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The CANNES FESTIVAL (/ˈkæn/ ; French : _FESTIVAL DE CANNES_), named until 2002 as the INTERNATIONAL FILM FESTIVAL (_Festival international du film_) and known in English as the CANNES FILM FESTIVAL, is an annual film festival held in Cannes
Cannes
, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries, from all around the world. Founded in 1946, the invitation-only festival is held annually (usually in May) at the Palais des Festivals et des Congrès .

On 1 July 2014, co-founder and former head of French pay-TV operator Canal+
Canal+
, Pierre Lescure , took over as President of the Festival, while Thierry Fremaux became the General Delegate. The Board of Directors also appointed Gilles Jacob as Honorary President of the Festival.

The 2017
2017
Cannes
Cannes
Film Festival , its 70th anniversary, took place between 17 and 29 May 2017. The jury president was Pedro Almodóvar , and _The Square _, directed by Ruben Östlund , won the _Palme d\'Or _.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 The early years * 1.2 1950s and 1960s * 1.3 1970s and 1980s * 1.4 1990s to the present

* 2 Programmes * 3 Authorities of the Festival * 4 Juries * 5 Awards * 6 Impact * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 Media * 11 External links

HISTORY

THE EARLY YEARS

The Cannes
Cannes
Film Festival has its origins in 1932 when Jean Zay , the French Minister of National Education , on the proposal of historian Philippe Erlanger and with the support of the British and Americans, set up an international cinematographic festival. Its origins may be attributed in part to the French desire to compete with the Venice Film Festival , which at the time was shocking the democratic world by its fascist bias. The first festival was planned for 1939, Cannes
Cannes
was selected as the location for it, but the funding and organization were too slow and finally the beginning of World War II
World War II
put an end to this plan.

On 20 September 1946, twenty-one countries presented their films at the First Cannes
Cannes
International Film Festival , which took place at the former Casino of Cannes. In 1947, amid serious problems of efficiency, the festival was held as the "Festival du film de Cannes", where films from sixteen countries were presented. The festival was not held in 1948 and 1950 on account of budgetary problems. In 1949, the _Palais des Festivals _ was expressly constructed for the occasion on the seafront promenade of La Croisette, although its inaugural roof, while still unfinished, blew off during a storm. In 1951, the festival was moved to spring to avoid a direct competition with the Venice Festival which was held in autumn.

1950S AND 1960S

During the early 1950s the festival attracted a lot of tourism and press attention, with showbiz scandals and high profile personalities love affairs. At the same time, the artistic aspect of the festival started developing. Because of controversies over the selection of films, the Critics' Prize was created for the recognition of original films and daring filmmakers. In 1954 the _ Special
Special
Jury Prize _ was awarded for the first time. In 1955, the _Palme d\'Or _ was created, replacing the _Grand Prix du Festival_ which had been given until that year. In 1957, Dolores del Río was the first female member of the jury for the official selection.

In 1959, the _ Marché du Film _ (Film Market) was founded, giving the festival a commercial character and facilitating exchanges between sellers and buyers in the film industry. Today it has become the first international platform for film commerce. Still, in the 1950s some outstanding films, like Night and Fog in 1956 and Hiroshima, My Love in 1959 were excluded from the competition for diplomatic concerns. Jean Cocteau , three times president of the jury in those years, is quoted to have said: "The Cannes
Cannes
Festival should be a no man's land in which politics has no place. It should be a simple meeting between friends."

In 1962, the International Critics\' Week was born, created by the French Union of Film Critics as the first parallel section of the Cannes
Cannes
Film Festival. Its goal was to showcase first and second works by directors from all over the world, not succumbing to commercial tendencies. In 1965, an hommage was paid to Jean Cocteau after his death, and he was named Honorary President for life. That year, Olivia de Havilland was named the first female president of the jury, while the next year Sofia Loren became president.

The 1968 festival was halted on 19 May. Some directors, such as Carlos Saura and Miloš Forman , had withdrawn their films from the competition. On 18 May, filmmaker Louis Malle along with a group of directors took over the large room of the _Palais_ and interrupted the projections in solidarity with students and labour on strike throughout France
France
, and in protest to the eviction of the then President of the Cinémathèque Française . The filmmakers achieved the reinstatement of the President, and they founded the Film Directors' Society (SRF) that same year. In 1969, the SRF, led by Pierre-Henri Deleau created the Directors\' Fortnight (_Quinzaine des Réalisateurs_), a new non-competitive section that programs a selection of films from around the world, distinguished by the independent judgment displayed in the choice of films.

1970S AND 1980S

During the 1970s, important changes occurred in the Festival. In 1972, Robert Favre Le Bret was named the new President, and Maurice Bessy the General Delegate. He introduced important changes in the selection of the participating films, welcoming new techniques, and relieving the selection from diplomatic pressures, with films like M.A.S.H. , and later Chronicle of the Years of Fire
Chronicle of the Years of Fire
marking this turn. In some cases, these changes helped directors like Tarkovski overcome problems of censorship in their own country. Also, until that time, the different countries chose the films that would represent them in the festival. Yet, in 1972, Bessy created a committee to select French films, and another for foreign films.

In 1978, Gilles Jacob assumed the position of General Delegate, introducing the Caméra d\'Or award, for the best first film of any of the main events, and the Un Certain Regard section, for the non-competitive categories. Other changes were the decrease of length of the festival down to thirteen days, thus reducing the number of selected films; also, until that point the Jury was composed by Film Academics, and Jacob started to introduce celebrities and professionals from the film industry.

In 1983, a new, much bigger Palais des Festivals et des Congrès was built to host the festival, while the Directors' Fortnight remained in the old building. The new building was nicknamed "The Bunker", provoking a lot of criticism, especially since it was hardly finished at the event and several technical problems occurred. In 1984, Pierre Viot replaced Robert Favre Le Bret as President of the Festival. In his term, the Festival started including films from more countries, like Philippines, China, Cuba, Australia, India, New Zealand and Argentina. In 1987, for the first time of the Festival, a red carpet was placed at the entrance of the Palais. In 1989, during the first Cinéma "> Stars posing for photographers are a part of Cannes folklore.

1990S TO THE PRESENT

It was not until 1998 that Gilles Jacob created the last section of the Official Selection: la Cinéfondation , aiming to support the creation of works of cinema in the world and to contribute to the entry of the new scenario writers in the circle of the celebrities. The Cinéfondation was completed in 2000 with _La Résidence_, where young directors could refine their writing and screenplays, and in 2005
2005
_L'Atelier_, which helps twenty directors per year with the funding of their films. Gilles Jacob was appointed Honorary President in 2000, and in 2002 the Festival officially adopted the name _Festival de Cannes_.

During the 2000s the Festival started focusing more on the technological advances taking place in the film world, especially the digital techniques. In 2004, the restored historical films of the Festival were presented as _ Cannes
Cannes
Clasics_, which included also documentaries. In 2007
2007
Thierry Frémaux became General Delegate. In 2009 he extended the Festival in Buenos Aires, as _La Semana de Cine del Festival de Cannes_, and in 2010 he created the _ Cannes
Cannes
Court Métrage_ for the Short Film competition. In 2017
2017
along with the 70th anniversary events of the Festival, the issue of changing the rules on theatrical screening came up with divided opinions about it.

PROGRAMMES

The Cannes
Cannes
Film Festival is organised in various sections:

* THE OFFICIAL SELECTION – The main event of the festival.

* In Competition – The twenty films competing for the _Palme d\'Or _. They are projected in the _Théâtre Lumière_. * Un Certain Regard – Twenty films selected from cultures near and far; original and different works. They are projected at the _Salle Debussy_. * Out of Competition – These films are also projected in the _Théâtre Lumière_ but do not compete for the main prize. * Special
Special
Screenings – The selection committee chooses for these films an environment specially adapted to their particular identity. * Cinéfondation – About fifteen shorts and medium-length motion pictures from film schools over the world are presented at the _Salle Buñuel_. * Short Films – The shorts competing for the Short Film _Palme d\'Or_ are presented at Buñuel and Debussy theatres. There are approximately 10 films in this competition. * Cannes
Cannes
Classics – It celebrates the heritage of film, aiming to highlight works of the past, presented with brand new or restored prints. * Cinéma de la Plage – Screening of Cannes
Cannes
Classics and Out of Competition films for the mass public on Macé beach, preceded by a programme dedicated to film music.

* PARALLEL SECTIONS – These are non-competitive programmes dedicated to discovering other aspects of cinema.

* International Critics\' Week - From 1962, it focuses on discovering new talents and showcases first and second feature films by directors from all over the world. * Directors\' Fortnight – From 1969, it cast its lot with the avant-garde, even as it created a breeding ground where the Cannes Festival would regularly find its prestigious auteurs. * Tous les Cinémas du Monde – It showcases the vitality and diversity of cinema across the world. Each day, one country is invited to present a range of features and shorts in celebration of its unique culture, identity and recent film works. * Caméra d\'Or – It rewards the best first film of the Festival, choosing among the debutants' works among the Official Selection, the Directors' Fortnight and the International Critics' Week selections.

* OTHER SECTIONS – Produced by outside organisations during the Cannes
Cannes
Festival.

* ACID (Association for Independent Cinema and its Distribution)

* EVENTS

* Marché du Film – The busiest movie market in the world. * Masterclasses – Given in public by world-renowned filmmakers. * Tributes – Honors internationally renowned artists with the presentation of the Festival Trophee following the screening of one of their films. * Producers Network – An opportunity to make international co-productions. * Exhibitions – Each year, an artist, a body of work or a cinematographic theme becomes the focus of an exhibition that diversifies or illustrates the event's programme. * 60th Anniversary – Events organised in 2007
2007
dedicated to the 60th anniversary of the Festival.

AUTHORITIES OF THE FESTIVAL

YEAR PRESIDENT GENERAL DELEGATE GEN. SECRETARY

1949
1949
- - Jean Touzet

1952
1952
Robert Favre Le Bret

1972
1972
Robert Favre Le Bret Maurice Bessy

1978
1978
Jacob Gilles

1984
1984
Pierre Viot

1985
1985
Michel P. Bonnet

1991
1991
François Erlenbach

2001
2001
Jacob Gilles GENERAL DIRECTOR Véronique Cayla ARTISTIC DELEGATE Thierry Frémaux

2005
2005
Catherine Démier

2007
2007
Thierry Frémaux

2014
2014
Pierre Lescure

2017
2017

The President of the Festival, who represents the Festival in front of its financial partners, the public authorities and the media, is elected by the Board of Directors of the Festival, officially named the "French Association of the Film Festival". The Board is composed of authorities of the world of cinema, as well as of public authorities which subsidize the event. The President has a renewable 3-year mandate and appoints the members of his team, including the General Delegate, with the approval of the Board of Directors. Sometimes a President, after his last term, becomes the Honorary President of the Festival.

The General Delegate is responsible for the coordination of the events. When Jacob Gilles passed from General Delegate to the position of the President, in 2001, two new positions were created to take over his former post, the General Director to oversee the smooth running of the event, and the Artistic Director, responsible for the selection of films. However, in 2007, the Artistic Director Thierry Fremaux , became again the General Delegate of the Festival.

The General Secretary is responsible for the reception of works and other practical matters.

JURIES

Main article: List of Cannes
Cannes
Film Festival juries (Feature films)

Prior to the beginning of each event, the Festival's board of directors appoints the juries who hold sole responsibility for choosing which films will receive a Cannes
Cannes
award. Jurors are chosen from a wide range of international artists, based on their body of work and respect from their peers. The appointment of the President of the Jury is made following several annual management proposals made in the fall and submitted to the Festival's Board of Directors for validation.

* Feature Films – An international jury composed of a President and various film or art personalities, who determine the prizes for the feature films in Competition. * Cinéfondation and Short Films – Composed of a President and four film personalities. It awards the Short Film _Palme d'Or_ as well as the three best films of the Cinéfondation. * Un Certain Regard – Composed of a President, journalists, students in cinema, and industry professionals. It awards the Un Certain Regard Prize for best film and can, moreover, honour two other films. * Caméra d'Or – Composed of a President, as well as film directors, technicians, and French and international critics. They award the best film in any category.

The jury meets at the historic Villa Domergue to pick the winners every year.

AWARDS

_ Palme d'Or_ awarded to _ Apocalypse Now
Apocalypse Now
_ at the 1979 Cannes Film Festival _ In 2013, Adèle Exarchopoulos and Léa Seydoux became the first and only cast members to receive the Palme d'Or_ for _ Blue Is the Warmest Colour _ in an "unprecedented move", alongside the director Abdellatif Kechiche .

The most prestigious award given at Cannes
Cannes
is the _Palme d\'Or _ ("Golden Palm") for the best film.

* COMPETITION

* _Palme d\'Or _ – _Golden Palm_ * _Grand Prix _ – _Grand Prize of the Festival_ * _Prix du Jury _ – _Jury Prize_ * _Palme d\'Or du court métrage _ – _Best Short Film_ * _Prix d\'interprétation féminine _ – _Best Actress_ * _Prix d\'interprétation masculine _ – _Best Actor_ * _Prix de la mise en scène _ – _Best Director_ * _Prix du scénario _ – _Best Screenplay_

* OTHER SECTIONS

* _Prix Un Certain Regard _ – _Young talent, innovative and audacious works_ * _ Cinéfondation prizes_ – _Student films_ * _Caméra d\'Or _ – _Best first feature film_

* GIVEN BY INDEPENDENT ENTITIES

* _Prix de la FIPRESCI _ – _International Federation of Film Critics Prize_ * Directors\' Fortnight Prizes * _Prix Vulcain _ – Awarded to a technical artist by the CST * International Critics\' Week Prizes * Prize of the Ecumenical Jury
Prize of the Ecumenical Jury
* François Chalais Prize * L\'Œil d\'or – _Best documentary film_ * Trophée Chopard * Palm Dog , for best canine performance. * Queer Palm , for LGBT
LGBT
-related films.

IMPACT

The festival has become an important showcase for European films . Jill Forbes and Sarah Street argue in _European Cinema: An Introduction_ (ISBN 0333752104 ), that Cannes
Cannes
"became...extremely important for critical and commercial interests and for European attempts to sell films on the basis of their artistic quality" (page 20). Forbes and Street also point out that, along with other festivals such as the Venice Film Festival
Venice Film Festival
and Berlin International Film Festival , Cannes
Cannes
offers an opportunity to determine a particular country's image of its cinema and generally foster the notion that European cinema is "art" cinema.

Additionally, given massive media exposure, the non-public festival is attended by many movie stars and is a popular venue for film producers to launch their new films and attempt to sell their works to the distributors who come from all over the globe.

SEE ALSO

* _ France
France
portal * Film portal

* Cannes
Cannes
Lions International Advertising Festival * Directors\' Fortnight * International Critics\' Week * List of Cannes
Cannes
Film Festival jury presidents * List of Cannes
Cannes
Film Festival juries (Feature films) * Marché du Film * List of Palme d\'Or_ winners

REFERENCES

* ^ "Presentation of the Palais". _palaisdesfestivals.com_. Retrieved 31 May 2017. * ^ " Cannes
Cannes
Film Festival Names Pierre Lescure President". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 14 January 2014. * ^ " Pierre Lescure elected President of the Festival de Cannes". Festival de Cannes. Archived from the original on 26 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2015. * ^ " Cannes
Cannes
2017: Ruben Östlund\'s The Square wins the Palme d\'Or". _theguardian.com_. Retrieved 31 May 2017. * ^ "First Cannes
Cannes
Film Festival". _history.com_. Archived from the original on 27 December 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "1938-1951: The birth of the Festival". _fresques.ina.fr_. Retrieved 28 May 2017. * ^ "1st Cannes
Cannes
Film Festival". Archived from the original on October 20, 2013. Retrieved October 20, 2013. * ^ "Honoring the Female Trailblazers of Cannes
Cannes
/2. Dolores del Río". _harpersbazaar.com_. Retrieved 31 May 2017. * ^ "Festival de Cannes
Cannes
- Festival History". _festival-cannes.fr_. Archived from the original on 14 May 2007. * ^ "1952-1959: Celebrities, politics and the film world". _fresques.ina.fr_. Retrieved 28 May 2017. * ^ "1960-1968: The growing legitimacy of cinema and a world of new horizons". _fresques.ina.fr_. Retrieved 28 May 2017. * ^ "1968 Cannes
Cannes
Festival". _cannes-fest.com_. Retrieved 28 May 2017. * ^ "The Fortnight in action". _quinzaine-realisateurs.com_. Retrieved 28 May 2017. * ^ "Directors\' Fortnight". Directors' Fortnight website. Retrieved 27 May 2017. * ^ "1969-1977: A Festival that moves with the times". _fresques.ina.fr_. Retrieved 30 May 2017. * ^ " 1972
1972
- Tout le monde il est beau, tout le monde il est gentil". _cannes-fest.com_. Retrieved 28 May 2017. * ^ " 1978
1978
- Cannes, Le Retour". _Cannes-fest.com_. Retrieved 28 May 2017. * ^ "1983 - Le Festival blessé". _Cannes-fest.com archive_. Retrieved 28 May 2017. * ^ "1978-1986: A wind of change". _fresques.ina.fr_. Retrieved 28 May 2017. * ^ "The History of the Festival / The 80s: The Modern Era". _festival-cannes.com_. Retrieved 31 May 2017. * ^ "Presentation". _Cinéfondation_. Retrieved 28 May 2017. * ^ "1987-1996 : The first Palme d\'Or for a woman director". _fresques.ina.fr_. Retrieved 28 May 2017. * ^ "1997-today : The Festival enters a new century". _fresques.ina.fr_. Retrieved 28 May 2017. * ^ "Netflix Defends Strategy at Cannes: ‘The Culture Is Changing’". _nytimes.com_. Retrieved 31 May 2017. * ^ "Festival de Cannes
Cannes
- Official Site". Retrieved 28 May 2017. * ^ " Pierre Lescure officiellement à la tête du Festival de Cannes". _LeMond.fr_. Retrieved 30 May 2017. * ^ "Festival de Cannes
Cannes
: Juries". _festival-cannes.com_. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. * ^ "Festival de Cannes: Juries". _festival-cannes.com_. Archived from the original on 18 April 2015. * ^ "Patrimoine: Villa Domergue". _Site officiel de la Ville de Cannes_. Retrieved July 6, 2017. * ^ "Pixar pooch picks Up Cannes
Cannes
prize". BBC News. 22 May 2009. Retrieved 27 May 2009. * ^ "Transgender activist Pascale Ourbih on Cannes
Cannes
gay prize jury". On Top Magazine. 10 May 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ Forbes, Jill; Street, Sarah (2001). _European Cinema: An Introduction_. London: Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 0-333-75210-4 .

FURTHER READING

* Coyle, Jake (May 10, 2017). "Outcry over Netflix films prompts Cannes
Cannes
to change rules". _CBC/Radio-Canada_. * Ford, Rebecca; Roxborough, Scott (17 May 2017). "Why Awards Hopefuls Are Losing Confidence in Cannes
Cannes
Debuts". _The Hollywood Reporter_. * Mumford, Gwilym (17 May 2017). "Concrete flowerpots and drone killers: Cannes
Cannes
opens with beefed-up security". _The Guardian_.

Books

* Bart, Peter; The Editors of Variety (1997). _Cannes: Fifty Years of Sun, Sex & Celluloid: Behind the Scenes at the World's Most Famous Film Festival_. Miramax Books . ISBN 978-0786882953 . * Beauchamp, Cari; Behar, Henri (1992). _Hollywood on the Riviera: The Inside Story of the Cannes
Cannes
Film Festival_. William Morrow and Company . ISBN 978-0688110079 . * Craig, Benjamin (2012). _Cannes: A Festival Virgin's Guide_ (6 ed.). Cinemagine Media Publishing. ISBN 978-0954173760 . * Jungen, Christian (2015). _Hollywood in Canne$: The History of a Love-Hate Relationship (Film Culture in Transition)_. Amsterdam University Press . ISBN 978-9089645661 .

MEDIA

* Footage from the 1946 Cannes
Cannes
Film Festival * Retrospective footage of the Festival presented by INA in 2007

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to CANNES FILM FESTIVAL _.

* Cannes
Cannes
Film Festival official website (in

.