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Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol
(CBG) is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in the Cannabis
Cannabis
genus of plants, as well as certain other plants including Helichrysum
Helichrysum
umbraculigerum.[1] CBG is the non-acidic form of cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), the parent molecule (“mother cannabinoid”) from which many other cannabinoids are made. By the time most strains of cannabis reach maturity, most of the CBG has been converted into other cannabinoids, primarily tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or cannabidiol (CBD), usually leaving somewhere below 1% CBG in the plant.[2] CBG has been found to act as a high affinity α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, moderate affinity 5-HT1A receptor
5-HT1A receptor
antagonist, and low affinity CB1 receptor
CB1 receptor
antagonist.[3] It also binds to the CB2 receptor as an antagonist.[4] CBG does not trigger THC-like activity in mice, rats, gerbils and non-human primates, consistent with it being non-intoxicating.[5] [6] Moreover, CBG was without effect up to 80 mg/kg in the mouse tetrad test of cannabimimetic activity (locomotor suppression, catalepsy, hypothermia and analgesia).[7]

Contents

1 Chemistry 2 Potential uses

2.1 Pain, anxiety 2.2 Inflammation, digestive conditions 2.3 Microorganisms 2.4 Skin conditions 2.5 Glaucoma 2.6 Neuroprotection 2.7 Antiseptic 2.8 Cancer 2.9 Autoimune Diseases

3 Legal status

3.1 United Nations 3.2 United States

4 Biosynthesis 5 See also 6 References

Chemistry[edit] It has two E/Z isomers. Potential uses[edit]

This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the section and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2018)

Pain, anxiety[edit] CBG has potential for alleviating pain,[8] especially neuropathic pain where tests suggest a higher efficacy than CBD.[9] CBG can also inhibit the uptake of GABA in the brain, which can decrease anxiety and muscle tension[10][unreliable source?] with tests on mice showing that CBG induces antidepressant effects similar to imipramine.[11] Inflammation, digestive conditions[edit] It has been shown to improve a model of inflammatory bowel disease,[12] ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.[13] Microorganisms[edit] CBG have shown selective antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium intracellulare with an IC50
IC50
value of 15.0 μg/mL.[14] Skin conditions[edit] CBG induces production of the body’s natural skin moisturizers, holding promise for dry-skin syndromes and with the potential to treat other skin conditions.[15] Glaucoma[edit] Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol
has been shown to relieve intraocular pressure, which may be of benefit in the treatment of glaucoma.[16][17] Neuroprotection[edit] CBG has been shown to have neuroprotective properties and may prove promising for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease[18] and multiple sclerosis.[19] Antiseptic[edit] CBG is known to have antiseptic properties[20][21] and research suggests that it might be effective against the superbug MRSA.[22] Cancer[edit] CBG is showing promising properties in vitro for the potential treatment of a broad range of cancers including breast, liver, lung, pancreatic, skin, ovarian, renal, bladder and colon cancer.[23][24][25][26] [27] Autoimune Diseases[edit] CBG represents a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of human diseases with both inflammatory and autoimmune components.[28] Legal status[edit] United Nations[edit] CBG is not scheduled by the UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. United States[edit] CBG is not scheduled at the federal level in the United States
United States
unless it is produced from those parts of the Marijuana plant that are scheduled. THC is the only naturally-occurring cannabinoid which is scheduled[29] in its own right at the federal level in the United States
United States
(the state scheduling laws closely follow the federal ones, with exceptions carved out in those states where medical or recreational cannabis are legal). All other naturally-occurring cannabinoids are not scheduled in their own right. In addition, the Marijuana plant (genus Cannabis
Cannabis
sativa L.) is scheduled[30] (although certain parts, such as the seeds and mature stalks, are excluded). Any compound or extract, to the extent that it originated from the scheduled parts of the Marijuana plant, is also scheduled[31] (including for example everyday substances such as sucrose, if derived from Marijuana). On the other hand, other than THC, all naturally-occurring cannabinoids, including CBG, are not scheduled if they were not produced from the scheduled parts of the Marijuana plant. Similarly, synthetic or biosynthesized CBG is not scheduled. The DEA has made certain public statements that help clarify the status of cannabinoids, including:

“if a product, such as oil from cannabis seeds, consisted solely of parts of the cannabis plant excluded from the CSA definition of marijuana, such product would not be included in the new drug code [Marijuana Extract] (7350) or in the drug code for marijuana (7360), even if it contained trace amounts of cannabinoids... Nor would such a product be included under drug code 7370 (tetrahydrocannabinols).”[32] “cannabinoids are controlled [only] to the extent that they are found in non-exempt parts of the cannabis plant” and “DEA is not seeking to schedule cannabinoids.”[33]

Biosynthesis[edit] The biosynthesis of CBG begins by loading hexanoyl-CoA onto a polyketide synthase assembly protein and subsequent condensation with three molecules of malonyl-CoA.[34] This polyketide is cyclized to olivetolic acid via olivetolic acid cyclase, and then prenylated with a ten carbon isoprenoid precursor, geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP), using an aromatic prenyltransferase enzyme, geranyl-pyrophosphate—olivetolic acid geranyltransferase, to biosynthesize cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), which can then be decarboxylated to yield cannabigerol.[35]

Biosynthesis
Biosynthesis
of cannabigerol

See also[edit]

Cannabinoid Medical cannabis

References[edit]

^ Ferdinand Bohlmann, Evelyn Hoffmann (1979). Cannabigerol-ähnliche verbindungen aus Helichrysum
Helichrysum
umbraculigerum ^ Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Soydaner, Umut; Öztürk, Ekin; Schibano, Daniele; Simsir, Yilmaz; Navarro, Patricia; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz (2016-02-26). "Evolution of the Cannabinoid
Cannabinoid
and Terpene Content during the Growth of Cannabis
Cannabis
sativa Plants from Different Chemotypes". Journal of Natural Products. 79 (2): 324–331. doi:10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00949. ISSN 0163-3864. PMID 26836472.  ^ Cascio MG, Gauson LA, Stevenson LA, Ross RA, Pertwee R (December 2009). "Evidence that the plant cannabinoid cannabigerol is a highly potent alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist and moderately potent 5HT receptor antagonist". British Journal of Pharmacology. 159 (1): 129–141. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00515.x. PMC 2823359 . PMID 20002104.  ^ Cascio MG, Gauson LA, Stevenson LA, Ross RA, & Pertwee RG (2010). Evidence that the plant cannabinoid cannabigerol is a highly potent α2-adrenoceptor agonist and moderately potent 5HT1A receptor antagonist ^ Grunfeld Y, & Edery H (1969). Psychopharmacological activity of the active constituents of hashish and some related cannabinoids ^ Mechoulam R, Shani A, Edery H, & Grunfeld Y (1970). Chemical basis of hashish activity ^ El-Alfy AT, Ivey K, Robinson K, Ahmed S, Radwan M, Slade D, et al. (2010). Antidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis
Cannabis
sativa L ^ Ethan B Russo (2011). Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects(p1348) ^ Sabatino Maione, Francesco Rossi, Geoffrey Guy, Colin Stott, Tetsuro Kikuchi (2011). Cannabinoids for use in the treatment of neuropathic pain ^ Medical Jane, Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol
(CBG): A Minor Cannabinoid
Cannabinoid
With A Major Impact ^ Richard Musty, Richard Deyo (2006). Pharmaceutical compositions comprising cannabigerol ^ Borrelli, F; Fasolino, I; Romano, B; Capasso, R; Maiello, F; Coppola, D; Orlando, P; Battista, G; Pagano, E; Di Marzo, V; Izzo, AA (May 2013). "Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease". Biochem Pharmacol. 85 (9): 1306–16. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2013.01.017. PMID 23415610.  ^ Angelo Antonio Izzo, Francesca Borrelli, Stephen Wright (2011). Phytocannabinoids for use in the treatment of intestinal inflammatory diseases ^ Radwan, Mohamed M.; Ross, Samir A.; Slade, Desmond; Ahmed, Safwat A.; Zulfiqar, Fazila; ElSohly, Mahmoud A. (2008). "Isolation and Characterization of New Cannabis
Cannabis
Constituents from a High Potency Variety". Planta Medica. 74 (3): 267–272. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1034311. ISSN 0032-0943. PMC 4887452 . PMID 18283614.  ^ Oláh A, Markovics A, Szabó-Papp J, Szabó PT, Stott C, Zouboulis CC, Bíró T (2016). Differential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment ^ Colasanti, B. (1990). "A comparison of the ocular and central effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabigerol". Journal of ocular pharmacology. 6 (4): 259–269. doi:10.1089/jop.1990.6.259. PMID 1965836.  ^ Colasanti, B.; Craig, C.; Allara, R. (1984). "Intraocular pressure, ocular toxicity and neurotoxicity after administration of cannabinol or cannabigerol". Experimental Eye Research. 39 (3): 251–259. doi:10.1016/0014-4835(84)90013-7. PMID 6499952.  ^ Valdeolivas, S.; Navarrete, C.; Cantarero, I.; Bellido, ML.; Muñoz, E.; Sagredo, O. (2015). "Neuroprotective properties of cannabigerol in Huntington's disease: studies in R6/2 mice and 3-nitropropionate-lesioned mice". Neurotherapeutics. 12 (1): 185–99. doi:10.1007/s13311-014-0304-z. PMC 4322067 . PMID 25252936.  ^ Granja, AG.; Carrillo-Salinas, F.; Pagani, A.; Gómez-Cañas, M.; Negri, R.; Navarrete, C.; Mecha, M.; Mestre, L.; Fiebich, BL.; Cantarero, I.; Calzado, MA.; Bellido, ML.; Fernandez-Ruiz, J.; Appendino, G.; Guaza, C.; Muñoz, E. (2012). "A cannabigerol quinone alleviates neuroinflammation in a chronic model of multiple sclerosis". J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 7 (4): 1002–16. doi:10.1007/s11481-012-9399-3. PMID 22971837.  ^ Hala N. Eisohly, Carlton E. Turner, Alice M. Clark,Mahmoud A. Eisohly (1982). Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of certain cannabichromene and cannabigerol related compounds ^ George ANASTASSOV, Lekhram Changoer (2014). Oral care composition comprising cannabinoids ^ Appendino G1, Gibbons S, Giana A, Pagani A, Grassi G, Stavri M, Smith E, Rahman MM (2008). Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure-activity study ^ Colin Stott, Marnie DUNCAN, Thomas Hill (2014). Active pharmaceutical ingredient (api) comprising cannabinoids for use in the treatment of cancer ^ Ethan B Russo (2011). Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects(p 1348) ^ Seung-Hwa Baek, Seok Du Han, Chan Nam Yook, Young Chae Kim, Jung Suk Kwak (1996). Synthesis and antitumor activity of cannabigerol ^ Seung-Hwa Baek, Seok Du Han, Chan Nam Yook, Young Chae Kim, Jung Suk Kwak (1998). Boron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells ^ Borrelli F, Pagano E, Romano B, Panzera S, Maiello F, Coppola D, De Petrocellis L, Buono L, Orlando P, Izzo AA (2014). Colon carcinogenesis is inhibited by the TRPM8 antagonist cannabigerol, a Cannabis-derived non-psychotropic cannabinoid ^ Francisco J. Carrillo-Salinas, Carmen Navarrete, Miriam Mecha, Ana Feliú, Juan A. Collado, Irene Cantarero, María L. Bellido, Eduardo Muñoz, Carmen Guaza (2014) "A Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol
Derivative Suppresses Immune Responses and Protects Mice from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis". https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094733 ^ CFR §1308.11 d(31) ^ CFR §1308.11 d(23) ^ USC > Title 21 > Chapter 13 > Subchapter I > Part A > § 802.16 ^ DEA (2017). Clarification of the New Drug Code (7350) for Marijuana Extract. ^ DEA brief to US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (2017). Pages 28 and 29 ^ Page Et. Al, Jonathan (2012). "Identification of olivetolic acid cyclase from Cannabis
Cannabis
sativa reveals a unique catalytic route to plant polyketides". PNAS. 109 (31): 12811–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.1200330109. PMC 3411943 . PMID 22802619.  ^ Meinhart H,, Zenk Et. Al (1998). " Prenylation
Prenylation
of olivetolate by a hemp transferase yields cannabigerolic acid, the precursor of tetrahydrocannabinol". FEBS Letters. 427 (2): 283–285. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(98)00450-5. PMID 9607329. 

v t e

Cannabinoids

Phytocannabinoids

Alkylamides Caryophyllene CBC CBCV CBD CBDV CBG CBGM CBGV CBL CBDL CBN CBV Epigallocatechin gallate Gallocatechol Perrottetinene Serinolamide A THC THC-C4 THCA THCV Yangonin

Active metabolites: 8,11-DiOH-THC 11-COOH-THC 11-OH-THC

Endocannabinoids

Arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA; anandamide) 2-Arachidonoylglycerol
2-Arachidonoylglycerol
(2-AG) 2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether
2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether
(2-AGE; noladin ether) 2-Oleoylglycerol
2-Oleoylglycerol
(2-OG) N-Arachidonoyl dopamine
N-Arachidonoyl dopamine
(NADA) N-Arachidonylglycine
N-Arachidonylglycine
(NAGly) 2-Arachidonoyl lysophosphatidylinositol (2-ALPI) N- Arachidonoyl serotonin
Arachidonoyl serotonin
(AA-5-HT) Docosatetraenoylethanolamide
Docosatetraenoylethanolamide
(DEA) Lysophosphatidylinositol
Lysophosphatidylinositol
(LPI) Oleamide Oleoylethanolamide
Oleoylethanolamide
(OEA) Palmitoylethanolamide
Palmitoylethanolamide
(PEA) RVD-Hpα Stearoylethanolamide (SEA) O-Arachidonoyl ethanolamine (O-AEA; virodhamine)

Synthetic cannabinoids

Classical cannabinoids (dibenzopyrans)

A-40174 A-41988 A-42574 Ajulemic acid AM-087 AM-411 AM-855 AM-905 AM-906 AM-919 AM-926 AM-938 AM-2389 AM-4030 AMG-1 AMG-3 AMG-36 AMG-41 Dexanabinol
Dexanabinol
(HU-211) DMHP Dronabinol HHC HU-210 HU-243 JWH-051 JWH-133 JWH-139 JWH-161 JWH-229 JWH-359 KM-233 L-759,633 L-759,656 Levonantradol
Levonantradol
(CP 50,5561) Menabitan Nabazenil Nabidrox (Canbisol) Nabilone Nabitan Naboctate O-224 O-581 O-774 O-806 O-823 O-1057 O-1125 O-1191 O-1238 O-2048 O-2113 O-2365 O-2372 O-2373 O-2383 O-2426 O-2484 O-2545 O-2694 O-2715 O-2716 O-3223 O-3226 Parahexyl Pirnabine THC-O-acetate THC-O-phosphate

Non-classical cannabinoids

Cannabicyclohexanol CBD-DMH CP 47,497 (C6)-CP 47,497 (C9)-CP 47,497 CP 55,244 CP 55,940 HU-308 HU-320 HU-331 HU-336 HU-345 HU-446 HU-465 HU-910 HUF-101 Nonabine O-1376 O-1422 O-1601 O-1656 O-1657 O-1660 O-1663 O-1871 SPA-229 Tinabinol

Benzoylindoles

1-Butyl-3-(2-methoxybenzoyl)indole 1-Butyl-3-(4-methoxybenzoyl)indole 1-Pentyl-3-(2-methoxybenzoyl)indole AM-630 AM-679 AM-694 AM-1241 AM-2233 GW-405,833
GW-405,833
(L-768,242) Pravadoline RCS-4 WIN 54,461

Naphthoylindoles

AM-1220 AM-1221 AM-1235 AM-2201 AM-2232 CHM-081 EAM-2201 FUB-JWH-018 JWH-007 JWH-015 JWH-018 JWH-019 JWH-073 JWH-081 JWH-098 JWH-116 JWH-122 JWH-149 JWH-164 JWH-182 JWH-193 JWH-198 JWH-200 JWH-210 JWH-398 JWH-424 MAM-1220 MAM-2201 NE-CHMIMO

Naphthoylindazoles

THJ-018 THJ-2201

Pyrrolobenzoxazines

WIN 55,212-2

Naphthylmethylindoles

JWH-175 JWH-176 JWH-184 JWH-185 JWH-192 JWH-194 JWH-195 JWH-196 JWH-197 JWH-199

Phenylacetylindoles

Cannabipiperidiethanone JWH-167 JWH-203 JWH-249 JWH-250 JWH-251 JWH-302 RCS-8

Indole-3-carboxamides

5F-ADBICA 5F-NNE1 5F-PCN 5F-SDB-006 AB-FUBICA AB-PICA ADBICA ADB-FUBICA APICA CUMYL-BICA CUMYL-PICA CUMYL-5F-PICA FDU-NNE1 MDMB-CHMICA MMB-2201 MN-25
MN-25
(UR-12) NNE1 PX-1 Org 28312 Org 28611 SDB-006 STS-135

Indole-3-carboxylates

5F-PB-22 FDU-PB-22 FUB-PB-22 QUCHIC
QUCHIC
(BB-22) QUPIC
QUPIC
(PB-22) NM-2201

Tetramethylcyclo- propanoylindoles

5Br-UR-144 5Cl-UR-144 A-796,260 A-834,735 FUB-144 UR-144 XLR-11 XLR-12

Indazole-3- carboxamides

5Cl-APINACA 5F-ADB 5F-ADB-PINACA 5F-AMB 5F-APINACA 5F-CUMYL-PINACA 5F-EMB-PINACA AB-CHMINACA AB-FUBINACA AB-FUBINACA
AB-FUBINACA
2-fluorobenzyl isomer AB-PINACA ADB-CHMINACA ADB-FUBINACA ADB-PINACA ADAMANTYL-THPINACA ADSB-FUB-187 AMB-CHMINACA AMB-FUBINACA APINACA
APINACA
(AKB48) APP-FUBINACA CUMYL-4CN-BINACA CUMYL-PINACA CUMYL-THPINACA EMB-FUBINACA FUB-APINACA MDMB-FUBINACA MDMB-CHMINACA MN-18 PX-2 PX-3

Tetramethylcyclo- propanoylindazoles

FAB-144

Naphthoylpyrroles

JWH-030 JWH-147 JWH-307 JWH-369 JWH-370

Eicosanoids

AM-883 AM-1346 ACEA ACPA Methanandamide
Methanandamide
(AM-356) O-585 O-689 O-1812 O-1860 O-1861

Pyrazolecarboxamides

5F-AB-FUPPYCA AB-CHFUPYCA AB-CHMFUPPYCA

Others

4-HTMPIPO 5F-PY-PICA 5F-PY-PINACA 5F-3-pyridinoylindole A-836,339 A-955,840 Abnormal cannabidiol AB-001 BzODZ-EPyr AM-1248 AM-1714 AZ-11713908 BAY 38-7271 BAY 59-3074 BIM-018 CB-13 CB-86 CBS-0550 CUMYL-4CN-B7AICA CUMYL-5F-P7AICA CUMYL-PEGACLONE FUBIMINA GSK-554,418A GW-842,166X JTE 7-31 LASSBio-881 LBP-1 Leelamine MDA-7 MDA-19 MEPIRAPIM NESS-040C5 NMP-7 O-889 O-1269 O-1270 O-1399 O-1602 O-2220 PF-03550096 PSB-SB-1202 PTI-1 PTI-2 QMPSB S-444,823 SER-601 Tedalinab URB-447 VSN-16 WIN 56,098

Allosteric CBR ligands

Org 27569 Org 27759 Org 29647 RTI-371 Pregnenolone

Endocannabinoid enhancers (inactivation inhibitors)

4-Nonylphenylboronic acid AM-404 Arachidonoyl serotonin Arvanil BIA 10-2474 Biochanin A CAY-10401 CAY-10429 Genistein Guineesine IDFP JNJ 1661010 JNJ-42165279 JZL184 JZL195 Kaempferol LY-2183240 MK-4409 O-1624 O-2093 Oleoylethanolamide
Oleoylethanolamide
(OEA) Olvanil Palmitoylethanolamide
Palmitoylethanolamide
(PEA) PF-04457845 PF-622 PF-750 PF-3845 PHOP URB-447 URB-597 URB-602 URB-754 VDM-11

Anticannabinoids (antagonists/inverse agonists/antibodies)

AM-251 AM-281 AM-630 AM-1387 AM-4113 AM-6527 AM-6545 BML-190 Brizantin (Бризантин) CAY-10508 CB-25 CB-52 CB-86 Dietressa (Диетресса) Drinabant
Drinabant
(AVE1625) Hemopressin Ibipinabant
Ibipinabant
(SLV319) JTE-907 LH-21 LY-320,135 MDA-77 MJ-15 MK-9470 NESS-0327 NIDA-41020 O-606 O-1184 O-1248 O-1918 O-2050 O-2654 Otenabant
Otenabant
(CP-945,598) PF-514273 PipISB PSB-SB-487 Rimonabant
Rimonabant
(SR141716) Rosonabant
Rosonabant
(E-6776) SR-144,528 Surinabant
Surinabant
(SR147778) Taranabant
Taranabant
(MK-0364) TM-38837 VCHSR

See also: Cannabinoid
Cannabinoid
receptor modulators (cannabinoids by pharmacology) List of: AM cannabinoids JWH cannabinoids Designer drugs § Synthetic cannabimimetics

v t e

Adrenergic receptor
Adrenergic receptor
modulators

α1

Agonists: 6-FNE Amidephrine Anisodine Buspirone Cirazoline Corbadrine Desglymidodrine Dexisometheptene Dipivefrine Dopamine Droxidopa
Droxidopa
(L-DOPS) Ephedrine Epinephrine Etilefrine Etilevodopa Ethylnorepinephrine Indanidine Isometheptene L-DOPA
L-DOPA
(levodopa) L-Phenylalanine L-Tyrosine Melevodopa Metaraminol Methoxamine Methyldopa Midodrine Naphazoline Norepinephrine Octopamine (drug) Oxymetazoline Phenylephrine Phenylpropanolamine Pseudoephedrine Synephrine Tetryzoline Tiamenidine XP21279 Xylometazoline

Antagonists: Abanoquil Adimolol Ajmalicine Alfuzosin Amosulalol Anisodamine Arotinolol Atiprosin Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., brexpiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone) Benoxathian Buflomedil Bunazosin Carvedilol Corynanthine Dapiprazole Domesticine Doxazosin Ergolines (e.g., ergotamine, dihydroergotamine, lisuride, terguride) Etoperidone Eugenodilol Fenspiride Hydroxyzine Indoramin Ketanserin L-765,314 Labetalol mCPP Mepiprazole Metazosin Monatepil Moxisylyte Naftopidil Nantenine Neldazosin Niaprazine Nicergoline Niguldipine Pardoprunox Pelanserin Perlapine Phendioxan Phenoxybenzamine Phentolamine Phenylpiperazine
Phenylpiperazine
antidepressants (e.g., hydroxynefazodone, nefazodone, trazodone, triazoledione) Piperoxan Prazosin Quinazosin Quinidine Ritanserin Silodosin Spiperone Talipexole Tamsulosin Terazosin Tiodazosin Tolazoline Tetracyclic antidepressants (e.g., amoxapine, maprotiline, mianserin) Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, clomipramine, doxepin, imipramine, trimipramine) Trimazosin Typical antipsychotics (e.g., chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, loxapine, thioridazine) Urapidil WB-4101 Zolertine

α2

Agonists: (R)-3-Nitrobiphenyline 4-NEMD 6-FNE Amitraz Apraclonidine Brimonidine Cannabivarin Clonidine Corbadrine Detomidine Dexmedetomidine Dihydroergotamine Dipivefrine Dopamine Droxidopa
Droxidopa
(L-DOPS) Etilevodopa Ephedrine Ergotamine Epinephrine Etilefrine Ethylnorepinephrine Guanabenz Guanfacine Guanoxabenz L-DOPA
L-DOPA
(levodopa) L-Phenylalanine L-Tyrosine Lofexidine Medetomidine Melevodopa Methyldopa Mivazerol Naphazoline Norepinephrine Oxymetazoline Phenylpropanolamine Piperoxan Pseudoephedrine Rezatomidine Rilmenidine Romifidine Talipexole Tasipimidine Tetrahydrozoline Tiamenidine Tizanidine Tolonidine Urapidil Vatinoxan XP21279 Xylazine Xylometazoline

Antagonists: 1-PP Adimolol Amesergide Aptazapine Atipamezole Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., asenapine, brexpiprazole, clozapine, lurasidone, paliperidone, quetiapine, risperidone, zotepine) Azapirones (e.g., buspirone, gepirone, ipsapirone, tandospirone) BRL-44408 Buflomedil Cirazoline Efaroxan Esmirtazapine Fenmetozole Fluparoxan Idazoxan mCPP Mianserin Mirtazapine NAN-190 Olanzapine Pardoprunox Phentolamine Phenoxybenzamine Piperoxan Piribedil Rauwolscine Rotigotine SB-269970 Setiptiline Spiroxatrine Sunepitron Tolazoline Typical antipsychotics (e.g., chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, loxapine, thioridazine) Yohimbine

β

Agonists: Abediterol Alifedrine Amibegron Arbutamine Arformoterol Arotinolol BAAM Bambuterol Befunolol Bitolterol Broxaterol Buphenine Carbuterol Carmoterol Cimaterol Clenbuterol Colterol Corbadrine Denopamine Dipivefrine Dobutamine Dopamine Dopexamine Droxidopa
Droxidopa
(L-DOPS) Ephedrine Epinephrine Etafedrine Etilefrine Etilevodopa Ethylnorepinephrine Fenoterol Formoterol Hexoprenaline Higenamine Indacaterol Isoetarine Isoprenaline Isoxsuprine L-DOPA
L-DOPA
(levodopa) L-Phenylalanine L-Tyrosine Levosalbutamol Mabuterol Melevodopa Methoxyphenamine Methyldopa Mirabegron Norepinephrine Orciprenaline Oxyfedrine PF-610355 Phenylpropanolamine Pirbuterol Prenalterol Ractopamine Procaterol Pseudoephedrine Reproterol Rimiterol Ritodrine Salbutamol Salmeterol Solabegron Terbutaline Tretoquinol Tulobuterol Vilanterol Xamoterol XP21279 Zilpaterol Zinterol

Antagonists: Acebutolol Adaprolol Adimolol Afurolol Alprenolol Alprenoxime Amosulalol Ancarolol Arnolol Arotinolol Atenolol Befunolol Betaxolol Bevantolol Bisoprolol Bopindolol Bornaprolol Brefonalol Bucindolol Bucumolol Bufetolol Bufuralol Bunitrolol Bunolol Bupranolol Butaxamine Butidrine Butofilolol Capsinolol Carazolol Carpindolol Carteolol Carvedilol Celiprolol Cetamolol Cicloprolol Cinamolol Cloranolol Cyanopindolol Dalbraminol Dexpropranolol Diacetolol Dichloroisoprenaline Dihydroalprenolol Dilevalol Diprafenone Draquinolol Ecastolol Epanolol Ericolol Ersentilide Esatenolol Esprolol Eugenodilol Exaprolol Falintolol Flestolol Flusoxolol Hydroxycarteolol Hydroxytertatolol ICI-118,551 Idropranolol Indenolol Indopanolol Iodocyanopindolol Iprocrolol Isoxaprolol Isamoltane Labetalol Landiolol Levobetaxolol Levobunolol Levomoprolol Medroxalol Mepindolol Metipranolol Metoprolol Moprolol Nadolol Nadoxolol Nebivolol Nifenalol Nipradilol Oxprenolol Pacrinolol Pafenolol Pamatolol Pargolol Penbutolol Pindolol Practolol Primidolol Procinolol Pronethalol Propafenone Propranolol Ridazolol Ronactolol Soquinolol Sotalol Spirendolol SR 59230A Sulfinalol Talinolol Tazolol Tertatolol Tienoxolol Tilisolol Timolol Tiprenolol Tolamolol Toliprolol Xibenolol Xipranolol

v t e

Cannabinoid
Cannabinoid
receptor modulators

Receptor (ligands)

CB1

Agonists (abridged; see here for more): 2-AG 2-AGE (noladin ether) 11-Hydroxy-THC α-Amyrin β-Amyrin AB-CHMINACA AM-1172 AM-1220 AM-1221 AM-1235 AM-2201 AM-2232 Anandamide Arvanil AZ-11713908 Cannabinol CB-13 CP 47,497 CP 55,940 Dimethylheptylpyran DEA ECG EGCG Epicatechin Gallocatechol
Gallocatechol
(gallocatechin) Honokiol HU-210 JWH-007 JWH-015 JWH-018 JWH-073 Kavain L-759,633 Levonantradol Menabitan Nabilone Nabitan NADA O-1812 Oleamide Pravadoline Serinolamide A THC (dronabinol) UR-144 WIN 55,212-2 Yangonin

Antagonists: AM-251 AM-6545 Cannabidiol Cannabigerol Drinabant Falcarinol
Falcarinol
(carotatoxin) Hemopressin Ibipinabant LY-320,135 MK-9470 NESS-0327 O-2050 Otenabant PF-514273 PipISB Rimonabant Rosonabant Surinabant Taranabant THCV TM-38837 VCHSR Virodhamine

Antibodies: Brizantin (Бризантин) Dietressa (Диетресса)

Unknown/unsorted: MAFP

CB2

Agonists: 2-AG 2-AGE (noladin ether) 3,3'-Diindolylmethane 4-O-Methylhonokiol α-Amyrin β-Amyrin A-796,260 A-834,735 A-836,339 AM-1172 AM-1221 AM-1235 AM-1241 AM-2232 Anandamide AZ-11713908 Cannabinol Caryophyllene CB-13 CBS-0550 CP-55,940 GW-405,833
GW-405,833
(L-768,242) GW-842,166X HU-308 JTE 7-31 JWH-007 JWH-015 JWH-018 JWH-73 JWH-133 L-759,633 L-759,656 Magnolol MDA-19 Nabitan NADA PF-03550096 S-444,823 SER-601 Serinolamide A UR-144 Tedalinab THC (dronabinol) THCV Tetrahydromagnolol Virodhamine

Antagonists: 4-O-Methylhonokiol AM-630 BML-190 Cannabidiol Honokiol JTE-907 SR-144,528 WIN 54,461 WIN 56,098

NAGly (GPR18)

Agonists: Abnormal cannabidiol ACPA AM251 Anandamide Cannabidiol NADGly THC (dronabinol) O-1602

Antagonists: CID-85469571 O-1918

GPR55

Agonists: 2-AGE (noladin ether) 2-ALPI Abnormal cannabidiol AM-251 CID1011163 CID1252842 CID1792579 CP 55,940 GSK-494581A Lysophosphatidylinositol ML-184 ML-185 ML-186 O-1602 Oleoylethanolamide Palmitoylethanolamide THC (dronabinol)

Antagonists: Cannabidiol CID-16020046 ML-191 ML-192 ML-193 O-1918 PSB-SB-487 PSB-SB-1202 PSB-SB-1203 Tetrahydromagnolol

GPR119

Agonists: 2-Oleoylglycerol Anandamide APD668 AR-231,453 AS-1269574 MBX-2982 N-Oleoyldopamine Oleoylethanolamide Olvanil PSN-375,963 PSN-632,408

Transporter (modulators)

eCBTs

Inhibitors: 5'-DMH-CBD AM-404 AM-1172 Arachidonoyl serotonin Arvanil Cannabidiol Guineensine LY-2183240 O-2093 OMDM-2 Paracetamol
Paracetamol
(acetaminophen) SB-FI-26 UCM-707 URB-597 VDM-11 WOBE490 WOBE491 WOBE492

Enzyme (modulators)

FAAH

Inhibitors: 4-Nonylphenylboronic acid AACOCF3 AM-404 Arachidonoyl serotonin BIA 10-2474 Biochanin A Genistein IDFP JNJ-1661010 JNJ-42165279 JZL-195 Kaempferol LY-2183240 MAFP Palmitoylisopropylamide Paracetamol
Paracetamol
(acetaminophen) PF-3845 PF-04457845 PF-750 SA-47 SA-57 TAK 21d TC-F 2 UCM710 URB-597

Activators: PDP-EA

MAGL

Inhibitors: ABX-1431 IDFP JJKK 048 JW 642 JZL-184 JZL-195 JZP-361 KML 29 MAFP MJN110 NAM Pristimerin URB-602

ABHD6

Inhibitors: JZP-169 JZP-430 KT182 KT185 KT195 KT203 LEI-106 ML294 ML295 ML296 UCM710 WWL-70

ABHD12

Inhibitors: Betulinic acid Maslinic acid MAFP Oleanolic acid Orlistat
Orlistat
(tetrahydrolipstatin) Ursolic acid

Others

Precursors: Phosphatidylethanolamine NAPE Diacylglycerol

Others: 2-PG (directly potentiates activity of 2-AG at CB1 receptor) ARN-272 (FAAH-like anandamide transporter inhibitor)

See also Receptor/signaling modulators Cannabinoids (cannabinoids by structure)

v t e

Serotonin receptor
Serotonin receptor
modulators

5-HT1

5-HT1A

Agonists: 8-OH-DPAT Adatanserin Amphetamine Antidepressants (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, nefazodone, trazodone, triazoledione, vilazodone, vortioxetine) Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., aripiprazole, asenapine, brexpiprazole, cariprazine, clozapine, lurasidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone) Azapirones (e.g., buspirone, eptapirone, gepirone, perospirone, tandospirone) Bay R 1531 Befiradol BMY-14802 Cannabidiol Dimemebfe Dopamine Ebalzotan Eltoprazine Enciprazine Ergolines (e.g., bromocriptine, cabergoline, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, lisuride, LSD, methylergometrine (methylergonovine), methysergide, pergolide) F-11461 F-12826 F-13714 F-14679 F-15063 F-15599 Flesinoxan Flibanserin Flumexadol Lesopitron LY-293284 LY-301317 mCPP MKC-242 Naluzotan NBUMP Osemozotan Oxaflozane Pardoprunox Piclozotan Rauwolscine Repinotan Roxindole RU-24969 S-14506 S-14671 S-15535 Sarizotan Serotonin
Serotonin
(5-HT) SSR-181507 Sunepitron Tryptamines (e.g., 5-CT, 5-MeO-DMT, 5-MT, bufotenin, DMT, indorenate, N-Me-5-HT, psilocin, psilocybin) TGBA01AD U-92016A Urapidil Vilazodone Xaliproden Yohimbine

Antagonists: Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., iloperidone, risperidone, sertindole) AV965 Beta blockers (e.g., alprenolol, carteolol, cyanopindolol, iodocyanopindolol, isamoltane, oxprenolol, penbutolol, pindobind, pindolol, propranolol, tertatolol) BMY-7378 CSP-2503 Dotarizine Ergolines (e.g., metergoline) Flopropione GR-46611 Isamoltane Lecozotan Mefway Metitepine
Metitepine
(methiothepin) MIN-117
MIN-117
(WF-516) MPPF NAN-190 Robalzotan S-15535 SB-649915 SDZ 216-525 Spiperone Spiramide Spiroxatrine UH-301 WAY-100135 WAY-100635 Xylamidine

Unknown/unsorted: Acetryptine Ergolines (e.g., ergometrine (ergonovine))

5-HT1B

Agonists: CGS-12066A CP-93129 CP-94253 CP-122,288 CP-135807 Eltoprazine Ergolines (e.g., bromocriptine, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, methylergometrine (methylergonovine), methysergide, pergolide) mCPP RU-24969 Serotonin
Serotonin
(5-HT) Triptans (e.g., avitriptan, donitriptan, eletriptan, sumatriptan, zolmitriptan) TFMPP Tryptamines (e.g., 5-BT, 5-CT, 5-MT, DMT) Vortioxetine

Antagonists: AR-A000002 Beta blockers (e.g., alprenolol, carteolol, isamoltane, oxprenolol, penbutolol, propranolol, tertatolol) Elzasonan Ergolines (e.g., metergoline) GR-127935 Isamoltane LY-393558 Metitepine
Metitepine
(methiothepin) SB-216641 SB-224289 SB-236057 Yohimbine

Unknown/unsorted: Ergolines (e.g., cabergoline, ergometrine (ergonovine), lisuride)

5-HT1D

Agonists: CP-122,288 CP-135807 CP-286601 Ergolines (e.g., bromocriptine, cabergoline, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, LSD, methysergide) GR-46611 L-694247 L-772405 mCPP PNU-109291 PNU-142633 Serotonin
Serotonin
(5-HT) TGBA01AD Triptans (e.g., almotriptan, avitriptan, donitriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan, zolmitriptan) Tryptamines (e.g., 5-BT, 5-CT, 5-Et-DMT, 5-MT, 5-(nonyloxy)tryptamine, DMT)

Antagonists: Alniditan BRL-15572 Elzasonan Ergolines (e.g., metergoline) GR-127935 Ketanserin LY-310762 LY-367642 LY-393558 LY-456219 LY-456220 Metitepine
Metitepine
(methiothepin) Mianserin Ritanserin Yohimbine Ziprasidone

Unknown/unsorted: Acetryptine Ergolines (e.g., lisuride, lysergol, pergolide)

5-HT1E

Agonists: BRL-54443 Ergolines (e.g., methysergide) Serotonin
Serotonin
(5-HT) Triptans (e.g., eletriptan) Tryptamines (e.g., tryptamine)

Antagonists: Metitepine
Metitepine
(methiothepin)

Unknown/unsorted: Ergolines (e.g., ergometrine (ergonovine), lysergol, methylergometrine (methylergonovine)

5-HT1F

Agonists: BRL-54443 CP-122,288 Ergolines (e.g., bromocriptine, lysergol, methylergometrine (methylergonovine) methysergide) Lasmiditan LY-334370 Serotonin
Serotonin
(5-HT) Triptans (e.g., eletriptan, naratriptan, sumatriptan) Tryptamines (e.g., 5-MT)

Antagonists: Mianserin Metitepine
Metitepine
(methiothepin)

5-HT2

5-HT2A

Agonists: 25H/NB series (e.g., 25I-NBF, 25I-NBMD, 25I-NBOH, 25I-NBOMe, 25B-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe, 25TFM-NBOMe, 2CBCB-NBOMe, 25CN-NBOH, 2CBFly-NBOMe) 2Cs (e.g., 2C-B, 2C-E, 2C-I, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, 2C-T-21) 2C-B-FLY 2CB-Ind 5-Methoxytryptamines (5-MeO-DET, 5-MeO-DiPT, 5-MeO-DMT, 5-MeO-DPT, 5-MT) α-Alkyltryptamines (e.g., 5-Cl-αMT, 5-Fl-αMT, 5-MeO-αET, 5-MeO-αMT, α-Me-5-HT, αET, αMT) AL-34662 AL-37350A Bromo-DragonFLY Dimemebfe DMBMPP DOx
DOx
(e.g., DOB, DOC, DOI, DOM) Efavirenz Ergolines (e.g., 1P-LSD, ALD-52, bromocriptine, cabergoline, ergine (LSA), ergometrine (ergonovine), ergotamine, lisuride, LA-SS-Az, LSB, LSD, LSD-Pip, LSH, LSP, methylergometrine (methylergonovine), pergolide) Flumexadol Jimscaline Lorcaserin MDxx (e.g., MDA (tenamfetamine), MDMA
MDMA
(midomafetamine), MDOH, MMDA) O-4310 Oxaflozane PHA-57378 PNU-22394 PNU-181731 RH-34 Phenethylamines (e.g., lophophine, mescaline) Piperazines (e.g., BZP, quipazine, TFMPP) Serotonin
Serotonin
(5-HT) TCB-2 TFMFly Tryptamines (e.g., 5-BT, 5-CT, bufotenin, DET, DiPT, DMT, DPT, psilocin, psilocybin, tryptamine)

Antagonists: 5-I-R91150 5-MeO-NBpBrT AC-90179 Adatanserin Altanserin Antihistamines (e.g., cyproheptadine, hydroxyzine, ketotifen, perlapine) AMDA Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., amperozide, aripiprazole, asenapine, blonanserin, brexpiprazole, carpipramine, clocapramine, clorotepine, clozapine, fluperlapine, gevotroline, iloperidone, lurasidone, melperone, mosapramine, ocaperidone, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, zicronapine, ziprasidone, zotepine) Cinanserin CSP-2503 Deramciclane Dotarizine Eplivanserin Ergolines (e.g., amesergide, LY-53857, LY-215840, mesulergine, metergoline, methysergide, sergolexole) Fananserin Flibanserin Glemanserin Irindalone Ketanserin KML-010 Landipirdine LY-393558 mCPP Medifoxamine Metitepine
Metitepine
(methiothepin) MIN-101 MIN-117
MIN-117
(WF-516) Naftidrofuryl Nantenine Nelotanserin Opiranserin (VVZ-149) Pelanserin Phenoxybenzamine Pimavanserin Pirenperone Pizotifen Pruvanserin Rauwolscine Ritanserin S-14671 Sarpogrelate Serotonin
Serotonin
antagonists and reuptake inhibitors (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, lubazodone, mepiprazole, nefazodone, triazoledione, trazodone) SR-46349B TGBA01AD Teniloxazine Temanogrel Tetracyclic antidepressants (e.g., amoxapine, aptazapine, esmirtazapine, maprotiline, mianserin, mirtazapine) Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline) Typical antipsychotics (e.g., chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, haloperidol, loxapine, perphenazine, pimozide, pipamperone, prochlorperazine, setoperone, spiperone, spiramide, thioridazine, thiothixene, trifluoperazine) Volinanserin Xylamidine Yohimbine

Unknown/unsorted: Ergolines (e.g., dihydroergotamine, nicergoline)

5-HT2B

Agonists: 4-Methylaminorex Aminorex Amphetamines (e.g., chlorphentermine, cloforex, dexfenfluramine, fenfluramine, levofenfluramine, norfenfluramine) BW-723C86 DOx
DOx
(e.g., DOB, DOC, DOI, DOM) Ergolines (e.g., cabergoline, dihydroergocryptine, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, methylergometrine (methylergonovine), methysergide, pergolide) Lorcaserin MDxx (e.g., MDA (tenamfetamine), MDMA
MDMA
(midomafetamine), MDOH, [MMDA (drug)

Antagonists: Agomelatine Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., amisulpride, aripiprazole, asenapine, brexpiprazole, cariprazine, clozapine, N-desalkylquetiapine (norquetiapine), N-desmethylclozapine
N-desmethylclozapine
(norclozapine), olanzapine, pipamperone, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone) Cyproheptadine EGIS-7625 Ergolines (e.g., amesergide, bromocriptine, lisuride, LY-53857, LY-272015, mesulergine) Ketanserin LY-393558 mCPP Metadoxine Metitepine
Metitepine
(methiothepin) Pirenperone Pizotifen Propranolol PRX-08066 Rauwolscine Ritanserin RS-127445 Sarpogrelate SB-200646 SB-204741 SB-206553 SB-215505 SB-221284 SB-228357 SDZ SER-082 Tegaserod Tetracyclic antidepressants (e.g., amoxapine, mianserin, mirtazapine) Trazodone Typical antipsychotics (e.g., chlorpromazine) TIK-301 Yohimbine

Unknown/unsorted: Ergolines (e.g., ergometrine (ergonovine))

5-HT2C

Agonists: 2Cs (e.g., 2C-B, 2C-E, 2C-I, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, 2C-T-21) 5-Methoxytryptamines (5-MeO-DET, 5-MeO-DiPT, 5-MeO-DMT, 5-MeO-DPT, 5-MT) α-Alkyltryptamines (e.g., 5-Cl-αMT, 5-Fl-αMT, 5-MeO-αET, 5-MeO-αMT, α-Me-5-HT, αET, αMT) A-372159 AL-38022A Alstonine CP-809101 Dimemebfe DOx
DOx
(e.g., DOB, DOC, DOI, DOM) Ergolines (e.g., ALD-52, cabergoline, dihydroergotamine, ergine (LSA), ergotamine, lisuride, LA-SS-Az, LSB, LSD, LSD-Pip, LSH, LSP, pergolide) Flumexadol Lorcaserin MDxx (e.g., MDA (tenamfetamine), MDMA
MDMA
(midomafetamine), MDOH, MMDA) MK-212 Org 12962 Org 37684 Oxaflozane PHA-57378 Phenethylamines (e.g., lophophine, mescaline) Piperazines (e.g., aripiprazole, BZP, mCPP, quipazine, TFMPP) PNU-22394 PNU-181731 Ro60-0175 Ro60-0213 Serotonin
Serotonin
(5-HT) Tryptamines (e.g., 5-BT, 5-CT, bufotenin, DET, DiPT, DMT, DPT, psilocin, psilocybin, tryptamine) Vabicaserin WAY-629 WAY-161503 YM-348

Antagonists: Adatanserin Agomelatine Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., asenapine, clorotepine, clozapine, fluperlapine, iloperidone, melperone, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone, zotepine) Captodiame CEPC Cinanserin Cyproheptadine Deramciclane Desmetramadol Dotarizine Eltoprazine Ergolines (e.g., amesergide, bromocriptine, LY-53857, LY-215840, mesulergine, metergoline, methysergide, sergolexole) Etoperidone Fluoxetine FR-260010 Irindalone Ketanserin Ketotifen Latrepirdine
Latrepirdine
(dimebolin) Medifoxamine Metitepine
Metitepine
(methiothepin) Nefazodone Pirenperone Pizotifen Propranolol Ritanserin RS-102221 S-14671 SB-200646 SB-206553 SB-221284 SB-228357 SB-242084 SB-243213 SDZ SER-082 Tedatioxetine Tetracyclic antidepressants (e.g., amoxapine, aptazapine, esmirtazapine, maprotiline, mianserin, mirtazapine) TIK-301 Tramadol Trazodone Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, nortriptyline) Typical antipsychotics (e.g., chlorpromazine, loxapine, pimozide, pipamperone, thioridazine) Xylamidine

Unknown/unsorted: Efavirenz Ergolines (e.g., ergometrine (ergonovine), methylergometrine (methylergonovine))

5-HT3–7

5-HT3

Agonists: Alcohols (e.g., butanol, ethanol (alcohol), trichloroethanol) m-CPBG Phenylbiguanide Piperazines (e.g., BZP, mCPP, quipazine) RS-56812 Serotonin
Serotonin
(5-HT) SR-57227 SR-57227A Tryptamines (e.g., 2-Me-5-HT, 5-CT, bufotenidine (5-HTQ)) Volatiles/gases (e.g., halothane, isoflurane, toluene, trichloroethane) YM-31636

Antagonists: Alosetron AS-8112 Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine) Azasetron Batanopride Bemesetron
Bemesetron
(MDL-72222) Bupropion Cilansetron CSP-2503 Dazopride Dolasetron Galanolactone Granisetron Hydroxybupropion ICS-205930 Lerisetron Memantine Ondansetron Palonosetron Ramosetron Renzapride Ricasetron Tedatioxetine Tetracyclic antidepressants (e.g., amoxapine, mianserin, mirtazapine) Thujone Tropanserin Tropisetron Typical antipsychotics (e.g., loxapine) Volatiles/gases (e.g., nitrous oxide, sevoflurane, xenon) Vortioxetine Zacopride Zatosetron

Unknown/unsorted: LY-53857 Piperazines (e.g., naphthylpiperazine)

5-HT4

Agonists: 5-MT BIMU8 Capeserod Cinitapride Cisapride CJ-033466 Dazopride Metoclopramide Minesapride Mosapride Prucalopride PRX-03140 Renzapride RS-67333 RS-67506 Serotonin
Serotonin
(5-HT) Tegaserod Velusetrag Zacopride

Antagonists: GR-113808 GR-125487 L-Lysine Piboserod RS-39604 RS-67532 SB-203186 SB-204070

5-HT5A

Agonists: Ergolines (e.g., 2-Br-LSD (BOL-148), ergotamine, LSD) Serotonin
Serotonin
(5-HT) Tryptamines (e.g., 5-CT) Valerenic Acid

Antagonists: Asenapine Latrepirdine
Latrepirdine
(dimebolin) Metitepine
Metitepine
(methiothepin) Ritanserin SB-699551

Unknown/unsorted: Ergolines (e.g., metergoline, methysergide) Piperazines (e.g., naphthylpiperazine)

5-HT6

Agonists: Ergolines (e.g., dihydroergocryptine, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, lisuride, LSD, mesulergine, metergoline, methysergide) Serotonin
Serotonin
(5-HT) Tryptamines (e.g., 2-Me-5-HT, 5-BT, 5-CT, 5-MT, Bufotenin, E-6801, E-6837, EMD-386088, EMDT, LY-586713, N-Me-5-HT, tryptamine) WAY-181187 WAY-208466

Antagonists: ABT-354 Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., aripiprazole, asenapine, clorotepine, clozapine, fluperlapine, iloperidone, olanzapine, tiospirone) AVN-101 AVN-211 AVN-322 AVN-397 BGC20-760 BVT-5182 BVT-74316 Cerlapirdine EGIS-12233 GW-742457 Idalopirdine Ketanserin Landipirdine Latrepirdine
Latrepirdine
(dimebolin) Metitepine
Metitepine
(methiothepin) MS-245 PRX-07034 Ritanserin Ro 04-6790 Ro 63-0563 SB-258585 SB-271046 SB-357134 SB-399885 SB-742457 Tetracyclic antidepressants (e.g., amoxapine, mianserin) Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, clomipramine, doxepin, nortriptyline) Typical antipsychotics (e.g., chlorpromazine, loxapine)

Unknown/unsorted: Ergolines (e.g., 2-Br-LSD (BOL-148), bromocriptine, lergotrile, pergolide) Piperazines (e.g., naphthylpiperazine)

5-HT7

Agonists: 8-OH-DPAT AS-19 Bifeprunox E-55888 Ergolines (e.g., LSD) LP-12 LP-44 RU-24969 Sarizotan Serotonin
Serotonin
(5-HT) Triptans (e.g., frovatriptan) Tryptamines (e.g., 5-CT, 5-MT, bufotenin, N-Me-5-HT)

Antagonists: Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., amisulpride, aripiprazole, asenapine, brexpiprazole, clorotepine, clozapine, fluperlapine, olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole, tiospirone, ziprasidone, zotepine) Butaclamol DR-4485 EGIS-12233 Ergolines (e.g., 2-Br-LSD (BOL-148), amesergide, bromocriptine, cabergoline, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, LY-53857, LY-215840, mesulergine, metergoline, methysergide, sergolexole) JNJ-18038683 Ketanserin LY-215840 Metitepine
Metitepine
(methiothepin) Ritanserin SB-258719 SB-258741 SB-269970 SB-656104 SB-656104A SB-691673 SLV-313 SLV-314 Spiperone SSR-181507 Tetracyclic antidepressants (e.g., amoxapine, maprotiline, mianserin, mirtazapine) Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, clomipramine, imipramine) Typical antipsychotics (e.g., acetophenazine, chlorpromazine, chlorprothixene, fluphenazine, loxapine, pimozide) Vortioxetine

Unknown/unsorted: Ergolines (e.g., lisuride, pergolide) Piperazines (e.g., naphthylpiperazine)

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators Adrenergics Dopaminergics Melatonergics Monoamine reuptake inhibitors and releasing agents Monoamine metabolism modulators Monoamine neurotoxins

v t e

TRP channel modulators

TRPA

Activators

4-Hydroxynonenal 4-Oxo-2-nonenal 4,5-EET 12S-HpETE 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 α- Sanshool
Sanshool
(ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Acrolein Allicin
Allicin
(garlic) Allyl isothiocyanate
Allyl isothiocyanate
(mustard, radish, horseradish, wasabi) AM404 Bradykinin Cannabichromene
Cannabichromene
(cannabis) Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(cannabis) Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol
(cannabis) Cinnamaldehyde
Cinnamaldehyde
(cinnamon) CR gas
CR gas
(dibenzoxazepine; DBO) CS gas
CS gas
(2-chlorobenzal malononitrile) Curcumin
Curcumin
(turmeric) Dehydroligustilide (celery) Diallyl disulfide Dicentrine
Dicentrine
( Lindera
Lindera
spp.) Farnesyl thiosalicylic acid Formalin Gingerols (ginger) Hepoxilin A3 Hepoxilin B3 Hydrogen peroxide Icilin Isothiocyanate Ligustilide (celery, Angelica acutiloba) Linalool
Linalool
(Sichuan pepper, thyme) Methylglyoxal Methyl salicylate
Methyl salicylate
(wintergreen) N-Methylmaleimide Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) Oleocanthal
Oleocanthal
(olive oil) Paclitaxel
Paclitaxel
(Pacific yew) Paracetamol
Paracetamol
(acetaminophen) PF-4840154 Phenacyl chloride Polygodial
Polygodial
(Dorrigo pepper) Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Tear gases Tetrahydrocannabinol
Tetrahydrocannabinol
(cannabis) Thiopropanal S-oxide
Thiopropanal S-oxide
(onion) Umbellulone
Umbellulone
(Umbellularia californica) WIN 55,212-2

Blockers

Dehydroligustilide (celery) Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) Ruthenium red

TRPC

Activators

Adhyperforin
Adhyperforin
(St John's wort) Diacyl glycerol GSK1702934A Hyperforin
Hyperforin
(St John's wort) Substance P

Blockers

DCDPC DHEA-S Flufenamic acid GSK417651A GSK2293017A Meclofenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid Niflumic acid Pregnenolone
Pregnenolone
sulfate Progesterone Pyr3 Tolfenamic acid

TRPM

Activators

ADP-ribose BCTC Calcium
Calcium
(intracellular) Cold Coolact P Cooling Agent 10 CPS-369 Eucalyptol
Eucalyptol
(eucalyptus) Frescolat MGA Frescolat ML Geraniol Hydroxycitronellal Icilin Linalool Menthol
Menthol
(mint) PMD 38 Pregnenolone
Pregnenolone
sulfate Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Steviol glycosides (e.g., stevioside) (Stevia rebaudiana) Sweet tastants (e.g., glucose, fructose, sucrose; indirectly) Thio-BCTC WS-3 WS-12 WS-23

Blockers

Capsazepine Clotrimazole DCDPC Flufenamic acid Meclofenamic acid Mefenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) Niflumic acid Ruthenium red Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Tolfenamic acid TPPO

TRPML

Activators

MK6-83 PI(3,5)P2 SF-22

TRPP

Activators

Triptolide
Triptolide
(Tripterygium wilfordii)

Blockers

Ruthenium red

TRPV

Activators

2-APB 5',6'-EET 9-HODE 9-oxoODE 12S-HETE 12S-HpETE 13-HODE 13-oxoODE 20-HETE α- Sanshool
Sanshool
(ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Allicin
Allicin
(garlic) AM404 Anandamide Bisandrographolide (Andrographis paniculata) Camphor
Camphor
(camphor laurel, rosemary, camphorweed, African blue basil, camphor basil) Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(cannabis) Cannabidivarin
Cannabidivarin
(cannabis) Capsaicin
Capsaicin
(chili pepper) Carvacrol
Carvacrol
(oregano, thyme, pepperwort, wild bergamot, others) DHEA Diacyl glycerol Dihydrocapsaicin
Dihydrocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Estradiol Eugenol
Eugenol
(basil, clove) Evodiamine
Evodiamine
(Euodia ruticarpa) Gingerols (ginger) GSK1016790A Heat Hepoxilin A3 Hepoxilin B3 Homocapsaicin
Homocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Homodihydrocapsaicin
Homodihydrocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Incensole
Incensole
(incense) Lysophosphatidic acid Low pH (acidic conditions) Menthol
Menthol
(mint) N-Arachidonoyl dopamine N-Oleoyldopamine N-Oleoylethanolamide Nonivamide
Nonivamide
(PAVA) (PAVA spray) Nordihydrocapsaicin
Nordihydrocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Paclitaxel
Paclitaxel
(Pacific yew) Paracetamol
Paracetamol
(acetaminophen) Phorbol esters
Phorbol esters
(e.g., 4α-PDD) Piperine
Piperine
(black pepper, long pepper) Polygodial
Polygodial
(Dorrigo pepper) Probenecid Protons RhTx Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Resiniferatoxin
Resiniferatoxin
(RTX) (Euphorbia resinifera/pooissonii) Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Tetrahydrocannabivarin
Tetrahydrocannabivarin
(cannabis) Thymol
Thymol
(thyme, oregano) Tinyatoxin
Tinyatoxin
(Euphorbia resinifera/pooissonii) Tramadol Vanillin
Vanillin
(vanilla) Zucapsaicin

Blockers

α- Spinasterol
Spinasterol
( Vernonia
Vernonia
tweediana) AMG-517 Asivatrep BCTC Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol
(cannabis) Cannabigerolic acid (cannabis) Cannabigerovarin (cannabis) Cannabinol
Cannabinol
(cannabis) Capsazepine DCDPC DHEA DHEA-S Flufenamic acid GRC-6211 HC-067047 Lanthanum Meclofenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid NGD-8243 Niflumic acid Pregnenolone
Pregnenolone
sulfate RN-1734 RN-9893 Ruthenium red SB-705498 Tivanisiran Tolfenamic acid

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion

.