’ dâ_ – past then present – or _bú crê pâ m’ dába_ – present then past). * The writing system ( ALUPEC ) has not been well accepted by all Creole users. * The language levels (formal, informal, scientific, slang, etc.) are not well differentiated yet.

That is the reason why, each speaker when speaking (or writing) uses his/her own dialect , his/her own sociolect and his/her own idiolect .

To overcome these problems, some Creole advocates propose the development of two standards: a North (Barlavento) standard, centered on the São Vicente variant, and a South (Sotavento) standard, centered on that of Santiago. If so, Creole would become a pluricentric language

There exists no complete translation of the Bible. However, the “Asosiason Kabuverdianu pa Traduson di Bíblia” was established with the goal of translating the entire Bible in Kabuverdianu-Sotaventu and Kabuverdianu-Barlaventu (see http://www.AKTB.org). They have translated approximately 40% of the New Testament
New Testament
in the Kabuverdianu-Sotaventu, and they have published Luke and Acts. The publication of Luke has won two awards in Cape Verde. Sérgio Frusoni translated Bartolomeo Rossetti 's version of the Romanesco Italian poem _Er Vangelo Seconno Noantri_, which is a poem based on the Four Gospels . Frusoni translated the poem in the São Vicente Creole, _Vangêle contód d'nôs móda_.

WRITING SYSTEM

Main article: ALUPEC

The only writing system officially recognized by the authorities in Cape Verde
Cape Verde
is called ALUPEC . In spite of having been officially recognized by the government, the ALUPEC is neither officially nor mandatorily used, instead used only by enthusiasts.

In spite of being the only system officially recognized, the same law allows the use of alternative writing models, “as long as they are presented in a systematic and scientific way”. As not all users are familiarized with ALUPEC or the IPA
IPA
, in this article a slightly different system will be used to make it easier for the reader:

* The sound will be represented in an etymological way (“S” when in Portuguese is “S”, “SS” when in Portuguese is “SS”, “C” when in Portuguese is “C”, “ç” when in Portuguese is “ç”) instead of ALUPEC always “S”. * The sound will be represented in an etymological way (“S” when in Portuguese is “S”, “Z” when in Portuguese is “Z”) instead of ALUPEC always “Z”. * The sound will be represented by “TCH” instead of ALUPEC “TX”. * The sound will be represented in an etymological way (“X” when in Portuguese is “X”, “CH” when in Portuguese is “CH”) instead of ALUPEC always “X”. * The sound will be represented in an etymological way (“J” when in Portuguese is “J”, “G” when in Portuguese is “G”) instead of ALUPEC always “J”. * The sound will be represented in an etymological way (“C” when in Portuguese is “C”, “QU” when in Portuguese is “QU”) instead of ALUPEC always “K”. * The sound will be represented in an etymological way (“G” when in Portuguese is “G”, “GU” when in Portuguese is “GU”) instead of ALUPEC always “G”. * The nasality of the vowels will be represented by an “M” after the vowel, when this vowel is at the end of the word or before the letters “P” and “B”. In the other cases the nasality will be represented by the letter “N”. * The words will always have a graphic accent. This will be an overwhelming use of accents, but it is the only way to effectively represent both the stressed syllable and vowel aperture. * To show an elided vowel in certain variants an apostrophe ’ will be used.

VOCABULARY

The vocabulary of Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
comes mainly from Portuguese. Although the several sources do not agree, the figures oscillate between 90 to 95% of words from Portuguese. The remaining comes from several languages from Western Africa (Mandingo , Wolof , Fulani , Temne , Balanta , Mandjak , etc.), and the vocabulary from other languages (English, French, Latin
Latin
) is negligible.

PHONOLOGY

Cape Verdean Creole's phonological system comes mainly from 15th-through-17th-century Portuguese. In terms of conservative features, Creole has kept the affricate consonants /dʒ/ and /tʃ/ (written “j” (in the beginning of words) and “ch”, in old Portuguese) which are not in use in today’s Portuguese, and the pre-tonic vowels were not reduced as in today’s European Portuguese. In terms of innovative features, the phoneme /ʎ/ (written “lh” in Portuguese) has evolved to /dʒ/ and the vowels have suffered several phonetic phenomena.

VOWELS

There are eight oral vowels and their corresponding nasal counterparts, making a total of sixteen vowels:

FRONT CENTRAL BACK

ORAL NASAL ORAL NASAL ORAL NASAL

CLOSE i ĩ

u ũ

CLOSE-MID e ẽ

o õ

OPEN-MID ɛ ɛ̃ ɐ ɐ̃ ɔ ɔ̃

OPEN

a ã

CONSONANTS AND SEMI-VOWELS

LABIAL Dental / Alveolar Postalveolar / Palatal VELAR UVULAR

NASAL m n ɲ ŋ

PLOSIVE p b t d

k ɡ

AFFRICATE

tʃ dʒ

FRICATIVE f v s z ʃ ʒ

(ʁ)

TAP

ɾ

TRILL

(r)

ʀ

APPROXIMANT w

j

LATERAL

l ʎ

* Note: The sounds , and are variants of the same phoneme /ʀ/.

First-person Singular

The personal pronoun that represents the subject form of the first person singular has a variable pronunciation according to the islands.

This pronoun comes from the object form of the first person singular in Portuguese _mim_, and it is phonetically reduced to the sound .

This pronunciation is nowadays found in the Barlavento variants. In the Sotavento variants that consonant was reduced to a simple nasality . For example: _m’ andâ_ ('I have walked'), _m’ stâ tâ sintí_ ('I am feeling'), _m’ labába_ ('I had washed'). Before plosive or affricate consonants this nasality becomes homorganic nasal of the following consonant. For ex.: _m’ bêm_ ('I came'), _m’ têm_ ('I have'), _m’ tchigâ_ ('I arrived'), _m’ crê_ ('I want').

Speakers who are strongly influenced by the Portuguese language
Portuguese language
tend to pronounce this pronoun as a NASAL VOWEL _úm_ instead of _m’_ .

Before some forms of the verb _sêr_ this pronoun takes back its full form _Mí_ , in whatever variant: _mí ê_ (‘I am’), _mí éra_ (‘I was’).

In this article, this pronoun is conventionally written _m’_, no matter the variant.

Some linguistic books about the creole.

GRAMMAR

Even though over 90% of Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
words are derived from Portuguese, the grammar is very different, which makes it extremely difficult for an untrained Portuguese native speaker even to understand a basic conversation. On the other hand, the grammar shows a lot of similarities with other creoles, Portuguese-based or not (check syntactic similarities of creoles ).

SENTENCE STRUCTURE

The basic sentence structure in Creole is Subject – Verb – Object. Ex.:

* _Êl tâ cumê pêxi._ “He eats fish.”

When there are two objects, the indirect object comes first while the direct object comes after, and the sentence structure becomes Subject – Verb – Indirect Object – Direct Object. Ex.:

* _Êl tâ dâ pêxi cumída._ “He gives food to the fish.”

A curiosity that makes Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
closer to other creoles is the possibility of double negation (ex.: _Náda m’ câ atchâ._ liter. “Nothing I didn’t find.”), or sometimes even triple negation (ex.: _Núnca ninguêm câ tâ bába lâ._ liter. “Never nobody didn’t go there.”). Although double negation is commom in portuguese (e.g "Nunca ninguém foi lá"), triple negation is a little bit uncommon.

NOUNS

Gender Inflection

Only the animated nouns (human beings and animals) have gender inflection. Ex.:

* _inglês_ / _inglésa_ “Englishman / Englishwoman” * _pôrcu_ / _pórca_ “pig (male) / pig (female)”

In some cases the distinction between sexes is made putting the adjectives _mátchu_ “male” and _fémia_ “female” after the nouns. Ex.:

* _fídju-mátchu_ / _fídju-fémia_ “son / daughter” * _catchôrr’-mátchu_ / _catchôrr’-fémia_ “dog (male) / dog (female)”

Number Inflection

The nouns in Creole have number inflection (plural marks) only when they are well determined or known in the context. Ex.:

* _Minínus dí Bía ê bêm comportádu._ (“The children of Bia are well behaved.”)

When the noun refers to something in general that noun does not have number inflection. Ex.:

* _Minínu devê ruspetâ alguêm grándi._ (“Children must respect grown up people.”)

If in a sentence there are several grammatical categories, only the first bears the plural marker. Ex.:

* _minínuS_ (“boys”) * _nhâS minína_ (“my girls”) * _minínuS bunítu_ (“beautiful boys”) * _nhâS dôs minína buníta í simpática_ (“my two kind and beautiful girls”)

_Further reading: Manuel Veiga. "5.2 – Flexões dos substantivos"._ Introdução à Gramática do Crioulo _(2nd ed.). pp. 139–141.__ _ (in Portuguese)

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

According to their function, the pronouns can be SUBJECT pronouns or OBJECT pronouns. Furthermore, in each of these functions, according to the position within the sentence the pronouns can be UNSTRESSED or STRESSED.

The UNSTRESSED subject pronouns generally bear the function of the subject and the come before the verb. Ex.:

* _Nú crê._ “WE want.”

The STRESSED subject pronouns bear the function of some kind of vocative and usually are separated from the verb (disjunctive pronouns ). Ex.:

* _Mí, m’ stâ lí, í Bô, bú stâ lâ._ “ME, I am here, and YOU, you are there.”

The object pronouns, as the name shows, bear the function of the object (direct or indirect). The UNSTRESSED object pronouns are used with the present-tense forms of verbs. Ex.:

* _M’ odjá-’L._ “I have seen IT.” * _M’ tâ bejá-BU._ “I kiss YOU.”

The STRESSED object pronouns are used with the past-tense forms of verbs, when they are the second pronoun in a series of two pronouns, and after prepositions (prepositional pronouns ). Ex.:

* _Ês tâ odjába-êL._ “They saw IT.” * _Bú dâ-m’-êL._ “You gave IT to me.” * _M’ stâ fártu dí Bô!_ “I’m fed up of YOU!”

When there are two object pronouns, the indirect pronoun comes first while the direct pronoun comes after, and the sentence structure becomes Subject – Verb – Indirect Pronoun – Direct Pronoun.

There are no reflexive pronouns. To indicate reflexivity, Creole uses the expression _cabéça_ ("head") after the possessive determiner. Ex.:

* _Ês mordê sês cabéça._ “They have bitten themselves.”

There are no reciprocal pronouns. To indicate reciprocity, Creole uses the expression _cumpanhêru_ ("companion"). Ex.:

* _Ês mordê cumpanhêru._ “They have bitten each other.”

VERBS

The verbs have only minimal inflection (two forms). They have the same form for all the persons, and the notions of tense, mood and aspect are expressed through the presence (or absence) of certain morphemes (called “VERBAL ACTUALIZERS” by Veiga ), as in the majority of creoles.

The verbs are generally reduced to two base forms, one for the PRESENT, another for the PAST. The form for the PRESENT is the same to the form for the INFINITIVE (exception: _sêr_ “to be”), that in turn comes, in the majority of the verbs, from the infinitive in Portuguese but without the final _r_. Ex.: _cantâ_ /kɐ̃ˈtɐ/ (from Portuguese _cantar_), _mexê_ /meˈʃe/ (from Portuguese _mexer_), _partí_ /pɐɾˈti/ (from Portuguese _partir_), _compô_ /kõˈpo/ (from Portuguese _compor_), _*lumbú_ /lũˈbu/ (from Portuguese _lombo_). The form for the PAST is formed from the infinitive to which is joined the particle for the past _~ba_. Ex.: _cantába_ /kɐ̃ˈtabɐ/, _mexêba_ /meˈʃebɐ/, _partíba_ /pɐɾˈtibɐ/, _compôba_ /kõˈpobɐ/, _*lumbúba_ /lũˈbubɐ/ (in the Barlavento variants, the particle for the past _~va_ (or _~ba_) is joined to the IMPERFECTIVE ACTUALIZER, and not to the verb). It is noteworthy that the Upper Guinea creoles ( Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
and Guinea-Bissau Creole ) put the past tense marker after the verbs, and not before like the majority of creoles (check syntactic similarities of creoles ).

It is important to mention that in the Santiago variant, the stress goes back to before the last syllable in the present tense forms of the verbs. Therefore, we have: _cánta_ /ˈkãtɐ/ instead of _cantâ_ /kɐ̃ˈtɐ/, _mêxe_ /ˈmeʃe/ or _mêxi_ /ˈmeʃi/ instead of _mexê_ /meˈʃe/, _pârti_ /ˈpɐɾti/ instead of _partí_ /pɐɾˈti/, _cômpo_ /ˈkõpo/ or _cômpu_ /ˈkõpu/ instead of _compô_ /kõˈpo/, _búmbu_ /ˈbũbu/ instead of _bumbú_ /bũˈbu/. In the pronominal forms, however, the stress remains on the last syllable: _cantâ-m’_ /kɐ̃ˈtɐ̃/, _mexê-bu_ /meˈʃebu/, _partí-’l_ /pɐɾˈtil/, _compô-nu_ /kõˈponu/, _bumbú-’s_ /bũˈbuz/.

Regular Verbs

As was said before, the regular verbs are reduced to a form for the present tense and a form for the past tense, and the notions of mood and aspect are expressed through verbal actualizers.

The following table shows a paradigm of the indicative mood with the verb _dâ_ “to give” in the first-person singular:

PRESENT TENSE PAST TENSE

Perfective aspect _M’ dâ_ _M’ dába_

Imperfective aspect _M’ tâ dâ_ _M’ tâ dába_

Progressive aspect _M’ stâ tâ dâ_ _M’ stába tâ da_

The PERFECTIVE aspect of the PRESENT is used when the speech refers to present situations, but that are finished, that are complete. Ex.: _M’ dâ._ “I gave. / I have given.” It corresponds roughly, according to context, to the PAST TENSE or PRESENT PERFECT in English.

The IMPERFECTIVE aspect of the PRESENT is used when the speech refers to present situations, but that are not finished yet, that are incomplete. Ex.: _M’ tâ dâ._ “I give.” It corresponds roughly to the PRESENT TENSE in English.

The PROGRESSIVE aspect of the PRESENT is used when the speech refers to present situations that are happening in a continuous, uninterrupted way. Ex.: _M’ stâ tâ dâ._ “I am giving.” It corresponds roughly to the PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE in English. Note: Actually, this model doesn’t exist anymore. It has evolved to _M’ stâ dâ._ in Brava Fogo and Maio, to _M’ sâ tâ dâ._ in Santiago, to _M’ tâ tâ dâ._ in Boa Vista, Sal and São Nicolau and to _M’ ti tâ dá._ in São Vicente and Santo Antão.

There is no specific form for the future. The FUTURE OF THE PRESENT may be expressed through three resources:

* Using the imperfective of the present but bearing the function of the future. Ex.: _M’ tâ dâ manhã._ liter. “I give tomorrow.” * Using the auxiliary verb “to go”. Ex.: _M’ tâ bái dâ._ liter. “I go to give.” * Using a periphrasis showing an eventuality. Ex.: _M’ ál dâ._ “I will give.”

It corresponds roughly to the FUTURE TENSE in English.

The PERFECTIVE aspect of the PAST is used when the speech refers to past situations that were finished, or complete. Ex.: _M’ dába._ “I had given.” It corresponds roughly to the PAST PERFECT in English. Note: This form does not exist in the Barlavento variants.

The IMPERFECTIVE aspect of the PAST is used when the speech refers to past situations that were not finished yet, or incomplete. Ex.: _M’ tâ dába._ “I gave. / I used to give.” It corresponds roughly to the PAST TENSE in English. Note: In the Barlavento variants the particle for the past is joined to the imperfective actualizer and not to the verb: _M’ táva dâ._ . In São Nicolau, along with _M’ táva dâ_ also subsists the older form _M’ tá dába_ .

The PROGRESSIVE aspect of the PAST is used when the speech refers to past situations that were happening in a continuous and uninterrupted way. Ex.: _M’ stába tâ dâ._ “I was giving.” It corresponds roughly to the PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE in English. Note: Actually, this model only exists in Brava and Fogo. It has evolved to _M’ sâ tâ dába._ in Santiago and Maio and to _M’ táva tâ dâ._ in Boa Vista, Sal, São Nicolau, São Vicente and Santo Antão.

There is no specific form for the future. The FUTURE OF THE PAST may be expressed through three resources:

* Using the imperfective of the past but bearing the function of the future. Ex.: _M’ tâ dába manhã._ liter. “I gave tomorrow.” * Using the auxiliary verb “to go”. Ex.: _M’ tâ bába dâ._ liter. “I went to give.” * Using a periphrasis showing an eventuality. Ex.: _M’ ál dába._ “I would give.”

It corresponds roughly to the CONDITIONAL in English.

The remaining moods – subjunctive, conditional (not the same as “conditional” in English), eventual – do not have different aspects, only present and past tense, except the injunctive (imperative) mood which has only the present tense.

Irregular Verbs

There is a group of verbs that do not follow the paradigmatic model presented above. They are the AUXILIARY VERBS _sêr_ /seɾ/ “to be”, _stâ_ /stɐ/ “to be”, _têm_ /tẽ/ “to have” and _tenê_ /teˈne/ “to have”, and the MODAL VERBS _crê_ /kɾe/ “to want”, _sabê_ /sɐˈbe/ “to know”, _podê_ /poˈde/ “can”, _devê_ /deˈve/ “must” and _mestê_ /mesˈte/ “to need”. Note.: The designation “auxiliary verbs” is not consensual.

There exist two registers for these verbs.

In the _first register_ (in older speakers, in rural areas speakers or in speakers with little exposure to Portuguese) there are only two forms for the verbs: one for the present (_ê_ /e/, _stâ_ /stɐ/, _têm_ /tẽ/, _tenê_ /teˈne/, _crê_ /kɾe/, _sabê_ /sɐˈbe/, _podê_ /poˈde/, _devê_ /deˈve/, _mestê_ /mesˈte/) and one for the past (_éra_ /ˈɛɾɐ/, _stába_ /stabɐ/, _têmba_ /tẽbɐ/, _tenêba_ /teˈnebɐ/, _crêba_ /kɾebɐ/, _sabêba_ /sɐˈbebɐ/, _podêba_ /poˈdebɐ/, _devêba_ /deˈvebɐ/, _mestêba_ /mesˈtebɐ/). However, on the contrary of regular verbs, when the base form is used alone it represents the IMPERFECTIVE ASPECT and not the PERFECTIVE ASPECT. Therefore, _mí ê_, _m’ têm_, _m’ crê_, _m’ sabê_ mean “I am, I have, I want, I know”, and not “I’ve been, I’ve had, I’ve wanted, I’ve known”, as it would be expected. Parallelly, _mí éra_, _m’ têmba_, _m’ crêba_, _m’ sabêba_ mean “I was, I had, I wanted, I knew”, and not “I had been, I had had, I had wanted, I had known”, as would be expected.

In the _second register_ (among younger speakers, in urban areas or in speakers with more exposure to Portuguese) the system has been enriched with other forms influenced by Portuguese. Therefore, we have:

* _ê_ /e/, _stâ_ /stɐ/, _têm_ /tẽ/, _crê_ /kɾe/, _sabê_ /sɐˈbe/, _podê_ /poˈde/, _devê_ /deˈve/, _mestê_ /mesˈte/ for the imperfective of the present; * _fôi_ /foj/, _stêvi_ /ˈstevi/, _têvi_ /ˈtevi/, _crís_ /kɾis/, _sôbi_ /ˈsobi/, _púdi_ /ˈpudi/ for the perfective of the present; * _éra_ /ˈɛɾɐ/, _stába_ /ˈstabɐ/, _tínha_ /ˈtiɲɐ/, _cría_ /ˈkɾiɐ/, _sabía_ /sɐˈbiɐ/, _pudía_ /puˈdiɐ/, _divía_ /diˈviɐ/, _mistía_ /misˈtiɐ/ for the imperfective of the past; * _sêrba_ /ˈseɾbɐ/, _stába_ /ˈstabɐ/, _têmba_ /ˈtẽbɐ/, _crêba_ /ˈkɾebɐ/, _sabêba_ /sɐˈbebɐ/, _podêba_ /poˈdebɐ/, _devêba_ /deˈvebɐ/, _mestêba_ /mesˈtebɐ/ for the perfective of the past;

Note.: Some authors call these verbs “stative verbs” and to these verbs they add others: _gostâ_, _conxê_, _merecê_, _morâ_, _tchomâ_, _valê_. However that designation is contested: not all those verbs are in fact stative; not all those verbs are irregular (for ex. _morâ_); some of those verbs are regular in some variants (_m’ tâ gostâ_ – imperfective of the present with _tâ_), and irregulars in other variants (_m’ gostâ_ – imperfective of the present but WITHOUT _tâ_).

There is a parallelism between the pair of the verbs _sêr_ / _stâ_ “to be” and the pair of the verbs _têm_ / _tenê_ “to have”.

* The verb _sêr_ is a copulative verb that expresses a permanent quality. Ex.:

_Mí ê úm ómi._ /mi e ũ ˈɔmi/ “I am (I’ve always been and I will always be) a man.”

* The verb _stâ_ is a copulative verb that expresses a temporary state. Ex.:

_Êl stâ trísti._ /el stɐ ˈtɾisti/ “He is (in this precise moment) sad.”

* The verb _têm_ is a possessive verb that expresses a permanent quality. Ex.:

_M’ têm péli scúru._ /m tẽ ˈpɛli ˈskuɾu/ “I have (I had and I will always have) dark skin.”

* The verb _tenê_ is a possessive verb that expresses a temporary possession. Ex.:

_M’ tenê úm canéta nâ bôlsu._ /m teˈne ũ kɐˈnɛtɐ nɐ ˈbolsu/ “I have (in this precise moment) a pen in the pocket.”

permanent temporary

copulative verbs _sêr_ _stâ_

possessive verbs _têm_ _tenê_

Note.: The verbs _stâ_ and _tenê_ do not have the progressive aspect: forms like _*m’ stâ tâ stâ_ or _*m’ stâ tâ tenê_ do not exist. The verb _tenê_ does not exist in the Barlavento variants. In São Vicente and Santo Antão the verb _stâ_ has the form _stód’_ for the infinitive, _tâ_ for the imperfective of the present, _tív’_ for the perfective of the present, and _táva_ for the imperfective of the past.

Passive

Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
has two VOICES. The ACTIVE voice is used when the subject is explicit. The PASSIVE voice is used when the subject is indeterminate or unknown. There is also two forms for the passive. The form for the present is made with the infinitive to which is joined the particle _~du_. The form for the past is made with the infinitive to which is joined the particle _~da_. Ex.:

* _Tâ papiádu inglês nâ Mérca._ /tɐ pɐpiˈadu ĩˈɡlez nɐ ˈmɛɾkɐ/ “English is spoken in America.” * _M’ inxinádu tâ andâ._ /m ĩʃiˈnadu tɐ ɐ̃ˈdɐ/ “I was taught to walk.” * _Úm vêz, tâ cumêda tchêu mídju._ /ũ vez tɐ kuˈmedɐ tʃew ˈmidʒu/ “Once, one used to eat a lot of corn.”

Note.: In the Barlavento variants the form for the past does not exist.

Negative

To negate a verb, the negative adverb _câ_ /kɐ/ is used after the subject and before any verbal actualizer. Ex.:

* _Nú câ tâ bebê._ /nu kɐ tɐ beˈbe/ “We don’t drink.” * _Êl câ tâ odjába._ /el kɐ tɐ oˈdʒabɐ/ “He didn’t see.” * _Bú câ bái._ /bu kɐ baj/ “You haven’t gone.”

In the Santo Antão variant, the negative adverb is _n’_ /n/. Ex.:

* _Nô n’ dâ bibê._ /no n dɐ biˈbe/ “We don’t drink.” * _Êl n’ dáva o’á._ /el n davɐ oˈa/ “He didn’t see.” * _Bô n’ bé._ /bo n bɛ/ “You haven’t gone.”

In imperative sentences the negative adverb _câ_ /kɐ/ is always in the beginning. Ex.:

* _Câ bú bái!_ /kɐ bu baj/ “Don’t go!” (you – singular) * _Câ nhôs fazê!_ /kɐ ɲoz fɐˈze/ (Sotavento), _Câ b’sôt’ fazê!_ /kɐ bzot fɐˈze/ (Barlavento) “Don’t do!” (you-plural)

And in the Santo Antão variant:

* _N’ bô bé!_ /n bo bɛ/ “Don’t go!” (you – singular) * _N’ b’sôt’ fezê!_ /n bzot feˈze/ “Don’t do!” (you – plural)

ADJECTIVES

Adjectives in Creole almost always come after the noun. Only the animated nouns (human beings and animals) demand gender inflection in their adjectives. Ex.:

* _ómi fêiu_ / _mudjêr fêia_ “ugly man / ugly woman” * _bódi prêtu_ / _cábra préta_ “black buck / black goat”

The adjectives for unanimated nouns have the same form as the masculine adjectives. Ex.:

* _bistídu bráncu_ “white dress” * _camísa bráncu_ “white shirt”

In general the plural marker does not appear on adjectives since it comes in a preceding grammatical category.

DETERMINERS

In Creole there are no definite articles. If it is absolutely necessary to determine the noun, the demonstrative determiners are used instead.

For the indefinite articles there are two forms, one for the singular, another for the plural:

* _úm…_ /ũ/ “a, an (singular)”, _úns…_ /ũz/ “a, an (plural)”

The possessive determiners have number inflexion, but the plural refers to the objects possessed, and not to the owners. Ex.:

* _nhâ cárru_ “my car” * _nhâs cárru_ “my cars” * _nôs cárru_ can be either “our car” or “our cars”

The demonstrative determiners have only two degrees of proximity: close to the speaker (_êss_ “this, these”) and away from the speaker (_quêl_ “that”, _quês_ “those”). Note.: Only the São Vicente and Santo Antão Creoles make a phonetic distinction between the singular _êss_ /es/ (“this”) and the plural _ês_ /eʒ/ (“these”).

DESIGNATIVES

Creole possesses a special grammatical category for presenting or announcing something. It appears in two forms, one to present something near, (_alí…_ /ɐˈli/) and another to present something far (_alâ…_ /ɐˈlɐ/). Ex.:

* _Alí nhâ fídju._ “Here is my son.” * _Alá-’l tâ bái._ “There he goes.”

DIALECTS

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In spite of Cape Verde's small size, each island has developed its own way of speaking Creole. Each of these nine ways (there are 10 islands, one of which is uninhabited) is justifiably a different dialect , but the scholars in Cape Verde
Cape Verde
usually call them “variants”. These variants can be classified into two branches: in the South there are the Sotavento Creoles, which comprise the Brava , Fogo , Santiago and Maio variants; in the North there are the Barlavento Creoles, which comprise the Boa Vista , Sal , São Nicolau , São Vicente and Santo Antão variants.

Since some lexical forms of Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
can be different according to each variant, the words and the sentences in this article will be presented in compromise model, a kind of “middle Creole”, in order to ease the understanding and in order not to favor any variant. Whenever it will be necessary the phonemic transcription (or sometimes the phonetic transcription ) will be shown immediately after the word.

For the writing system, check the section Writing system .

From a linguistic point of view, the most important variants are the Fogo, Santiago, São Nicolau and Santo Antão ones, and any deep study of Creole should approach at least these four. They are the only islands that have received slaves directly from the African continent, that possess the most conservative linguistic features, and that are the most distinct from each other.

From a social point of view, the most important variants are the Santiago and São Vicente ones, and any light study of Creole should approach at least these two. They are the variants of the two bigger cities ( Praia
Praia
and Mindelo
Mindelo
), the variants with the greatest number of speakers, and the variants with a glottophagist tendency over the neighboring ones.

These variants have significant literature:

* Brava: Eugénio Tavares * Fogo: Elsie Clews Parsons * Santiago: Carlos Barbosa, Tomé Varela da Silva, Daniel Spínola * São Vicente: Sérgio Frusoni, Ovídio Martins * Santo Antão: Luís Romano Madeira de Melo

Dialectal differences

SOTAVENTO CREOLES BARLAVENTO CREOLES ENGLISH

FOGO SANTIAGO SãO NICOLAU SãO VICENTE SANTO ANTãO

_Ês frâ-m’._ _Ês flâ-m’._ _Ês fló-m’._ _Ês dzê-m’._ _Ês dzê-m’._ They told me.

_Bú câ ê bunítu._ _Bú câ ê bunítu._ _Bô câ ê b’nít’._ _Bô câ ê b’nít’._ _Bô n’ ê b’nít’._ You are not beautiful.

_M’ câ sabê._ _M’ câ sâbi._ _M’ câ sabê._ _M’ câ sabê._ _Mí n’ séb’._ I don’t know.

_Cumó’ qu’ ê bú nômi?_ _’Módi qu’ ê bú nómi?_ _Qu’ manêra qu’ ê bô nôm’?_ _Qu’ manêra qu’ ê bô nôm’?_ _Qu’ menêra qu’ ê bô nôm’?_ What is your name?

_Bú podê djudâ-m’?_ _Bú pôdi djudâ-m’?_ _Bô podê j’dó-m’?_ _Bô podê j’dá-m’?_ _Bô podê j’dé-m’?_ Can you help me?

_Spiâ lí!_ _Spía li!_ _Spiâ li!_ _Spiá li!_ _Spiá li!_ Look at here!

_Ê’ cantâ._ _Ê’ cánta._ _Êl cantâ._ _Êl cantá._ _Êl cantá._ He/she sang.

_Bú tâ cantâ._ _Bú tâ cánta._ _Bô tâ cantâ._ _Bô tâ cantá._ _Bô tâ cantá._ You sing.

_M’ stâ cantâ._ _M’ sâ tâ cánta._ _M’ tâ tâ cantâ._ _M’ tí tâ cantá._ _M’ tí tâ cantá._ I am singing.

_Screbê_ _Scrêbi_ _Screbê_ _Screvê_ _Screvê_ To write

_Gossím_ _Góssi_ _Grinhassím_ _Grinhassím_ _Grinhessím_ Now

_Pôrcu_ _Pôrcu_ _Pôrcu_ _Tchúc’_ _Tchúc’_ Pig

_Conxê_ _Cônxi_ _Conxê_ _Conxê_ _Conxê_ To know

_Dixâ_ _Dêxa_ _D’xâ_ _D’xá_ _D’xá_ To leave

_Dixâ-m’ quétu!_ _Dexâ-m’ quétu!_ _D’xó-m’ quêt’!_ _D’xá-m’ quêt’!_ _D’xé-m’ quêt’!_ Leave me alone!

_Dôci_ _Dóxi_ _Dôç’_ _Dôç’_ _Dôç’_ Sweet

_Papiâ_ _Pâpia_ _Papiâ_ _Falá_ _Falá_ To speak

_Cúrpa_ _Cúlpa_ _Cúlpa_ _Cúlpa_ _Cúlpa_ Fault

_Nhôs amígu_ _Nhôs amígu_ _B’sôt’ amígu_ _B’sôt’ amíg’_ _B’sôt’ emíg’_ Your (plural) friend

_Scúru_ _Sucúru_ _Scúr’_ _Scúr’_ _Scúr’_ Dark

_Cárru_ _Cáru_ _Córr’_ _Córr’_ _Córr’_ Car

_Lébi_ _Lébi_ _Lêb’_ _Lêv’_ _Lêv’_ Light (Weight)

SOTAVENTO

The SOTAVENTO CREOLES are spoken in the Sotavento Islands . Some characteristics:

* The imperfective aspect of the past is formed joining the particle for the past _~ba_ to the verb: _Tâ_ + V+_BA_. * The personal pronoun for the second person of the plural is _nhôs_. * The subject form of the personal pronoun for the first person of the singular is represented by a nasalization. Ex.: _m’ andâ_ pronounced /ƞ ɐ̃ˈdɐ/ instead of /m ɐ̃ˈdɐ/ “I have walked”, _m’ stâ tâ sintí_ pronounced /ƞ stɐ tɐ sĩˈti/ instead of /m stɐ tɐ sĩˈti/ “I am feeling”, _m’ labába_ pronounced /ƞ lɐˈbabɐ/ instead of /m lɐˈbabɐ/ “I had washed”. * The object form of the personal pronoun for the first person of the singular disappears but nasalizes the preceding vowel. Ex.: _lebâ-m’_ pronounced /leˈbɐ̃/ instead of /leˈbɐm/ “take me”, _metê-m’_ pronounced /meˈtẽ/ instead of /meˈtem/ “put me”, _cudí-m’_ pronounced /kuˈdĩ/ instead of /kuˈdim/ “answer me”, _compô-m’_ pronounced /kõˈpõ/ instead of /kõˈpom/ “fix me”, _bumbú-m’_ pronounced /bũˈbũ/ instead of /bũˈbum/ “put me on the back”.

Brava

Brava Creole is spoken mainly on Brava Island . Speakers number 8,000. One of the least spoken being seventh place and one of the firsts to have written literature, in which Eugénio Tavares
Eugénio Tavares
wrote some of his poems.

Besides the main characteristics of Sotavento Creoles, Brava Creole has the following:

* The progressive aspect of the present is formed by putting _stâ_ before the verbs: _STâ_ + V. * The sound that originates from Portuguese /ɐ̃w/ (written _ão_) is /ɐ̃/ rather than /õ/. For example, _coraçã_ /koɾɐˈsɐ̃/, not _coraçõ_ /koɾɐˈsõ/ “heart”; _mã_ /ˈmɐ̃/, not _mõ_ /ˈmõ/ “hand”; _razã_ /ʀɐˈzɐ̃/, not _razõ_ /ʀɐˈzõ/ “reason”.

Fogo

Fogo Creole is spoken mainly in the Fogo of Cape Verde
Cape Verde
. It has around 50,000 speakers or nearly 5% of Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
speakers including the diaspora's second language speakers. The rankings of this form of Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
is fourth after Santo Antão and ahead of Sal .

Besides the main characteristics of Sotavento Creoles, Fogo has the following:

* The progressive aspect of the present is formed by putting _stâ_ before the verbs: _STâ_ + V. * The sound that originates from Portuguese /ɐ̃w/ (written _ão_) is represented by /ɐ̃/ instead of /õ/. Ex. _coraçã_ /koɾɐˈsɐ̃/ instead of _coraçõ_ /koɾɐˈsõ/ “heart”, _mã_ /mɐ̃/ instead of _mõ_ /mõ/ “hand”, _razã_ /ʀɐˈzɐ̃/ instead of _razõ_ /ʀɐˈzõ/ “reason”. * The sound /l/ switches to /ɾ/ when it is at the end of syllables. Ex. _ártu_ /ˈaɾtu/ instead of _áltu_ /ˈaltu/ “tall”, _curpâ_ /kuɾˈpɐ/ instead of _culpâ_ /kulˈpɐ/ “to blame”, _burcã_ /buɾˈkɐ̃/ instead of _vulcõ_ /vulˈkõ/ “volcano”. * The sound /ɾ/ disappears when it is at the end of words. Ex.: _lugá’_ /luˈɡa/ instead of _lugár_ /luˈɡaɾ/ “place”, _midjô’_ /miˈdʒo/ instead of _midjôr_ /miˈdʒoɾ/ “better”, _mudjê’_ /muˈdʒe/ instead of _mudjêr_ /muˈdʒeɾ/ “woman”. * The diphthongs (oral or nasal) are in general pronounced as vowels. Ex.: _mã’_ /mɒ̃/ instead of _mãi_ /mɐ̃j/ “mother”, _nã’_ /nɐ̃/ instead of _nãu_ /nɐ̃w/ “no”, _pá’_ /pɒ/ instead of _pái_ /paj/ “father”, _rê’_ /re/ instead of _rêi_ /rej/ “king”, _tchapê’_ /tʃɐˈpe/ instead of _tchapêu_ /tʃɐˈpew/ “hat”. * The pre-tonic sound /a/ is velarized near labial or velar consonants. Ex.: _badjâ_ “to dance” pronounced , _cabêlu_ “hair” pronounced , _catchô’_ “dog” pronounced .

Maio

Maio Creole is spoken mainly in the Maio Island . It numbers the entire island population which includes a small part which also speaks Portuguese.

It is one of the least spoken Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
and is after Brava and ahead of Boa Vista .

Besides the main characteristics of Sotavento Creoles, Maio Creole has the following:

* The progressive aspect of the present is formed by putting _stâ_ before the verbs: _STâ_ + V. * The unstressed final vowels /i/ and /u/ frequently disappear. Ex.: _cumádr’_ /kuˈmadɾ/ instead of _cumádri_ /kuˈmadɾi/ “midwife”, _vilúd’_ /viˈlud/ instead of _vilúdu_ /viˈludu/ “velvet”, _bunít’_ /buˈnit/ instead of _bunítu_ /buˈnitu/ “beautiful”, _cantád’_ /kɐ̃ˈtad/ instead of _cantádu_ /kɐ̃ˈtadu/ “sung”. * The sound /dʒ/ (that originates from old Portuguese, written _j_ in the beginning of words) is partially represented by /ʒ/. Ex. _jantâ_ /ʒɐ̃ˈtɐ/ instead of _djantâ_ /dʒɐ̃ˈtɐ/ “to dine”, _jôg’_ /ʒoɡ/ instead of _djôgu_ /ˈdʒoɡu/ “game”, but in words like _djâ_ /dʒɐ/ “already”, _Djõ_ /dʒõ/ “John” the sound /dʒ/ remains.

Santiago

Santiago Creole is spoken mainly on the Santiago Island of Cape Verde , including the capital of the country, Praia
Praia
.

Besides the main characteristics of Sotavento Creoles, Santiago Creole has the following:

* The progressive aspect of the present is formed by putting _sâ tâ_ before the verbs: _Sâ Tâ_ + V. * In the verbs, the stress goes back to the before the last syllable in the forms for the present. Ex.: _cánta_ /ˈkãtɐ/ instead of _cantâ_ /kɐ̃ˈtɐ/ “to sing”, _mêxe_ /ˈmeʃe/ or _mêxi_ /ˈmeʃi/ instead of _mexê_ /meˈʃe/ “to move”, _pârti_ /ˈpɐɾti/ instead of _partí_ /pɐɾˈti/ “to leave”, _cômpo_ /ˈkõpo/ or _cômpu_ /ˈkõpu/ instead of _compô_ /kõˈpo/ “to fix”, _búmbu_ /ˈbũbu/ instead of _bumbú_ /bũˈbu/ “to put on the back”. * Some speakers pronounce the voiced sibilants as voiceless. Ex. _cássa_ /ˈkasɐ/ instead of _cása_ /ˈkazɐ/ “house”, _ôxi_ /ˈoʃi/ instead of _ôji_ /ˈoʒi/ “today”. * Some speakers pronounce the sound /ʀ/ as /ɾ/. Ex.: _cáru_ /ˈkaɾu/ instead of _cárru_ /ˈkaʀu/ “car”, _féru_ /ˈfɛɾu/ instead of _férru_ /ˈfɛʀu/ “iron”, _curâl_ /kuˈɾɐl/ instead of _currál_ /kuˈʀal/ “corral”. * The sound /ɾ/ is slightly aspirated . * The sounds /n/, /t/ and /d/ are pronounced as alveolars , , and not as dentals , , * The nasal diphthongs are de-nasalized. Ex.: _mâi_ /mɐj/ instead of _mãi_ /mɐ̃j/ “mother”, _nâu_ /nɐw/ instead of _nãu_ /nɐ̃w/ “no”. * The stressed sound /a/ is pronounced /ɐ/ when it is before the sound /l/ at the end of words. Ex.: _curâl_ /kuˈɾɐl/ instead of _currál_ /kuˈʀal/ “corral”, _mâl_ /mɐl/ instead of _mál_ /mal/ “bad”, _Tarrafâl_ /tɐɾɐˈfɐl/ instead of _Tarrafál_ /tɐʀɐˈfal/ “Tarrafal ” (place name).

BARLAVENTO

The BARLAVENTO CREOLES are spoken in the Barlavento Islands . Some characteristics:

* The imperfective aspect of the past is formed joining the particle for the past _~va_ to the verbal actualizer _tâ_: _TáVA_ + V. Note: In São Nicolau, along with _TáVA + V_ also subsists the older form _Tá V+BA_. * The personal pronoun for the second person of the plural is _b’sôt’_. * The unstressed vowels /i/ and /u/ frequently disappear. Ex.: _c’mádr’_ /ˈkmadɾ/ for _cumádri_ /kuˈmadɾi/ “midwife”, _v’lúd’_ /ˈvlud/ for _vilúdu_ /viˈludu/ “velvet”, _c’dí_ /ˈkdi/ for _cudí_ /kuˈdi/ “to answer”, _tch’gâ_ /ˈtʃɡɐ/ for _tchigâ_ /tʃiˈɡɐ/ “to arrive”. * Raising of the stressed /a/ sound (oral or nasal) to /ɔ/ in words that used to end with the sound /u/. Ex.: _ólt’_ /ˈɔlt/ from _áltu_ /ˈaltu/ “tall”, _cónd’_ /ˈkɔ̃d/ from _cándu_ /ˈkãdu/ “when”, _macóc’_ /mɐˈkɔk/ from _macácu_ /mɐˈkaku/ “monkey”. Also with pronouns: _b’tó-b’_ /ˈptɔb/ from _botá-bu_ /boˈtabu/ “throw you”.

Boa Vista

Boa Vista Creole is spoken mainly in the Boa Vista Island . Speakers number 5,000, and is the least spoken form of Creole in the language. Literature is rarely recorded but one of the speakers who was born on the island is Germano Almeida .

Besides the main characteristics of Barlavento Creoles, Boa Vista Creole has the following:

* The progressive aspect of the present is formed by putting _tâ tâ_ before the verbs: _Tâ_ + _Tâ_ + V. * In the verbs that end by _~a_, that sound /ɐ/ is replaced by /ɔ/ when the verb is conjugated with the first person of the singular pronoun. Ex.: _panhó-m’_ /pɐˈɲɔm/ instead of _panhâ-m’_ /pɐˈɲɐm/ “to catch me”, _levó-m’_ /leˈvɔm/ instead of _levâ-m’_ /leˈvɐm/ “to take me”, _coçó-m’_ /koˈsɔm/ instead of _coçâ-m’_ /koˈsɐm/ “to scratch me”. * The stressed _e_ is always open /ɛ/. Ex.: _bucé_ /buˈsɛ/ instead of _bocê_ /boˈse/ “you (respectful form), _drét’_ /ˈdɾɛt/ instead of _drêt’_ /ˈdɾet/ “right”, _tchobé_ /tʃoˈbɛ/ instead of _tchovê_ /tʃoˈve/ “to rain”. The stressed _o_ is always open /ɔ/. Ex.: _bó_ /bɔ/ instead of _bô_ /bo/ “you”, _compó_ /kõˈpɔ/ instead of _compô_ /kõˈpo/ “to fix”, _tórrt’_ /ˈtɔʀt/ instead of _tôrt’_ /ˈtoɾt/ “crooked”. * The sound /ɾ/ at the end of syllables is pronounced /ʀ/. Ex.: _furrtâ_ /fuʀˈtɐ/ instead of _furtâ_ /fuɾˈtɐ/ “to steal”, _m’djérr_ /ˈmdʒɛʀ/ instead of _m’djêr_ /ˈmdʒeɾ/ “woman”, _pórrt’_ /ˈpɔʀt/ instead of _pôrt’_ /ˈpoɾt/ “harbor”. * A /z/ originating from the junction of /l/ and /s/ is replaced by /ʀ/. Ex.: _cárr_ /ˈkaʀ/ instead of _cás_ /ˈkaz/ “which ones”, _érr_ /ɛʀ/ instead of _ês_ /ez/ “they”, _quérr_ /kɛʀ/ instead of _quês_ /kez/ “those”. * A Portuguese /dʒ/ (written _j_ in the beginning of words) is partially replaced by /ʒ/. Ex. _jantâ_ /ʒɐ̃ˈtɐ/ instead of _djantâ_ /dʒɐ̃ˈtɐ/ “to dine”, _jôg’_ /ˈʒoɡ/ instead of _djôgu_ /ˈdʒoɡu/ “game”, but in words like _djâ_ /dʒɐ/ “already” and _Djõ_ /ˈdʒõ/ “John”, the sound /dʒ/ remains.

Sal

Sal Creole is spoken mainly in the island of Sal . Speakers number 15,000.

Besides the main characteristics of Barlavento Creoles, Sal Creole has the following:

* The progressive aspect of the present is formed by putting _tâ tâ_ before the verbs: _Tâ_ + _Tâ_ + V. * In the verbs that end by _~a_, that sound /ɐ/ is represented by /ɔ/ when the verb is conjugated with the first person of the singular pronoun. Ex.: _panhó-m’_ /pɐˈɲɔm/ instead of _panhâ-m’_ /pɐˈɲɐm/ “to catch me”, _levó-m’_ /leˈvɔm/ instead of _levâ-m’_ /leˈvɐm/ “to take me”, _coçó-m’_ /koˈsɔm/ instead of _coçâ-m’_ /koˈsɐm/ “to scratch me”. * The sound /dʒ/ (that originates from old Portuguese, written _j_ in the beginning of words) is partially represented by /ʒ/. Ex. _jantâ_ /ʒɐ̃ˈtɐ/ instead of _djantâ_ /dʒɐ̃ˈtɐ/ “to dine”, _jôg’_ /ʒoɡ/ instead of _djôgu_ /ˈdʒoɡu/ “game”, but in words like _djâ_ /dʒɐ/ “already”, _Djõ_ /dʒõ/ “John” the sound /dʒ/ remains.

Santo Antão

Santo Antão Creole is spoken mainly in the Santo Antão Island . It is ranked third of nine in the number of speakers and it is before Fogo and after the neighbouring São Vicente.

Besides the main characteristics of Barlavento Creoles, Santo Antão Creole has the following:

* The progressive aspect of the present is formed by putting _tí tâ_ before the verbs: _Tí_ + _Tâ_ + V. * The adverb of negation used with verbs, adverbs and adjectives is _n’_. Ex.: _Mí n’ crê_ instead of _M’ câ crê_ “I don’t want”. * The sounds /s/ and /z/ are palatalized to and when they are at the end of syllables. Ex.: _fésta_ “party” pronounced instead of , _gósga_ “tickles” pronounced instead of , _més_ “more” pronounced instead of . * The stressed final sound /ɐ/ is pronounced /a/. Ex.: _já_ /ʒa/ instead of _djâ_ /dʒɐ/ “already”, _lá_ /la/ instead of _lâ_ /lɐ/ “there”, and all the verbs that end by _~â_, _calcá_ /kalˈka/ instead of _calcâ_ /kɐlˈkɐ/ “to press”, _pintchá_ /pĩˈtʃa/ instead of _pintchâ_ /pĩˈtʃɐ/ “to push”, etc. * Palatalization of the stressed /a/ sound (oral or nasal) to /ɛ/ in words that use to end by the sound /i/. Ex.: _ént’s_ /ɛ̃tʃ/ instead of _ánt's_ /ãtʃ/ “before”, _grénd’_ /ɡɾɛ̃d/ instead of _gránd_ /ɡɾãd/ “big”, _verdéd’_ /veɾˈdɛd/ instead of _verdád’_ /veɾˈdad/ “truth”. Also with pronouns: _penhé-m’_ /peˈɲɛm/ instead of _panhá-m’_ /pɐˈɲam/ “to catch me”. * Palatalization of the pre-tonic /ɐ/ sound (oral or nasal) to /e/ when the stressed syllable possesses a palatal vowel. Ex.: _essím_ /eˈsĩ/ instead of _assím_ /ɐˈsĩ/ “like so”, _quebéça_ /keˈbɛsɐ/ instead of _cabéça_ /kɐˈbɛsɐ/ “head”. Velarization of the pre-tonic /ɐ/ sound (oral or nasal) to /o/ when the stressed syllable possesses a velar vowel. Ex.: _cotchôrr’_ /koˈtʃoʀ/ instead of _catchôrr’_ /kɐˈtʃoʀ/ “dog”, _otúm_ /oˈtũ/ instead of _atúm_ /ɐˈtũ/ “tuna”. * The diphthong /aj/ (oral or nasal) is pronounced /ɛ/. Ex.: _pé_ /pɛ/ instead of _pái_ /paj/ “father”, _mém_ /mɛ̃/ instead of _mãi_ /mɐ̃j/ “mother”. The diphthong /aw/ (oral or nasal) is pronounced /ɔ/. Ex.: _pó_ /pɔ/ instead of _páu_ /paw/ “stick”, _nõ_ /nõ/ instead of _nãu_ /nɐ̃w/ “no”. * The sound /dʒ/ (that originates from Portuguese /ʎ/, written “lh”) is represented by the sound /j/: _bói’_ /bɔj/ instead of _bódj’_ /bɔdʒ/ “dance (noun)”, _ôi’_ /oj/ instead of _ôdj’_ /odʒ/ “eye”, _spêi’_ /ʃpej/ instead of _spêdj’_ /spedʒ/ “mirror”. Between vowels that sound /j/ disappears: _vé’a_ /ˈvɛɐ/ instead of _bédja_ /ˈbɛdʒɐ/ “old (feminine)”, _o’á_ /oˈa/ instead of _odjâ_ /oˈdʒɐ/ “to see”, _pá’a_ /ˈpaɐ/ instead of _pádja_ /ˈpadʒɐ/ “straw”. When it is immediately after a consonant, it is represented by /lj/: _m’liôr_ /mljoɾ/ instead of _m’djôr_ /mdʒoɾ/ “better”, _c’liêr_ /kljeɾ/ instead of _c’djêr_ /kdʒeɾ/ “spoon”. * The sound /j/ disappears when it is between vowels. Ex.: _go’áva_ /ɡoˈavɐ/ instead of _goiába_ /ɡoˈjabɐ/ “guava fruit”, _mê’a_ /ˈmeɐ/ instead of _mêia_ /ˈmejɐ/ “sock”, _papá’a_ /paˈpaɐ/ instead of _papáia_ /pɐˈpajɐ/ “papaw”. * The sound /dʒ/ (that originates from old Portuguese, written “j” in the beginning of words) is totally represented by /ʒ/. Ex. _já_ /ʒa/ instead of _djâ_ /dʒɐ/ “already”, _jantá_ /ʒãˈta/ instead of _djantâ_ /dʒɐ̃ˈtɐ/ “to dine”, _Jõ’_ /ʒõ/ instead of _Djõ’_ /dʒõ/ “John”. * Some speakers pronounce the phonemes /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ as labialized and . * Existence of a certain kind of vocabulary (also existing in São Vicente) that does not exist in the other islands. Ex.: _dançá_ instead of _badjâ_ “to dance”, _dzê_ instead of _flâ_ “to say”, _falá_ instead of _papiâ_ “to speak”, _guitá_ instead of _djobê_ “to peek”, _ruf’ná_ instead of _fuliâ_ “to throw”, _stód’_ instead of _stâ_ “to be”, _tchocá_ instead of _furtâ_ “to steal”, _tchúc’_ instead of _pôrc’_ “pig”, etc.

São Nicolau

São Nicolau Creole is spoken mainly in the São Nicolau Island . There are 15,000 speakers, and is the fifth most spoken form of creole in the language. Literature is rarely recorded but the form of the Capeverdean Creole has been recorded in music, one of them is on caboverde.com on the page featuring this island.

Besides the main characteristics of Barlavento Creoles, São Nicolau Creole has the following:

* The progressive aspect of the present is formed by putting _tâ tâ_ before the verbs: _Tâ_ + _Tâ_ + V. * In the verbs that end by _~a_, that sound /ɐ/ is represented by /ɔ/ when the verb is conjugated with the first person of the singular pronoun. Ex.: _panhó-m’_ /pɐˈɲɔm/ instead of _panhâ-m’_ /pɐˈɲɐm/ “to catch me”, _levó-m’_ /leˈvɔm/ instead of _levâ-m’_ /leˈvɐm/ “to take me”, _coçó-m’_ /koˈsɔm/ instead of _coçâ-m’_ /koˈsɐm/ “to scratch me”. * The sounds /k/ and /ɡ/ are pronounced by some speakers as /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ when they are before palatal vowels. Ex.: _f’djêra_ /ˈfdʒeɾɐ/ instead of _f’guêra_ /ˈfɡeɾɐ/ “fig tree”, _patchê_ /pɐˈtʃe/ instead of _paquê_ /pɐˈke/ “because”, _Pr’djíça_ /pɾˈdʒisɐ/ instead of _Pr’guiíça_ /pɾˈɡisɐ/ “Preguiça ” (place name), _tchím_ /tʃĩ/ instead of _quêm_ /kẽ/ “who”. * The sound /dʒ/ (that originates from old Portuguese, written _j_ in the beginning of words) is partially represented by /ʒ/. Ex. _jantâ_ /ʒɐ̃ˈtɐ/ instead of _djantâ_ /dʒɐ̃ˈtɐ/ “to dine”, _jôg’_ /ʒoɡ/ instead of _djôgu_ /ˈdʒoɡu/ “game”, but in words like _djâ_ /dʒɐ/ “already”, _Djõ_ /dʒõ/ “John” the sound /dʒ/ remains. * The unstressed final vowel /u/ does not disappear when it follows the sounds /k/ or /ɡ/. Ex.: _tabácu_ /tɐˈbaku/ instead of _tabóc’_ /tɐˈbɔk/ “tobacco”, _frángu_ /ˈfɾãɡu/ instead of _fróng’_ /ˈfɾɔ̃ɡ/ “chicken”.

São Vicente

São Vicente Creole is spoken mainly in the São Vicente Island . It has about 80,000 to 100,000 speakers, primarily in the São Vicente island, but also in a large segment of the Cape Verdean diaspora population. It is the second most widely spoken Cape Verdean dialect. It has produced literature from a lot of writers and musicians including Sergio Frusoni and many more.

Besides the main characteristics of Barlavento Creoles, São Vicente Creole has the following:

* The progressive aspect of the present is formed by putting _tí tâ_ before the verbs: _Tí_ + _Tâ_ + V. * The sounds /s/ and /z/ are palatalized to and when they are at the end of syllables. Ex.: _fésta_ “party” pronounced instead of , _gósga_ “tickles” pronounced instead of , _más_ “more” pronounced instead of . * The stressed final sound /ɐ/ is pronounced /a/. Ex.: _já_ /ʒa/ instead of _djâ_ /dʒɐ/ “already”, _lá_ /la/ instead of _lâ_ /lɐ/ “there”, and all the verbs that end by _~â_, _calcá_ /kɐlˈka/ instead of _calcâ_ /kɐlˈkɐ/ “to press”, _pintchá_ /pĩˈtʃa/ instead of _pintchâ_ /pĩˈtʃɐ/ “to push”, etc. * The sound /dʒ/ (that originates from Portuguese /ʎ/, written “lh”) is represented by the sound /j/: _bói’_ /bɔj/ instead of _bódj’_ /bɔdʒ/ “dance (noun)”, _ôi’_ /oj/ instead of _ôdj’_ /odʒ/ “eye”, _spêi’_ /ʃpej/ instead of _spêdj’_ /spedʒ/ “mirror”. When it is after the sound /i/, the sound /dʒ/ remains: _fídj’_ /fidʒ/ “son”, _mídj’_ /midʒ/ “corn”. When it is immediately after a consonant, the sound /dʒ/ remains: _m’djôr_ /mdʒoɾ/ “better”, _c’djêr_ /kdʒeɾ/ “spoon”. * The sound /dʒ/ (that originates from old Portuguese, written “j” in the beginning of words) is totally represented by /ʒ/. Ex. _já_ /ʒa/ instead of _djâ_ /dʒɐ/ “already”, _jantá_ /ʒɐ̃ˈta/ instead of _djantâ_ /dʒɐ̃ˈtɐ/ “to dine”, _Jõ’_ /ʒõ/ instead of _Djõ’_ /dʒõ/ “John”. * Existence of a certain kind of vocabulary (also existing in Santo Antão) that does not exist in the other islands. Ex.: _dançá_ instead of _badjâ_ “to dance”, _dzê_ instead of _flâ_ “to say”, _falá_ instead of _papiâ_ “to speak”, _guitá_ instead of _djobê_ “to peek”, _ruf’ná_ instead of _fuliâ_ “to throw”, _stód’_ instead of _stâ_ “to be”, _tchocá_ instead of _furtâ_ “to steal”, _tchúc’_ instead of _pôrc’_ “pig”, etc.

For more examples check the Swadesh List of Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
(in Portuguese).

CAPE VERDEAN CREOLE EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE 1 (SANTIAGO VARIANT)

CREOLE IPA
IPA
TRANSCRIPTION TRANSLATION TO ENGLISH

Ôi Cábu Vêrdi, Bô qu’ ê nhâ dôr más sublími Ôi Cábu Vêrdi, Bô qu’ ê nhâ angústia, nhâ paxõ Nhâ vída nâce Dí disafíu dí bú clíma ingrátu Vontádi férru ê bô nâ nhâ pêtu Gôstu pâ lúta ê bô nâ nhâs bráçu Bô qu’ ê nhâ guérra, Nhâ dôci amôr

Stênde bús bráçu, Bú tomâ-m’ nhâ sángui, Bú rêga bú tchõ, Bú flúri! Pâ térra lôngi Bêm cába pâ nôs Bô cú már, cêu í bús fídju N’ úm dôci abráçu dí páz /oj ˈkabu ˈveɾdi bo ke ɲɐ doɾ mas suˈblimi oj ˈkabu ˈveɾdi bo ke ɲɐ ɐ̃ˈɡustiɐ ɲɐ pɐˈʃõ ɲɐ ˈvidɐ ˈnɐse di dizɐˈfiw di bu ˈklimɐ ĩˈɡɾatu võˈtadi ˈfɛʀu e bo nɐ ɲɐ ˈpetu ˈɡostu pɐ ˈlutɐ e bo nɐ ɲɐz ˈbɾasu bo ke ɲɐ ˈɡɛʀɐ ɲɐ ˈdosi ɐˈmoɾ

ˈstẽde buz ˈbɾasu bu toˈmɐ̃ ɲɐ ˈsãɡi bu ˈʀeɡɐ bu tʃõ bu ˈfluɾi pɐ ˈtɛʀɐ ˈlõʒi bẽ ˈkabɐ pɐ noz bo ku maɾ sew i buz ˈfidʒu nũ ˈdosi ɐˈbɾasu di paz/ Oh Cape Verde, It is you who are my most sublime pain Oh Cape Verde, It is you who are my anguish, my passion My life was born From the challenge of your ungrateful climate The will of iron is you in my chest The taste for the fight is you in my arms It is you who are my war, My sweet love

Stretch your arms, Take my blood, Water your ground, And blossom! In order to distant land Come to an end for us You with the sea, the sky and your sons In a sweet hug of peace

Excerpt of the lyrics of _Dôci Guérra_ from Antero Simas. The full lyrics may be found (with a different orthography) in CABOINDEX » Blog Archive » Doce Guerra.

EXAMPLE 2 (SãO VICENTE VARIANT)

CREOLE IPA
IPA
TRANSCRIPTION TRANSLATION TO ENGLISH

Papái, bêm dzê-m’ quí ráça quí nôs ê, óh pái Nôs ráça ê prêt’ má’ brónc’ burníd’ nâ vênt’ Burníd’ nâ temporál dí scravatúra, óh fídj’ Úm geraçõ dí túga cú africán’

Ês bêm dí Európa farejá riquéza Ês vendê fídj’ dí África nâ scravatúra Carregód’ nâ fúnd’ dí porõ dí sês galéra D’bóx’ dí chicôt’ má’ júg’ culuniál

Algúns quí f’cá pralí gatchód’ nâ rótcha, óh fídj’ Trançá má’ túga, ês criá êss pôv’ cab’verdián’ Êss pôv’ quí sofrê quinhênt’s ón’ di turtúra, ôi, ôi Êss pôv’ quí ravultiá tabánca intêr’ /pɐˈpaj bẽ dzem ki ˈʀasɐ ki noʒ e ɔ paj noʒ ˈʀasɐ e pɾet ma bɾɔ̃k buɾˈnid nɐ vẽt buɾˈnid nɐ tẽpoˈɾal di ʃkɾɐvɐˈtuɾɐ ɔ fidʒ ũ ʒeɾɐˈsõ di ˈtuɡɐ ku ɐfɾiˈkan

eʒ bẽ di ewˈɾɔpɐ fɐɾeˈʒa ʀiˈkɛzɐ eʒ vẽˈde fidʒ di ˈafɾikɐ nɐ ʃkɾɐvɐˈtuɾɐ kɐʀeˈɡɔd nɐ fũd di poˈɾõ di seʒ ɡɐˈlɛɾɐ dbɔʃ di ʃiˈkot ma ʒuɡ kuluniˈal

ɐlˈɡũʒ ki fka pɾɐˈli ɡɐˈtʃɔd nɐ ˈʀɔtʃɐ ɔ fidʒ tɾɐ̃ˈsa ma ˈtuɡɐ eʒ kɾiˈa es pov kabveɾdiˈan es pov ki soˈfɾe kiˈɲẽtʒ ɔn di tuɾˈtuɾɐ oj oj es pov ki ʀɐvultiˈa tɐˈbãkɐ ĩˈteɾ/ Daddy, come tell me which race are we, oh dad Our race is blacks and whites melted in the wind Melted in the storm of slavery, oh son A generation of Portuguese with Africans

They came from Europe to scent richness They sold sons of Africa in slavery Loaded deep in the hold of their ships Under the whip and colonial yoke

Some that remained by here hidden in the mountains, oh son Mixed with the Portuguese, and created this Cape Verdean people This people that has suffered five hundred years of torture, oh, oh This people that has rebelled completely

Excerpt of the lyrics of _Nôs Ráça_ from Manuel d’ Novas . The full lyrics may be found (with a different orthography) in Cap-Vert :: Mindelo
Mindelo
Infos :: Musique capverdienne: Nos raça Cabo Verde / Cape Verde.

EXAMPLE 3

CREOLE IPA
IPA
TRANSCRIPTION TRANSLATION TO ENGLISH

_Túdu alguêm tâ nacê lívri í iguál nâ dignidádi cú nâ dirêtus. Ês ê dotádu cú razõ í cú «consciência», í ês devê agí pâ cumpanhêru cú sprítu dí fraternidádi._ /ˈtudu ɐlˈɡẽ tɐ nɐˈse ˈlivɾi i iˈɡwal nɐ diɡniˈdadi ku nɐ diˈɾetus ez e doˈtadu ku ʀɐˈzõ i ku kõʃsiˈẽsiɐ i ez deˈve ɐˈʒi pɐ kũpɐˈɲeɾu ku ˈspɾitu di fɾɐteɾniˈdadi/ All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Free translation of the 1st article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights .

SEE ALSO

* Cesária Évora , a singer who sang in Cape Verdean Creole. * Papiamento , a related language from the ABC islands in the Caribbean.

REFERENCES

* ^ Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
at _ Ethnologue _ (17th ed., 2013) * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Kabuverdianu". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Dulce Pereira (October 2006). _Crioulos de Base Portuguesa_ (in Portuguese). Caminho. p. 24. ISBN 978-972-21-1822-4 . o de Cabo Verde o mais antigo que se conhece * ^ Santos, C., "Cultura e comunicação: um estudo no âmbito da sociolinguística" * ^ Carreira, A. (1982) * ^ Pereira, D. (2006) * ^ Duarte, D. A. (1998) * ^ Resolução n.º 48/2005 (Boletim Oficial da República de Cabo Verde – 2005) * ^ Fernandes, A. N. Rodrigues (1969) * ^ Pereira, D., «Pa Nu Skrebe Na Skola» * ^ _A_ _B_ Veiga, M. (2000) * ^ Quint, N. – 2000

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Linguistic books and texts

* _Os dialectos românicos ou neo-latinos na África, Ásia e América_ (Coelho, F. Adolpho – 1880; capítulo 1: "Crioulo da Ilha de Santiago") * _O crioulo de Cabo Verde. Breves estudos sobre o crioulo das ilhas de Cabo Verde_ (Botelho da Costa, Joaquim Vieira & Custódio José Duarte – 1886) * _A Parábola do Filho Pródigo_ no crioulo de Santiago, do Fogo, da Brava, de Santo Antão, de S. Nicolau e da Boavista: O crioulo de Cabo Verde (Botelho da Costa, Joaquim Vieira Praia: IBNL – 2008) * _A Grammar of Santiago Creole (Cape Verde) = Gramática do Crioulo da Ilha de Santiago (Cabo Verde)_ (Jürgen Lang; Erlangen 2012 ) * _A variação geográfica do crioulo caboverdiano_ (Jürgen Lang, Raimundo Tavares Lopes, Ana Karina Tavares Moreira, Maria do Céu dos Santos Baptista; Erlangen: FAU University Press, 2014 * _Les langues des autres dans la créolisation : théorie et exemplification par le créole d'empreinte wolof à l'île Santiago du Cap Vert_ (Jürgen Lang; Tübingen: Narr, 2009)

textos escritos em crioulo Literature

* _ Os Lusíadas (estâncias 8 e 9 do Canto V)_ Teixeira, A. da Costa – 1898 * _Folk-Lore from the Cape Verde
Cape Verde
Islands_ (Parsons, Elsie Clews – 1923: Capeverdian Stories; book 1: English, book 2: Creole) * _Mornas – Cantigas Crioulas_, Tavares, eugénio – 1932 * _Renascença de uma civilização no Atlântico médio_ (Melo, Luís Romano de Madeira – 1967: Collection of poems and stories in Portuguese and in Creole) * 100 Poemas – Gritarei, Berrarei, Matarei, Não vou para pasárgada Martins, Ovídio , 1973 – Poems in Portuguese and in Creole * _Negrume/Lzimparin_ (Melo, Luís Romano de Madeira – 1973: Stories in Creole with Portuguese translation) * "Textos crioulos cabo-verdianos" (Frusoni, Sérgio – 1975) in _Miscelânea luso-africana_ coord. Valkhoff, Marius F. * _Vangêle contód d'nôs móda_ (Frusoni, Sérgio : Fogo – 1979; Novo Testamento) * _A Poética de Sérgio Frusoni – uma leitura antropológica_ (Lima, Mesquitela; Lisboa – 1992)

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ CAPE VERDEAN CREOLE TEST _ of at Wikimedia Incubator

Linguistic texts

* Criol language * Creole grammars and dictionaries from Cape Verde * A Perspective on Capeverdean Crioulo by Robert French * Santiago Creole * Literaturas Africanas (African literatures in the Portuguese language and Portuguese creoles, pdf: in Portuguese) * Student Survey 2000 about teaching Crioulo in the high school. * _Language Policy in Cape Verde: A Proposal for the Affirmation of Kriolu_, by Manuel Veiga . * Initiation au Créole Capverdien

* Asosiason Kabuverdianu pa Traduson di Bíblia

* Afabétu Kabuverdianu, (Cape Verdean Alphabet, see last picture link in top frame) * Kartidjas Kabuverdianu – (four literacy primers pdf, see fifth picture link in top frame)

Literature

* "Morna aguada" by Eugénio Tavares
Eugénio Tavares
(Creole of Brava) * Extracts from "Os Lusíadas" in the creole of Santo Antão * Poetry of Sérgio Frusoni, in Creole of São Vicente * Adriano Gominho (Creole of São Nicolau) * Santo Antão * Poetry in Creole * Asosiason Kabuverdianu pa Traduson di Bíblia Books: Stória di Natal (the Christmas Story), Lúkas, Notísia Sabi di Jizus (Luke, The Good News of Jesus), Bíblia na prugrésu di traduson pa lingua Kabuverdianu (The Bible in progress of translation into the Kabuverdianu Language, Luke 2nd ed. and Acts 1st ed. – see third picture link in top frame), Comics: Stória di Bon Samaritanu (The Story of the Good Samaritan), Stória di Fidju ki Perde (The Story of the Prodigal Son), Stória di Zakeu, Xéfi di Kobradoris di Inpostu, (The Story of Zacchaeus, chief tax collector – see links in left frame), Film: Filmi: Vida di Jizus (The Jesus Film – see fourth picture link in top frame) Best viewed with Internet Explorer.

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Portuguese-based creole languages

UPPER GUINEA

* Cape Verdean Creole * Guinea-Bissau Creole

LOWER GUINEA

* Angolar * Annobonese * Cafundó * Forro * Principense

INDO-PORTUGUESE

* Cannanore Indo-Portuguese * Cochin Indo-Portuguese (extinct) * Daman and Diu Portuguese * Korlai Indo-Portuguese * Sri Lankan Portuguese

SOUTHEAST ASIAN

* Mardijker or Papiá Tugu (extinct) * Bidau Portuguese (extinct) * Papiá Kristang * Portugis (extinct)

EAST ASIAN

* Macanese

ANTILLES

* Papiamento

Creoles with strong Portuguese lexical influence

* Bozal Spanish * Saramaccan

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