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Candidiasis is a fungal infection due to any type of Candida (a type of yeast).[4] When it affects the mouth, in some countries it is commonly called thrush.[3] Signs and symptoms include white patches on the tongue or other areas of the mouth and throat.[3] Other symptoms may include soreness and problems swallowing.[9] When it affects the vagina, it may be referred to as a yeast infection or thrush.[2][10] Signs and symptoms include genital itching, burning, and sometimes a white "cottage cheese-like" discharge from the vagina.[11] Yeast infections of the penis are less common and typically present with an itchy rash.[11] Very rarely, yeast infections may become invasive, spreading to other parts of the body.[12] This may result in fevers along with other symptoms depending on the parts involved.[12]

More than 20 types of Candida can cause infection with Candida albicans being the most common.[13] Infections of the mouth are most common among children less than one month old, the elderly, and those with weak immune systems.[5] Conditions that result in a weak immune system include HIV/AIDS, the medications used after organ transplantation, diabetes, and the use of corticosteroids.[5] Other risks include dentures, following antibiotic therapy, and breastfeeding.[5][14] Vaginal infections occur more commonly during pregnancy, in those with weak immune systems, and following antibiotic use.[15] Individuals at risk for invasive candidiasis include low birth weight babies, people recovering from surgery, people admitted to intensive care units, and those with an otherwise compromised immune system.[16]

Efforts to prevent infections of the mouth include the use of chlorhexidine mouthwash in those with poor immune function and washing out the mouth following the use of inhaled steroids.[6] Little evidence supports probiotics for either prevention or treatment, even among those with frequent vaginal infections.[17][18] For infections of the mouth, treatment with topical clotrimazole or nystatin is usually effective.[6] Oral or intravenous fluconazole, itraconazole, or amphotericin B may be used if these do not work.[6] A number of topical antifungal medications may be used for vaginal infections, including clotrimazole.[19] In those with widespread disease, an echinocandin such as caspofungin or micafungin is used.[20] A number of weeks of intravenous amphotericin B may be used as an alternative.[20] In certain groups at very high risk, antifungal medications may be used preventatively.[16][20]

Infections of the mouth occur in about 6% of babies less than a month old.[7] About 20% of those receiving chemotherapy for cancer and 20% of those with AIDS also develop the disease.[7] About three-quarters of women have at least one yeast infection at some time during their lives.[8] Widespread disease is rare except in those who have risk factors.[21]

Signs and symptoms

Skin candidiasis
Candida albicans being the most common.[13] Infections of the mouth are most common among children less than one month old, the elderly, and those with weak immune systems.[5] Conditions that result in a weak immune system include HIV/AIDS, the medications used after organ transplantation, diabetes, and the use of corticosteroids.[5] Other risks include dentures, following antibiotic therapy, and breastfeeding.[5][14] Vaginal infections occur more commonly during pregnancy, in those with weak immune systems, and following antibiotic use.[15] Individuals at risk for invasive candidiasis include low birth weight babies, people recovering from surgery, people admitted to intensive care units, and those with an otherwise compromised immune system.[16]

Efforts to prevent infections of the mouth include the use of chlorhexidine mouthwash in those with poor immune function and washing out the mouth following the use of inhaled steroids.[6] Little evidence supports probiotics for either prevention or treatment, even among those with frequent vaginal infections.[17][18] For infections of the mouth, treatment with topical clotrimazole or nystatin is usually effective.[6] Oral or intravenous fluconazole, itraconazole, or amphotericin B may be used if these do not work.[6] A number of topical antifungal medications may be used for vaginal infections, including clotrimazole.[19] In those with widespread disease, an echinocandin such as caspofungin or micafungin is used.[20] A number of weeks of intravenous amphotericin B may be used as an alternative.[20] In certain groups at very high risk, antifungal medications may be used preventatively.[16][20]

Infections of the mouth occur in about 6% of babies less than a month old.[7] About 20% of those receiving chemotherapy for cancer and 20% of those with AIDS also develop the disease.[7] About three-quarters of women have at least one yeast infection at some time during their lives.[8] Widespread disease is rare except in those who have risk factors.[21]

Signs and symptoms of candidiasis vary depending on the area affected.[22] Most candidal infections result in minimal complications such as redness, itching, and discomfort, though complications may be severe or even fatal if left untreated in certain populations. In healthy (immunocompetent) persons, candidiasis is usually a localized infection of the skin, fingernails or toenails (onychomycosis), or mucosal membranes, including the oral cavity and pharynx (thrush), esophagus, and the genitalia (vagina, penis, etc.);[23][24][25] less commonly in healthy individuals, the gastrointestinal tract,[26][27][28] urinary tract,[26] and respiratory tract[26] are sites of candida infection.

In immunocompromised individuals, Candida infections in the esophagus occur more frequently than in healthy individuals and have a higher potential of becoming systemic, causing a much more serious condition, a fungemia called candidemia.[23][29][30] Symptoms of esophageal candidiasis include difficulty swallowing, painful swallowing, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.[23][31]

Mouth

Infection in the mouth is characterized by white discolorations in the tongue, around the mouth, and throat. Irritation may also occur, causing discomfort when swallowing.[32]

Thrush is commonly seen in infants. It is not considered abnormal in infants unless it lasts longer than a few weeks.[33]

Genitals

Infection of the vagina or vulva may cause severe itching, burning, soreness, irritation, and a whitish or whitish-gray cottage cheese-like discharge. Symptoms of infection of the male genitalia (balanitis thrush) include red skin around the head of the penis, swelling, irritation, itchiness and soreness of the head of the penis, thick, lumpy discharge under the foreskin, unpleasant odour, difficulty retracting the foreskin (phimosis), and pain when passing urine or during sex.[34]

Skin

Signs and symptoms of candidiasis in the skin include itching, irritation, and chafing or broken skin.[35]

Invasive infection

Common symptoms of gastrointestinal candidiasis in healthy individuals are anal itching, belching, bloating, indigestion, nausea, diarrhea, gas, intestinal cramps, vomiting, and gastric ulcers.[26][27][28] Perianal candidiasis can cause anal itching; the lesion can be red, papular, or ulcerative in appearance, and it is not considered to be a sexually transmissible disease.[36] Abnormal proliferation of the candida in the gut may lead to dysbiosis.[37] While it is not yet clear, this alteration may be the source of symptoms generally described as the irritable bowel syndrome,[38][39] and other gastrointestinal diseases.[27]esophagus occur more frequently than in healthy individuals and have a higher potential of becoming systemic, causing a much more serious condition, a fungemia called candidemia.[23][29][30] Symptoms of esophageal candidiasis include difficulty swallowing, painful swallowing, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.[23][31]

Infection in the mouth is characterized by white discolorations in the tongue, around the mouth, and throat. Irritation may also occur, causing discomfort when swallowing.[32]

Thrush is commonly seen in infants. It is not considered abnormal in infants unless it lasts longer than a few weeks.[33]

Genitals[33]

Infection of the vagina or vulva may cause severe itching, burning, soreness, irritation, and a whitish or whitish-gray cottage cheese-like discharge. Symptoms of infection of the male genitalia (balanitis thrush) include red skin around the head of the penis, swelling, irritation, itchiness and soreness of the head of the penis, thick, lumpy discharge under the foreskin, unpleasant odour, difficulty retracting the foreskin (phimosis), and pain when passing urine or during sex.[34]

Skin

Signs and

Signs and symptoms of candidiasis in the skin include itching, irritation, and chafing or broken skin.[35]

Invasive infection