The CANNES FESTIVAL (/ˈkæn/ ; French : _FESTIVAL DE CANNES_), named
until 2002 as the INTERNATIONAL FILM FESTIVAL (_Festival international
du film_) and known in English as the CANNES FILM FESTIVAL, is an
annual film festival held in
On 1 July 2014, co-founder and former head of French pay-TV operator
* 1 History
* 1.1 The early years * 1.2 1950s and 1960s * 1.3 1970s and 1980s * 1.4 1990s to the present
* 2 Programmes * 3 Authorities of the Festival * 4 Juries * 5 Awards * 6 Impact * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 Media * 11 External links
THE EARLY YEARS
On 20 September 1946, twenty-one countries presented their films at
1950S AND 1960S
During the early 1950s the festival attracted a lot of tourism and
press attention, with showbiz scandals and high profile personalities
love affairs. At the same time, the artistic aspect of the festival
started developing. Because of controversies over the selection of
films, the Critics' Prize was created for the recognition of original
films and daring filmmakers. In 1954 the _
In 1959, the _
Marché du Film _ (Film Market) was founded, giving the
festival a commercial character and facilitating exchanges between
sellers and buyers in the film industry. Today it has become the first
international platform for film commerce. Still, in the 1950s some
outstanding films, like Night and Fog in 1956 and Hiroshima, My Love
in 1959 were excluded from the competition for diplomatic concerns.
Jean Cocteau , three times president of the jury in those years, is
quoted to have said: "The
In 1962, the International Critics\' Week was born, created by the
French Union of Film Critics as the first parallel section of the
The 1968 festival was halted on 19 May. Some directors, such as
Carlos Saura and
Miloš Forman , had withdrawn their films from the
competition. On 18 May, filmmaker
Louis Malle along with a group of
directors took over the large room of the _Palais_ and interrupted the
projections in solidarity with students and labour on strike
1970S AND 1980S
During the 1970s, important changes occurred in the Festival. In
1972, Robert Favre Le Bret was named the new President, and Maurice
Bessy the General Delegate. He introduced important changes in the
selection of the participating films, welcoming new techniques, and
relieving the selection from diplomatic pressures, with films like
M.A.S.H. , and later
Chronicle of the Years of Fire
In 1978, Gilles Jacob assumed the position of General Delegate, introducing the Caméra d\'Or award, for the best first film of any of the main events, and the Un Certain Regard section, for the non-competitive categories. Other changes were the decrease of length of the festival down to thirteen days, thus reducing the number of selected films; also, until that point the Jury was composed by Film Academics, and Jacob started to introduce celebrities and professionals from the film industry.
In 1983, a new, much bigger Palais des Festivals et des Congrès was built to host the festival, while the Directors' Fortnight remained in the old building. The new building was nicknamed "The Bunker", provoking a lot of criticism, especially since it was hardly finished at the event and several technical problems occurred. In 1984, Pierre Viot replaced Robert Favre Le Bret as President of the Festival. In his term, the Festival started including films from more countries, like Philippines, China, Cuba, Australia, India, New Zealand and Argentina. In 1987, for the first time of the Festival, a red carpet was placed at the entrance of the Palais. In 1989, during the first Cinéma "> Stars posing for photographers are a part of Cannes folklore.
1990S TO THE PRESENT
It was not until 1998 that Gilles Jacob created the last section of
the Official Selection: la
Cinéfondation , aiming to support the
creation of works of cinema in the world and to contribute to the
entry of the new scenario writers in the circle of the celebrities.
Cinéfondation was completed in 2000 with _La Résidence_, where
young directors could refine their writing and screenplays, and in
During the 2000s the Festival started focusing more on the
technological advances taking place in the film world, especially the
digital techniques. In 2004, the restored historical films of the
Festival were presented as _
* THE OFFICIAL SELECTION – The main event of the festival.
* In Competition – The twenty films competing for the _Palme d\'Or
_. They are projected in the _Théâtre Lumière_.
Un Certain Regard – Twenty films selected from cultures near and
far; original and different works. They are projected at the _Salle
* Out of Competition – These films are also projected in the
_Théâtre Lumière_ but do not compete for the main prize.
* PARALLEL SECTIONS – These are non-competitive programmes dedicated to discovering other aspects of cinema.
* International Critics\' Week - From 1962, it focuses on discovering new talents and showcases first and second feature films by directors from all over the world. * Directors\' Fortnight – From 1969, it cast its lot with the avant-garde, even as it created a breeding ground where the Cannes Festival would regularly find its prestigious auteurs. * Tous les Cinémas du Monde – It showcases the vitality and diversity of cinema across the world. Each day, one country is invited to present a range of features and shorts in celebration of its unique culture, identity and recent film works. * Caméra d\'Or – It rewards the best first film of the Festival, choosing among the debutants' works among the Official Selection, the Directors' Fortnight and the International Critics' Week selections.
* OTHER SECTIONS – Produced by outside organisations during the
* ACID (Association for Independent Cinema and its Distribution)
Marché du Film – The busiest movie market in the world.
* Masterclasses – Given in public by world-renowned filmmakers.
* Tributes – Honors internationally renowned artists with the
presentation of the Festival Trophee following the screening of one of
* Producers Network – An opportunity to make international
* Exhibitions – Each year, an artist, a body of work or a
cinematographic theme becomes the focus of an exhibition that
diversifies or illustrates the event's programme.
* 60th Anniversary – Events organised in
AUTHORITIES OF THE FESTIVAL
YEAR PRESIDENT GENERAL DELEGATE GEN. SECRETARY
The President of the Festival, who represents the Festival in front of its financial partners, the public authorities and the media, is elected by the Board of Directors of the Festival, officially named the "French Association of the Film Festival". The Board is composed of authorities of the world of cinema, as well as of public authorities which subsidize the event. The President has a renewable 3-year mandate and appoints the members of his team, including the General Delegate, with the approval of the Board of Directors. Sometimes a President, after his last term, becomes the Honorary President of the Festival.
The General Delegate is responsible for the coordination of the events. When Jacob Gilles passed from General Delegate to the position of the President, in 2001, two new positions were created to take over his former post, the General Director to oversee the smooth running of the event, and the Artistic Director, responsible for the selection of films. However, in 2007, the Artistic Director Thierry Fremaux , became again the General Delegate of the Festival.
The General Secretary is responsible for the reception of works and other practical matters.
Main article: List of
Prior to the beginning of each event, the Festival's board of
directors appoints the juries who hold sole responsibility for
choosing which films will receive a
* Feature Films – An international jury composed of a President and various film or art personalities, who determine the prizes for the feature films in Competition. * Cinéfondation and Short Films – Composed of a President and four film personalities. It awards the Short Film _Palme d'Or_ as well as the three best films of the Cinéfondation. * Un Certain Regard – Composed of a President, journalists, students in cinema, and industry professionals. It awards the Un Certain Regard Prize for best film and can, moreover, honour two other films. * Caméra d'Or – Composed of a President, as well as film directors, technicians, and French and international critics. They award the best film in any category.
The jury meets at the historic Villa Domergue to pick the winners every year.
_ Palme d'Or_ awarded to _
The most prestigious award given at
* _Palme d\'Or _ – _Golden Palm_ * _Grand Prix _ – _Grand Prize of the Festival_ * _Prix du Jury _ – _Jury Prize_ * _Palme d\'Or du court métrage _ – _Best Short Film_ * _Prix d\'interprétation féminine _ – _Best Actress_ * _Prix d\'interprétation masculine _ – _Best Actor_ * _Prix de la mise en scène _ – _Best Director_ * _Prix du scénario _ – _Best Screenplay_
* OTHER SECTIONS
* GIVEN BY INDEPENDENT ENTITIES
* _Prix de la
FIPRESCI _ – _International Federation of Film
* Directors\' Fortnight Prizes
* _Prix Vulcain _ – Awarded to a technical artist by the CST
* International Critics\' Week Prizes
Prize of the Ecumenical Jury
The festival has become an important showcase for European films .
Jill Forbes and Sarah Street argue in _European Cinema: An
Introduction_ (ISBN 0333752104 ), that
Additionally, given massive media exposure, the non-public festival is attended by many movie stars and is a popular venue for film producers to launch their new films and attempt to sell their works to the distributors who come from all over the globe.
* ^ "Presentation of the Palais". _palaisdesfestivals.com_.
Retrieved 31 May 2017.
* ^ "
* Coyle, Jake (May 10, 2017). "Outcry over Netflix films prompts
* Bart, Peter; The Editors of Variety (1997). _Cannes: Fifty Years
of Sun, Sex & Celluloid: Behind the Scenes at the World's Most Famous
Miramax Books . ISBN 978-0786882953 .
* Beauchamp, Cari; Behar, Henri (1992). _Hollywood on the Riviera:
The Inside Story of the
* Footage from the 1946
_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to CANNES FILM FESTIVAL _.