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Close-up of canola blooms
Canola flower

Canola oil is a vegetable oil derived from a variety of rapeseed that is low in erucic acid, as opposed to colza oil. There are both edible and industrial forms produced from the seed of any of several cultivars of the plant family Brassicaceae.

According to the Canola Council of Canada, an industry association, the official definition of canola is "Seeds of the genus Brassica (Brassica napus, Brassica rapa, or Brassica juncea) from which the oil shall contain less than 2% erucic acid in its fatty acid profile and the solid component shall contain less than 30 micromoles of any one or any mixture of 3-butenyl glucosinolate, 4-pentenyl glucosinolate, 2-hydroxy-3 butenyl glucosinolate, and 2-hydroxy- 4-pentenyl glucosinolate per gram of air-dry, oil-free solid."[1] Canola oil is also used as a source of biodiesel.

History

Origin

There are several forms of genetic modification, such as herbicide (glyphosate and glufosinate, for example) tolerance and different qualities in canola oil. Regulation varies from country to country; for example, glyphosate-resistant canola has been approved in Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Philippines, and the US, while Laurical, a product with a different oil composition, has been approved for growing only in Canada and the US.[17]

In 2003, Australia's gene technology regulator approved the release of canola genetically modified to make it resistant to glufosinate ammonium, a herbicide.[18] The introduction of the genetically modified crop to Australia generated considerable controversy.[19] Canola is Australia's third biggest crop, and is used often by wheat farmers as a break crop to improve soil quality. As of 2008, the only genetically modified crops in Australia were canola, cotton, and carnations.[20][21]

GMO litigation

Genetically modified canola has become a point of controversy and contentious legal battles. In one high-profile case (Monsanto Canada Inc v Schmeiser) the Monsanto Company sued Percy Schmeiser for patent infringement after he replanted canola seed he had harvested from his field, which he discovered was contaminated with Monsanto's patented glyphosate-tolerant canola by spraying it with glyphosate, leaving only the resistant plants. The Canadian Supreme Court ruled that Percy was in violation of Monsanto's patent because he knowingly replanted the resistant seed that he had harvested and also imposing fees of over $200,000 on Schmeiser, but he was not required to pay Monsanto damages since he did not benefit financially from its presence.[22][dubious ] On 19 March 2008, Schmeiser and Monsanto Canada Inc. came to an out-of-

The benchmark price for worldwide canola trade is the ICE Futures Canada (formerly Winnipeg Commodity Exchange) canola futures contract.[14]

In China, rapeseed meal is mostly used as a soil fertilizer rather than for animal feed,[15] while canola is used mainly for frying food. In the words of one observer, "China has a vegetable oil supply shortage of 20 million tonnes per year. It covers a large percentage of that shortage with soybean imports from Brazil, the U.S. and Argentina."[16]

There are several forms of genetic modification, such as herbicide (glyphosate and glufosinate, for example) tolerance and different qualities in canola oil. Regulation varies from country to country; for example, glyphosate-resistant canola has been approved in Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Philippines, and the US, while Laurical, a product with a different oil composition, has been approved for growing only in Canada and the US.[17]

In 2003, Australia's gene technology regulator approved the release of canola genetically modified to make it resistant to glufosinate ammonium, a herbicide.[18] The introduction of the genetically modified crop to Australia generated considerable controversy.[19] Canola is Australia's third biggest crop, and is used often by wheat farmers as a glufosinate ammonium, a herbicide.[18] The introduction of the genetically modified crop to Australia generated considerable controversy.[19] Canola is Australia's third biggest crop, and is used often by wheat farmers as a break crop to improve soil quality. As of 2008, the only genetically modified crops in Australia were canola, cotton, and carnations.[20][21]

Genetically modified canola has become a point of controversy and contentious legal battles. In one high-profile case (Monsanto Canada Inc v Schmeiser) the Monsanto Company sued Percy Schmeiser for patent infringement after he replanted canola seed he had harvested from his field, which he discovered was contaminated with Monsanto's patented glyphosate-tolerant canola by spraying it with glyphosate, leaving only the resistant plants. The Canadian Supreme Court ruled that Percy was in violation of Monsanto's patent because he knowingly replanted the resistant seed that he had harvested and also imposing fees of over $200,000 on Schmeiser, but he was not required to pay Monsanto damages since he did not benefit financially from its presence.[22][dubious ] On 19 March 2008, Schmeiser and Monsanto Canada Inc. came to an out-of-court settlement whereby Monsanto would pay for the clean-up costs of the contamination, which came to a total of C$660.[23] In Western Australia, in the Marsh v Baxter case, a GM canola farmer was sued by his organic neighbour because GM canola contamination led to the loss of organic certification. Although the facts of the case and the losses to the organic farmer were agreed between the parties, the judge did not find the GM farmer liable for the losses.[24]

Biodiesel

[25]

Production process

[26] Almost all commercial canola oil is then extracted using hexane solvent[27] which is recovered at the end of processing. Finally, the canola oil is refined using water precipitation and organic acid to remove gums and free fatty acids, filtering to remove color, and deodorizing using steam distillation.[26] The average density of canola oil is 0.92 g/mL (0.033 lb/cu in).[28]

Cold-pressed and expeller-pressed canola oil are also produced on a more limited basis. About 44% of a seed is oil, with the remainder as a canola meal used for animal feed.[26] About 23 kg (51 lb) of canola seed makes 10 L (2.64 US gal) of canola oil. Canola oil is a key ingredient in many foods. Its reputation as a healthy oil has created high demand in markets around the world,[29] and overall it is the third-most widely consumed vegetable oil, after soybean oil and palm oil.[30]

The oil has many non-food uses and, like soybean oil, is often used interchangeably with non-renewable

Cold-pressed and expeller-pressed canola oil are also produced on a more limited basis. About 44% of a seed is oil, with the remainder as a canola meal used for animal feed.[26] About 23 kg (51 lb) of canola seed makes 10 L (2.64 US gal) of canola oil. Canola oil is a key ingredient in many foods. Its reputation as a healthy oil has created high demand in markets around the world,[29] and overall it is the third-most widely consumed vegetable oil, after soybean oil and palm oil.[30]

The oil has many non-food uses and, like soybean oil, is often used interchangeably with non-renewable petroleum-based oils in products,[29] including industrial lubricants, biodiesel, candles, lipsticks, and newspaper inks, depending on the price on the spot market.

Canola vegetable oils certified as organic are required to be from non-GMO rapeseed.[31]

Some less-processed versions of rapeseed oil are used for flavor in some countries. Chinese rapeseed oil was originally extracted from the field mustard.[citation needed] In the 19th century, rapeseed (B. rapa) was introduced by European traders, and local farmers crossed the new plant with field mustard to produce semi-winter rapeseed.[citation needed] The accidentally similar genetic makeup in this cultivar to canola means the Chinese rape also contains lower levels of erucic acid.[32] The flavor of the oil comes from a different production process: the seeds are toasted before being expeller-pressed, imparting a special flavor.[citation needed] In India, mustard oil is used in cooking.[33] In the United Kingdom and Ireland, some chefs use a "cabbagey" rapeseed oil processed by cold-pressing.[34] This cold process means that the oil has a low smoke point, and is therefore unsuitable for frying in Sichuan cuisine.[citation needed]

Health information

Canola oil is conside

Canola oil is considered safe for human consumption,[35][36] and has a relatively low amount of saturated fat, a substantial amount of monounsaturated fat, with roughly a 2:1 mono- to poly-unsaturated fats ratio.[37]

In 2006, canola oil was given a qualified health claim by the United States Food and Drug Administration for lowering the risk of In 2006, canola oil was given a qualified health claim by the United States Food and Drug Administration for lowering the risk of coronary heart disease, resulting from its significant content of unsaturated fats; the allowed claim for food labels states:[38]

"Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 1 ½ tablespoons (19 grams) of canola oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the unsaturated fat content in canola oil. To achieve this possible benefit, canola oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day. One serving of this product contains [x] grams of canola oil."

A 2013 review, sponsored by the Canola Council of Canada and the U.S. Canola Association, concluded there was a substantial reduction in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and an increase in tocopherol levels and improved insulin sensitivity, compared with other sources of dietary fat.[37] A 2014 review of health effects from consuming plant oils rich in alpha-linolenic acid, including canola, stated that there was moderate benefit for lower risk of cardiovascular diseases, bone fractures, and type-2 diabetes.[39]

saturated fat and contains both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in a ratio of 2:1. It is high in monounsaturated fats, which may decrease the risk of heart disease.[47]

Erucic acid

Although wild rapeseed oil contains significant amounts of erucic acid,[48] the cultivars used to produce commercial, food-grade canola oil were bred to contain less than 2% erucic acid,[49] an amount deemed not significant as a health risk. To date, no health effects have been associated with dietary consumption of erucic acid by humans; but tests of erucic acid metabolism in other species imply that higher levels may be detrimental.[50][51]:646–657 Canola oil produced using genetically modified plants has also not been shown to explicitly produce adverse effects.[52]

The erucic acid content in canola oil has been reduced over the years. In western Canada, a reduction occurred from the average content of 0.5% between 1987 and 1996[53] to a current content of 0.01% from 2008 to 2015.[44] Other reports also show a content lower than 0.1% in Australia[45] and Brazil.[48] the cultivars used to produce commercial, food-grade canola oil were bred to contain less than 2% erucic acid,[49] an amount deemed not significant as a health risk. To date, no health effects have been associated with dietary consumption of erucic acid by humans; but tests of erucic acid metabolism in other species imply that higher levels may be detrimental.[50][51]:646–657 Canola oil produced using genetically modified plants has also not been shown to explicitly produce adverse effects.[52]

The erucic acid content in canola oil has been reduced over the years. In western Canada, a reduction occurred from the average content of 0.5% between 1987 and 1996[53] to a current content of 0.01% from 2008 to 2015.[44] Other reports also show a content lower than 0

The erucic acid content in canola oil has been reduced over the years. In western Canada, a reduction occurred from the average content of 0.5% between 1987 and 1996[53] to a current content of 0.01% from 2008 to 2015.[44] Other reports also show a content lower than 0.1% in Australia[45] and Brazil.[46]

Canola oil poses no unusual health risks,[51]:646–657 and its consumption in food-grade forms is generally recognized as safe by the United States Food and Drug Administration.[36][49]


See also

Blooming canola field in Saskatchewan, Canada.

References

  1. ^ "What Is Canola?". Canola Council of Canada. Canola Council of Canada. Archived from the original on 18 June 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
  2. ^ a b Snowdon R et al. "Oilseed Rape". Chapter 2 in Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding in Plants: OIlseeds. Ed, Chittaranjan Kole. Springer, 2007
  3. ^ "Richard Keith Downey: Genetics". science.ca. 2007. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
  4. ^ Pederson, Anne-marie; Storgaard, AK (15 December 2015). "Baldur Rosmund Stefansson". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  5. ^ Barthet, V. "Canola". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
  6. ^ Colin W. Wrigley, Harold Corke, Koushik Seetharaman, Jonathan Faubion (17 December 2015). Encyclopedia of Food Grains; page 238. Academic Press. ISBN 978-1785397622.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  7. ^ Canola Council of Canada (2016). "What is Canola?". Retrieved 16 October 2013.
  8. ^ Beckie, Hugh et al (Autumn 2011) GM Canola: The Canadian Experience Archived 4 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Farm Policy Journal, Volume 8 Number 8, Autumn Quarter 2011. Retrieved 20 August 2012
  9. ^