Candide, ou l'Optimisme, (/ˌkænˈdiːd/; French: [kɑ̃did]) is a
French satire first published in 1759 by Voltaire, a philosopher of
the Age of Enlightenment. The novella has been widely translated,
with English versions titled Candide: or, All for the Best (1759);
Candide: or, The Optimist (1762); and Candide: Optimism (1947). It
begins with a young man, Candide, who is living a sheltered life in an
Edenic paradise and being indoctrinated with Leibnizian optimism by
his mentor, Professor Pangloss. The work describes the abrupt
cessation of this lifestyle, followed by Candide's slow and painful
disillusionment as he witnesses and experiences great hardships in the
Voltaire concludes with Candide, if not rejecting Leibnizian
optimism outright, advocating a deeply practical precept, "we must
cultivate our garden", in lieu of the Leibnizian mantra of Pangloss,
"all is for the best" in the "best of all possible worlds".
Candide is characterized by its sarcastic tone as well as by its
erratic, fantastical, and fast-moving plot. A picaresque novel with a
story similar to that of a more serious coming-of-age narrative
(Bildungsroman), it parodies many adventure and romance clichés, the
struggles of which are caricatured in a tone that is bitter and
matter-of-fact. Still, the events discussed are often based on
historical happenings, such as the
Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War and the 1755
Lisbon earthquake. As philosophers of Voltaire's day contended with
the problem of evil, so does
Candide in this short novel, albeit more
directly and humorously.
Voltaire ridicules religion, theologians,
governments, armies, philosophies, and philosophers. Through￼￼
Candide, he assaults Leibniz and his optimism.
As predicted by Voltaire
Candide has enjoyed both
great success and great scandal. Immediately after its secretive
publication, the book was widely banned to the public because it
contained religious blasphemy, political sedition, and intellectual
hostility hidden under a thin veil of naïveté. However, with its
sharp wit and insightful portrayal of the human condition, the novel
has since inspired many later authors and artists to mimic and adapt
Candide is recognized as Voltaire's magnum opus and is
often listed as part of the Western canon. ￼￼It is among the most
frequently taught works of French literature. The British poet and
Martin Seymour-Smith listed
Candide as one of the 100
most influential books ever written.
1 Historical and literary background
3 List of characters
3.1 Main characters
3.2 Secondary characters
4.1 Chapters I–X
4.2 Chapters XI–XX
4.3 Chapters XXI–XXX
5.2 Garden motif
6.3 Inside vs. outside interpretations
8.1 Derivative works
9 See also
13 Further reading
14 External links
Historical and literary background
A number of historical events inspired
Voltaire to write Candide, most
notably the publication of Leibniz's "Monadology", a short
metaphysical treatise, the Seven Years' War, and the 1755 Lisbon
earthquake. Both of the latter catastrophes are frequently referred to
Candide and are cited by scholars as reasons for its
composition. The 1755
Lisbon earthquake, tsunami, and resulting
fires of All Saints' Day, had a strong influence on theologians of the
day and on Voltaire, who was himself disillusioned by them. The
earthquake had an especially large effect on the contemporary doctrine
of optimism, a philosophical system which implies that such events
should not occur. Optimism is founded on the theodicy of Gottfried
Wilhelm Leibniz and ￼￼says all is for the best because God is a
benevolent deity. This concept is often put into the form, "all is for
the best in the best of all possible worlds" (Fr. Tout est pour le
mieux dans le meilleur des mondes possibles). Philosophers had trouble
fitting the horrors of this earthquake into their optimistic world
This 1755 copper engraving shows the ruins of
Lisbon in flames and a
tsunami overwhelming the ships in the harbour.
Voltaire actively rejected Leibnizian optimism after the natural
disaster, convinced that if this were the best possible world, it
should surely be better than it is. In both
Candide and Poème sur
le désastre de Lisbonne ("Poem on the
Lisbon Disaster"), Voltaire
attacks this optimist belief. He makes use of the Lisbon
earthquake in both
Candide and his Poème to argue this point,
sarcastically describing the catastrophe as one of the most horrible
disasters "in the best of all possible worlds". Immediately after
the earthquake, unreliable rumours circulated around Europe, sometimes
overestimating the severity of the event. Ira Wade, a noted expert on
Voltaire and Candide, has analyzed which sources
Voltaire might have
referenced in learning of the event. Wade speculates that Voltaire's
primary source for information on the
Lisbon earthquake was the 1755
work Relation historique du Tremblement de Terre survenu à Lisbonne
by Ange Goudar.
Apart from such events, contemporaneous stereotypes of the German
personality may have been a source of inspiration for the text, as
they were for Simplicius Simplicissimus, a 1669 satirical picaresque
novel written by
Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen
Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen and
inspired by the Thirty Years' War. The protagonist of this novel, who
was supposed to embody stereotypically German characteristics, is
quite similar to the protagonist of Candide. These stereotypes,
Voltaire biographer Alfred Owen Aldridge, include
"extreme credulousness or sentimental simplicity", two of Candide's
and Simplicius's defining qualities. Aldridge writes, "Since Voltaire
admitted familiarity with fifteenth-century German authors who used a
bold and buffoonish style, it is quite possible that he knew
Simplicissimus as well."
A satirical and parodic precursor of Candide, Jonathan Swift's
Gulliver's Travels (1726) is one of Candide's closest literary
relatives. This satire tells the story of "a gullible ingenue",
Gulliver, who (like Candide) travels to several "remote nations" and
is hardened by the many misfortunes which befall him. As evidenced by
similarities between the two books,
Voltaire probably drew upon
Gulliver's Travels for inspiration while writing Candide. Other
probable sources of inspiration for
Candide are Télémaque (1699) by
François Fénelon and Cosmopolite (1753) by Louis-Charles Fougeret de
Monbron. Candide's parody of the bildungsroman is probably based on
Télémaque, which includes the prototypical parody of the tutor on
whom Pangloss may have been partly based. Likewise, Monbron's
protagonist undergoes a disillusioning series of travels similar to
those of Candide.
Born François-Marie Arouet,
Voltaire (1694–1778), by the time of
Lisbon earthquake, was already a well-established author, known
for his satirical wit. He had been made a member of the Académie
Française in 1746. He was a deist, a strong proponent of religious
freedom, and a critic of tyrannical governments.
Candide became part
of his large, diverse body of philosophical, political and artistic
works expressing these views. More specifically, it was a
model for the eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century novels called
the contes philosophiques. This genre, of which
Voltaire was one of
the founders, included previous works of his such as
Voltaire published as the frontispiece to an 1843 edition
of his Dictionnaire philosophique
It is unknown exactly when
Voltaire wrote Candide, but scholars
estimate that it was primarily composed in late 1758 and begun as
early as 1757.
Voltaire is believed to have written a portion of
it while at his house in
Ferney and also while visiting Charles
Théodore, the Elector-Palatinate at Schwetzingen, for three weeks in
the summer of 1758. Despite solid evidence for these claims, a popular
legend persists that
Candide in three days. This idea
is probably based on a misreading of the 1885 work La Vie intime de
Voltaire aux Délices et à
Ferney by Lucien Perey (real name: Clara
Adèle Luce Herpin) and Gaston Maugras. The evidence indicates
Voltaire did not rush or improvise Candide, but worked
on it over a significant period of time, possibly even a whole year.
Candide is mature and carefully developed, not impromptu, as the
intentionally choppy plot and the aforementioned myth might
There is only one extant manuscript of
Candide that was written before
the work's 1759 publication; it was discovered in 1956 by Wade and
since named the La Vallière Manuscript. It is believed to have been
sent, chapter by chapter, by
Voltaire to the Duke and Duchess La
Vallière in the autumn of 1758. The manuscript was sold to the
Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal in the late eighteenth century, where it
remained undiscovered for almost two hundred years. The La
Vallière Manuscript, the most original and authentic of all surviving
copies of Candide, was probably dictated by
Voltaire to his secretary,
Jean-Louis Wagnière, then edited directly. In addition to
this manuscript, there is believed to have been another, one copied by
Wagnière for the Elector Charles-Théodore, who hosted Voltaire
during the summer of 1758. The existence of this copy was first
postulated by Norman L. Torrey in 1929. If it exists, it remains
Candide simultaneously in five countries no later
than 15 January 1759, although the exact date is uncertain.
Seventeen versions of
Candide from 1759, in the original French, are
known today, and there has been great controversy over which is the
earliest. More versions were published in other languages: Candide
was translated once into Italian and thrice into English that same
year. The complicated science of calculating the relative
publication dates of all of the versions of
Candide is described at
length in Wade's article "The First Edition of Candide: A Problem of
Identification". The publication process was extremely secretive,
probably the "most clandestine work of the century", because of the
book's obviously illicit and irreverent content. The greatest
number of copies of
Candide were published concurrently in
Amsterdam by Marc-Michel Rey, in London by Jean Nourse, and
Paris by Lambert.
1803 illustration of the two monkeys chasing their lovers. Candide
shoots the monkeys, thinking they are attacking the women.
Candide underwent one major revision after its initial publication, in
addition to some minor ones. In 1761, a version of
published that included, along with several minor changes, a major
Voltaire to the twenty-second chapter, a section that had
been thought weak by the Duke of Vallière. The English title of
this edition was Candide, or Optimism, Translated from the German of
Dr. Ralph. With the additions found in the Doctor's pocket when he
died at Minden, in the Year of Grace 1759. The last edition of
Candide authorised by
Voltaire was the one included in Cramer's 1775
compilation, l'éditions encadrées, meaning "supervised
Voltaire strongly opposed the inclusion of illustrations in his works,
as he stated in a 1778 letter to the writer and publisher Charles
Je crois que des Estampes seraient fort inutiles. Ces colifichets
n'ont jamais été admis dans les éditions de Cicéron, de Virgile et
d'Horace. (I believe that these illustrations would be quite useless.
These baubles have never been allowed in the works of Cicero, Virgil
Despite this protest, two sets of illustrations for
produced by the French artist Jean-Michel Moreau le Jeune. The first
version was done, at Moreau's own expense, in 1787 and included in
Kehl's publication of that year, Oeuvres Complètes de Voltaire.
Four images were drawn by Moreau for this edition and were engraved by
Pierre-Charles Baquoy. The second version, in 1803, consisted of
seven drawings by Moreau which were transposed by multiple
engravers. The twentieth-century modern artist
Paul Klee stated
that it was while reading
Candide that he discovered his own artistic
style. Klee illustrated the work, and his drawings were published in a
1920 version edited by Kurt Wolff.
List of characters
Candide: The title character. Illegitimate son of the sister of the
baron of Thunder-ten-Tronckh. In love with Cunégonde.
Cunégonde: The daughter of the baron of Thunder-ten-Tronckh. In love
Professor Pangloss: The royal educator of the court of the baron.
Described as "the greatest philosopher of the Holy Roman Empire".
The Old Woman: Cunégonde's maid while she was the mistress of Don
Issachar and the
Grand Inquisitor of Portugal. Fled with
Cunégonde to the New World. Illegitimate daughter of Pope Urban X.
Cacambo: From a Spanish father and a Peruvian mother. Lived half his
life in Spain and half in Latin America. Candide's valet while in
Martin: Dutch amateur philosopher and Manichaean. Met
Suriname, travelled with him afterwards.
The baron of Thunder-ten-Tronckh: Son of the original Baron (a
secondary character) and brother of Cunégonde. Thought to have been
killed by the Bulgarians. Became a
Jesuit in Paraguay.
The baron and baroness of Thunder-ten-Tronckh: Father and mother of
Cunégonde and the second baron. Both slain by the Bulgarians.
The king of the Bulgarians.
Jacques the Anabaptist: Saved
Candide from a lynching in the
Netherlands. Drowned in the port of Lisbon.
Don Issachar: Jewish landlord in Portugal.
Cunégonde became his
mistress, shared with the
Grand Inquisitor of Portugal. Killed by
Grand Inquisitor of Portugal: Sentenced
Candide and Pangloss at
Cunégonde was his mistress jointly with Don
Issachar. Killed by Candide.
Don Fernando d'Ibarra y Figueroa y Mascarenes y Lampourdos y Souza:
Spanish governor of Buenos Aires. Wanted
Cunégonde as a mistress.
The king of El Dorado, who helped
Candide and Cacambo out of El Dorado
and made them rich.
Mynheer Vanderdendur: Dutch ship captain. Offered to take
America to France for 30,000 gold coins, but then departed without
him, stealing all his riches.
The abbot of Périgord: Befriended
Candide and Martin, led the police
to arrest them; he and the police officer accepted three diamonds each
and released them.
The marchioness of Parolignac: Parisian wench who took an elaborate
The scholar: One of the guests of the "marchioness". Argued with
Candide about art.
Paquette: The one who gave Pangloss syphilis. After the slaying by the
Bulgarians, worked as a prostitute. Became the property of Friar
Friar Giroflée: Theatine friar. In love with the prostitute Paquette.
Signor Pococurante: A Venetian noble.
Candide and Martin visited his
estate, where he discussed his disdain of most of the canon of great
In an inn in Venice,
Candide and Martin ate with six foreigners who
turned out to be deposed monarchs. They were:
Ivan VI of Russia
Charles Edward Stuart
Augustus III of Poland
Theodore of Corsica
Candide contains thirty episodic chapters, which may be grouped into
two main schemes: one consists of two divisions, separated by the
protagonist's hiatus in El Dorado; the other consists of three parts,
each defined by its geographical setting. By the former scheme, the
first half of
Candide constitutes the rising action and the last part
the resolution. This view is supported by the strong theme of travel
and quest, reminiscent of adventure and picaresque novels, which tend
to employ such a dramatic structure. By the latter scheme, the
thirty chapters may be grouped into three parts each comprising ten
chapters and defined by locale: I–X are set in Europe, XI–XX are
set in the Americas, and XXI–XXX are set in Europe and the Ottoman
Empire. The plot summary that follows uses this second format
and includes Voltaire's additions of 1761.
The tale of
Candide begins in the castle of the Baron
Thunder-ten-Tronckh in Westphalia, home to: the Baron's daughter, Lady
Cunégonde; his bastard nephew, Candide; a tutor, Pangloss; a
chambermaid, Paquette; and the rest of the Baron's family. The
protagonist, Candide, is romantically attracted to Cunégonde. He is a
young man of "the most unaffected simplicity" (l'esprit le plus
simple), whose face is "the true index of his mind" (sa physionomie
annonçait son âme). Dr. Pangloss, professor of
"metaphysico-theologo-cosmoronology") and self-proclaimed optimist,
teaches his pupils that they live in the "best of all possible worlds"
and that "all is for the best".
Frontispiece and first page of chapter one of an early English
translation by T. Smollett et al. of Voltaire's Candide, printed by
John Newbery, 1762
All is well in the castle until
Cunégonde sees Pangloss sexually
engaged with Paquette in some bushes. Encouraged by this show of
Cunégonde drops her handkerchief next to Candide, enticing
him to kiss her. For this infraction,
Candide is evicted from the
castle, at which point he is captured by Bulgar (Prussian) recruiters
and coerced into military service, where he is flogged, nearly
executed, and forced to participate in a major battle between the
Bulgars and the Avars (an allegory representing the Prussians and the
Candide eventually escapes the army and makes his way to
Holland where he is given aid by Jacques, an Anabaptist, who
strengthens Candide's optimism. Soon after,
Candide finds his master
Pangloss, now a beggar with syphilis. Pangloss reveals he was infected
with this disease by Paquette and shocks
Candide by relating how
Castle Thunder-ten-Tronckh was destroyed by Bulgars, that Cunégonde
and her whole family were killed, and that
Cunégonde was raped before
her death. Pangloss is cured of his illness by Jacques, losing one eye
and one ear in the process, and the three set sail to Lisbon.
In Lisbon's harbor, they are overtaken by a vicious storm which
destroys the boat. Jacques attempts to save a sailor, and in the
process is thrown overboard. The sailor makes no move to help the
drowning Jacques, and
Candide is in a state of despair until Pangloss
explains to him that
Lisbon harbor was created in order for Jacques to
drown. Only Pangloss, Candide, and the "brutish sailor" who let
Jacques drown survive the wreck and reach Lisbon, which is
promptly hit by an earthquake, tsunami and fire that kill tens of
thousands. The sailor leaves in order to loot the rubble while
Candide, injured and begging for help, is lectured on the optimistic
view of the situation by Pangloss.
The next day, Pangloss discusses his optimistic philosophy with a
member of the Portuguese Inquisition, and he and
Candide are arrested
for heresy, set to be tortured and killed in an "auto-da-fé" set up
to appease God and prevent another disaster.
Candide is flogged and
sees Pangloss hanged, but another earthquake intervenes and he
escapes. He is approached by an old woman, who leads him to a
house where Lady
Cunégonde waits, alive.
Candide is surprised:
Pangloss had told him that
Cunégonde had been raped and disemboweled.
She had been, but
Cunégonde points out that people survive such
things. However, her rescuer sold her to a Jewish merchant, Don
Issachar, who was then threatened by a corrupt
Grand Inquisitor into
sharing her (Don Issachar gets
Cunégonde on Mondays, Wednesdays, and
the sabbath day). Her owners arrive, find her with another man, and
Candide kills them both.
Candide and the two women flee the city,
heading to the Americas. Along the way,
Cunégonde falls into
self-pity, complaining of all the misfortunes that have befallen her.
The old woman reciprocates by revealing her own tragic life: born the
Pope Urban X and the Princess of Palestrina, she was raped
and enslaved by African pirates, witnessed violent civil wars in
Morocco under the bloodthirsty King Moulay Ismaïl (during which her
mother was drawn and quartered), suffered further slavery and famine,
nearly died from a plague in Algiers, and had a buttock cut off to
Janissaries during the Russian siege of Azov. After
traversing all the Russian Empire, she eventually became a servant of
Don Issachar and met Cunégonde.
The trio arrives in Buenos Aires, where Governor Don Fernando d'Ibarra
y Figueroa y Mascarenes y Lampourdos y Souza asks to marry Cunégonde.
Just then, an alcalde (a Spanish fortress commander) arrives, pursuing
Candide for killing the Grand Inquisitor. Leaving the women behind,
Candide flees to
Paraguay with his practical and heretofore
unmentioned manservant, Cacambo.
1787 illustration of
Candide and Cacambo meeting a maimed slave of the
sugar mill near Suriname
At a border post on the way to Paraguay, Cacambo and
Candide speak to
the commandant, who turns out to be Cunégonde's unnamed brother. He
explains that after his family was slaughtered, the Jesuits'
preparation for his burial revived him, and he has since joined the
Candide proclaims he intends to marry Cunégonde, her
brother attacks him, and
Candide runs him through with his rapier.
After lamenting all the people (mainly priests) he has killed, he and
Cacambo flee. In their flight,
Candide and Cacambo come across two
naked women being chased and bitten by a pair of monkeys. Candide,
seeking to protect the women, shoots and kills the monkeys, but is
informed by Cacambo that the monkeys and women were probably lovers.
Candide are captured by Oreillons, or Orejones; members of
the Inca nobility who widened the lobes of their ears, and are
depicted here as the fictional inhabitants of the area. Mistaking
Candide for a
Jesuit by his robes, the Oreillons prepare to cook
Candide and Cacambo; however, Cacambo convinces the Oreillons that
Candide killed a
Jesuit to procure the robe. Cacambo and
released and travel for a month on foot and then down a river by
canoe, living on fruits and berries.
After a few more adventures,
Candide and Cacambo wander into El
Dorado, a geographically isolated utopia where the streets are covered
with precious stones, there exist no priests, and all of the king's
jokes are funny.
Candide and Cacambo stay a month in El Dorado,
Candide is still in pain without Cunégonde, and expresses to the
king his wish to leave. The king points out that this is a foolish
idea, but generously helps them do so. The pair continue their
journey, now accompanied by one hundred red pack sheep carrying
provisions and incredible sums of money, which they slowly lose or
have stolen over the next few adventures.
Candide and Cacambo eventually reach Suriname, where they split up:
Cacambo travels to
Buenos Aires to retrieve Lady Cunégonde, while
Candide prepares to travel to Europe to await the two. Candide's
remaining sheep are stolen, and
Candide is fined heavily by a Dutch
magistrate for petulance over the theft. Before leaving Suriname,
Candide feels in need of companionship, so he interviews a number of
local men who have been through various ill-fortunes and settles on a
man named Martin.
This companion, Martin, is a
Manichaean scholar based on the real-life
pessimist Pierre Bayle, who was a chief opponent of Leibniz. For
the remainder of the voyage, Martin and
Candide argue about
philosophy, Martin painting the entire world as occupied by fools.
Candide, however, remains an optimist at heart, since it is all he
knows. After a detour to
Bordeaux and Paris, they arrive in England
and see an admiral (based on Admiral Byng) being shot for not killing
enough of the enemy. Martin explains that Britain finds it necessary
to shoot an admiral from time to time "pour l'encouragement des
autres" (to encourage the others). Candide, horrified, arranges
for them to leave Britain immediately. Upon their arrival in Venice,
Candide and Martin meet Paquette, the chambermaid who infected
Pangloss with his syphilis, in Venice. She is now a prostitute, and is
spending her time with a Theatine monk, Brother Giroflée. Although
both appear happy on the surface, they reveal their despair: Paquette
has led a miserable existence as a sexual object, and the monk detests
the religious order in which he was indoctrinated.
Candide gives two
thousand piastres to Paquette and one thousand to Brother Giroflée.
Candide and Martin visit the Lord Pococurante, a noble Venetian. That
evening, Cacambo—now a slave—arrives and informs
Cunégonde is in Constantinople. Prior to their departure,
Martin dine with six strangers who had come for Carnival of Venice.
These strangers are revealed to be dethroned kings: the Ottoman Sultan
Ahmed III, Emperor Ivan VI of Russia,
Charles Edward Stuart
Charles Edward Stuart (an
unsuccessful pretender to the English throne), Augustus III of Poland,
Stanisław Leszczyński, and Theodore of Corsica.
On the way to Constantinople, Cacambo reveals that Cunégonde—now
horribly ugly—currently washes dishes on the banks of the Propontis
as a slave for a Transylvanian prince by the name of Rákóczi. After
arriving at the Bosphorus, they board a galley where, to Candide's
surprise, he finds Pangloss and Cunégonde's brother among the rowers.
Candide buys their freedom and further passage at steep prices.
The baron and Pangloss relate how they survived, but despite the
horrors he has been through, Pangloss's optimism remains unshaken: "I
still hold to my original opinions, because, after all, I'm a
philosopher, and it wouldn't be proper for me to recant, since Leibniz
cannot be wrong, and since pre-established harmony is the most
beautiful thing in the world, along with the plenum and subtle
Candide, the baron, Pangloss, Martin, and Cacambo arrive at the banks
of the Propontis, where they rejoin
Cunégonde and the old woman.
Cunégonde has indeed become hideously ugly, but
buys their freedom and marries
Cunégonde to spite her brother, who
Cunégonde from marrying anyone but a baron of the Empire (he
is secretly sold back into slavery). Paquette and Brother
Giroflée—having squandered their three thousand piastres—are
Candide on a small farm (une petite métairie) which
he just bought with the last of his finances.
One day, the protagonists seek out a dervish known as a great
philosopher of the land. Pangloss asks him why Man is made to suffer
so, and what they all ought to do. The dervish responds by asking
rhetorically why Pangloss is concerned about the existence of evil and
good. The dervish describes human beings as mice on a ship sent by a
king to Egypt; their comfort does not matter to the king. The dervish
then slams his door on the group. Returning to their farm, Candide,
Pangloss, and Martin meet a Turk whose philosophy is to devote his
life only to simple work and not concern himself with external
affairs. He and his four children cultivate a small area of land, and
the work keeps them "free of three great evils: boredom, vice, and
poverty." Candide, Pangloss, Martin, Cunégonde, Paquette,
Cacambo, the old woman, and Brother Giroflée all set to work on this
"commendable plan" (louable dessein) on their farm, each exercising
his or her own talents.
Candide ignores Pangloss's insistence that all
turned out for the best by necessity, instead telling him "we must
cultivate our garden" (il faut cultiver notre jardin).
Voltaire himself described it, the purpose of
Candide was to "bring
amusement to a small number of men of wit". The author achieves
this goal by combining his sharp wit with a fun parody of the classic
Candide is confronted with horrible events
described in painstaking detail so often that it becomes humorous.
Literary theorist Frances K. Barasch described Voltaire's
matter-of-fact narrative as treating topics such as mass death "as
coolly as a weather report". The fast-paced and improbable
plot—in which characters narrowly escape death repeatedly, for
instance—allows for compounding tragedies to befall the same
characters over and over again. In the end,
Candide is primarily,
as described by Voltaire's biographer Ian Davidson, "short, light,
rapid and humorous".
Behind the playful façade of
Candide which has amused so many, there
lies very harsh criticism of contemporary European civilization which
angered many others. European governments such as France, Prussia,
Portugal and England are each attacked ruthlessly by the author: the
French and Prussians for the Seven Years' War, the Portuguese for
their Inquisition, and the British for the execution of John Byng.
Organised religion, too, is harshly treated in Candide. For example,
Voltaire mocks the
Jesuit order of the Roman Catholic Church. Aldridge
provides a characteristic example of such anti-clerical passages for
which the work was banned: while in Paraguay, Cacambo remarks, "[The
Jesuits] are masters of everything, and the people have no money at
all …". Here,
Voltaire suggests the Christian mission in
Paraguay is taking advantage of the local population.
the Jesuits holding the indigenous peoples as slaves while they claim
to be helping them.
The main method of Candide's satire is to contrast ironically great
tragedy and comedy. The story does not invent or exaggerate evils
of the world—it displays real ones starkly, allowing
simplify subtle philosophies and cultural traditions, highlighting
their flaws. Thus
Candide derides optimism, for instance, with a
deluge of horrible, historical (or at least plausible) events with no
apparent redeeming qualities.
A simple example of the satire of
Candide is seen in the treatment of
the historic event witnessed by
Candide and Martin in Portsmouth
harbour. There, the duo spy an anonymous admiral, supposed to
represent John Byng, being executed for failing to properly engage a
French fleet. The admiral is blindfolded and shot on the deck of his
own ship, merely "to encourage the others" (Fr. "pour encourager les
autres"). This depiction of military punishment trivializes Byng's
death. The dry, pithy explanation "to encourage the others" thus
satirises a serious historical event in characteristically Voltairian
fashion. For its classic wit, this phrase has become one of the more
often quoted from Candide.
Voltaire depicts the worst of the world and his pathetic hero's
desperate effort to fit it into an optimistic outlook. Almost all of
Candide is a discussion of various forms of evil: its characters
rarely find even temporary respite. There is at least one notable
exception: the episode of El Dorado, a fantastic village in which the
inhabitants are simply rational, and their society is just and
reasonable. The positivity of
El Dorado may be contrasted with the
pessimistic attitude of most of the book. Even in this case, the bliss
El Dorado is fleeting:
Candide soon leaves the village to seek
Cunégonde, whom he eventually marries only out of a sense of
Another element of the satire focuses on what William F. Bottiglia,
author of many published works on Candide, calls the "sentimental
foibles of the age" and Voltaire's attack on them. Flaws in
European culture are highlighted as
Candide parodies adventure and
romance clichés, mimicking the style of a picaresque novel. A
number of archetypal characters thus have recognisable manifestations
in Voltaire's work:
Candide is supposed to be the drifting rogue of
low social class,
Cunégonde the sex interest, Pangloss the
knowledgeable mentor and Cacambo the skilful valet. As the plot
unfolds, readers find that
Candide is no rogue,
ugly and Pangloss is a stubborn fool. The characters of
unrealistic, two-dimensional, mechanical, and even marionette-like;
they are simplistic and stereotypical. As the initially naïve
protagonist eventually comes to a mature conclusion—however
noncommittal—the novella is a bildungsroman, if not a very serious
Gardens are thought by many critics to play a critical symbolic role
in Candide. The first location commonly identified as a garden is the
castle of the Baron, from which
Cunégonde are evicted
much in the same fashion as
Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve are evicted from the Garden
of Eden in the Book of Genesis. Cyclically, the main characters of
Candide conclude the novel in a garden of their own making, one which
might represent celestial paradise. The third most prominent "garden"
is El Dorado, which may be a false Eden. Other possibly symbolic
gardens include the
Jesuit pavilion, the garden of Pococurante,
Cacambo's garden, and the Turk's garden.
These gardens are probably references to the Garden of Eden, but it
has also been proposed, by Bottiglia, for example, that the gardens
refer also to the Encyclopédie, and that Candide's conclusion to
cultivate "his garden" symbolises Voltaire's great support for this
Candide and his companions, as they find themselves at the
end of the novella, are in a very similar position to Voltaire's
tightly knit philosophical circle which supported the Encyclopédie:
the main characters of
Candide live in seclusion to "cultivate [their]
garden", just as
Voltaire suggested his colleagues leave society to
write. In addition, there is evidence in the epistolary correspondence
Voltaire that he had elsewhere used the metaphor of gardening to
describe writing the Encyclopédie. Another interpretative
possibility is that
Candide cultivating "his garden" suggests his
engaging in only necessary occupations, such as feeding oneself and
fighting boredom. This is analogous to Voltaire's own view on
gardening: he was himself a gardener at his estates in Les Délices
and Ferney, and he often wrote in his correspondence that gardening
was an important pastime of his own, it being an extraordinarily
effective way to keep busy.
Candide satirises various philosophical and religious theories that
Voltaire had previously criticised. Primary among these is Leibnizian
optimism (sometimes called Panglossianism after its fictional
Voltaire ridicules with descriptions of seemingly
Voltaire demonstrates a variety of irredeemable
evils in the world, leading many critics to contend that Voltaire's
treatment of evil—specifically the theological problem of its
existence—is the focus of the work. Heavily referenced in the
text are the
Lisbon earthquake, disease, and the sinking of ships in
storms. Also, war, thievery, and murder—evils of human design—are
explored as extensively in
Candide as are environmental ills.
Voltaire is "comprehensive" in his enumeration of the
world's evils. He is unrelenting in attacking Leibnizian optimism.
Fundamental to Voltaire's attack is Candide's tutor Pangloss, a
self-proclaimed follower of Leibniz and a teacher of his doctrine.
Ridicule of Pangloss's theories thus ridicules Leibniz himself, and
Pangloss's reasoning is silly at best. For example, Pangloss's first
teachings of the narrative absurdly mix up cause and effect:
Il est démontré, disait-il, que les choses ne peuvent être
autrement; car tout étant fait pour une fin, tout est nécessairement
pour la meilleure fin. Remarquez bien que les nez ont été faits pour
porter des lunettes; aussi avons-nous des lunettes.
It is demonstrable that things cannot be otherwise than as they are;
for as all things have been created for some end, they must
necessarily be created for the best end. Observe, for instance, the
nose is formed for spectacles, therefore we wear spectacles.
Following such flawed reasoning even more doggedly than Candide,
Pangloss defends optimism. Whatever their horrendous fortune, Pangloss
reiterates "all is for the best" (Fr. "Tout est pour le mieux") and
proceeds to "justify" the evil event's occurrence. A characteristic
example of such theodicy is found in Pangloss's explanation of why it
is good that syphilis exists:
c'était une chose indispensable dans le meilleur des mondes, un
ingrédient nécessaire; car si Colomb n'avait pas attrapé dans une
île de l'Amérique cette maladie qui empoisonne la source de la
génération, qui souvent même empêche la génération, et qui est
évidemment l'opposé du grand but de la nature, nous n'aurions ni le
chocolat ni la cochenille;
it was a thing unavoidable, a necessary ingredient in the best of
worlds; for if Columbus had not caught in an island in America this
disease, which contaminates the source of generation, and frequently
impedes propagation itself, and is evidently opposed to the great end
of nature, we should have had neither chocolate nor cochineal.
Candide, the impressionable and incompetent student of Pangloss, often
tries to justify evil, fails, invokes his mentor and eventually
despairs. It is by these failures that
Candide is painfully cured (as
Voltaire would see it) of his optimism.
Interestingly, this critique of Voltaire's seems to be directed almost
exclusively at Leibnizian optimism.
Candide does not ridicule
Voltaire's contemporary Alexander Pope, a later optimist of slightly
Candide does not discuss Pope's optimistic
principle that "all is right", but Leibniz's that states, "this is the
best of all possible worlds". However subtle the difference between
Candide is unambiguous as to which is its subject. Some
critics conjecture that
Voltaire meant to spare Pope this ridicule out
of respect, although Voltaire's Poème may have been written as a more
direct response to Pope's theories. This work is similar to
subject matter, but very different from it in style: the Poème
embodies a more serious philosophical argument than Candide.
Voltaire's estate at Ferney
The conclusion of the novella, in which
Candide finally dismisses his
tutor's optimism, leaves unresolved what philosophy the protagonist is
to accept in its stead. This element of
Candide has been written about
voluminously, perhaps above all others. The conclusion is enigmatic
and its analysis is contentious.
Voltaire develops no formal, systematic philosophy for the characters
to adopt. The conclusion of the novel may be thought of not as a
philosophical alternative to optimism, but as a prescribed practical
outlook (though what it prescribes is in dispute). Many critics have
concluded that one minor character or another is portrayed as having
the right philosophy. For instance, a number believe that Martin is
treated sympathetically, and that his character holds Voltaire's ideal
philosophy—pessimism. Others disagree, citing Voltaire's negative
descriptions of Martin's principles and the conclusion of the work in
which Martin plays little part.
Within debates attempting to decipher the conclusion of
Candide debate. This one concerns the degree to which
Voltaire was advocating a pessimistic philosophy, by which
his companions give up hope for a better world. Critics argue that the
group's reclusion on the farm signifies
Candide and his companions'
loss of hope for the rest of the human race. This view is to be
compared to a reading that presents
Voltaire as advocating a
melioristic philosophy and a precept committing the travellers to
improving the world through metaphorical gardening. This debate, and
others, focuses on the question of whether or not
prescribing passive retreat from society, or active industrious
contribution to it.
Inside vs. outside interpretations
Separate from the debate about the text's conclusion is the
"inside/outside" controversy. This argument centers on the matter of
whether or not
Voltaire was actually prescribing anything. Roy Wolper,
professor emeritus of English, argues in a revolutionary 1969 paper
Candide does not necessarily speak for its author; that the work
should be viewed as a narrative independent of Voltaire's history; and
that its message is entirely (or mostly) inside it. This point of
view, the "inside", specifically rejects attempts to find Voltaire's
"voice" in the many characters of
Candide and his other works. Indeed,
writers have seen
Voltaire as speaking through at least Candide,
Martin, and the Turk. Wolper argues that
Candide should be read with a
minimum of speculation as to its meaning in Voltaire's personal life.
His article ushered in a new era of
Voltaire studies, causing many
scholars to look at the novel differently.
Critics such as Lester Crocker, Henry Stavan, and Vivienne Mylne find
too many similarities between Candide's point of view and that of
Voltaire to accept the "inside" view; they support the "outside"
interpretation. They believe that Candide's final decision is the same
as Voltaire's, and see a strong connection between the development of
the protagonist and his author. Some scholars who support the
"outside" view also believe that the isolationist philosophy of the
Old Turk closely mirrors that of Voltaire. Others see a strong
parallel between Candide's gardening at the conclusion and the
gardening of the author. Martine Darmon Meyer argues that the
"inside" view fails to see the satirical work in context, and that
Candide is primarily a mockery of optimism (a matter of
historical context) is a "very basic betrayal of the text".
Voltaire en a fait un, lequel est le résumé de toutes ses
œuvres … Toute son intelligence était une machine de guerre.
Et ce qui me le fait chérir, c'est le dégoût que m'inspirent les
voltairiens, des gens qui rient sur les grandes choses! Est-ce qu'il
riait, lui? Il grinçait …"
Flaubert, Correspondance, éd. Conard, II, 348; III, 219
Voltaire made, with this novel, a résumé of all his works …
His whole intelligence was a war machine. And what makes me cherish it
is the disgust which has been inspired in me by the Voltairians,
people who laugh about the important things! Was he laughing?
Voltaire? He was screeching …"
Flaubert, Correspondance, éd. Conard, II, 348; III, 219
Voltaire did not openly admit to having written the
Candide until 1768 (until then he signed with a
pseudonym: "Monsieur le docteur Ralph", or "Doctor Ralph"), his
authorship of the work was hardly disputed.[note 1]
Immediately after publication, the work and its author were denounced
by both secular and religious authorities, because the book openly
derides government and church alike. It was because of such polemics
that Omer-Louis-François Joly de Fleury, who was
Advocate General to
the Parisian parliament when
Candide was published, found parts of
Candide to be "contrary to religion and morals".
Despite much official indictment, soon after its publication,
Candide's irreverent prose was being quoted. "Let us eat a Jesuit",
for instance, became a popular phrase for its reference to a humorous
passage in Candide. By the end of February 1759, the Grand Council
Geneva and the administrators of
Paris had banned Candide.
Candide nevertheless succeeded in selling twenty thousand to thirty
thousand copies by the end of the year in over twenty editions, making
it a best seller. The Duke de La Vallière speculated near the end of
January 1759 that
Candide might have been the fastest-selling book
ever. In 1762,
Candide was listed in the Index Librorum
Prohibitorum, the Roman Catholic Church's list of prohibited books.
Candide lasted into the twentieth century in the United
States, where it has long been considered a seminal work of Western
literature. At least once,
Candide was temporarily barred from
entering America: in February 1929, a US customs official in Boston
prevented a number of copies of the book, deemed "obscene", from
Harvard University French class.
Candide was admitted in
August of the same year; however by that time the class was over.
In an interview soon after Candide's detention, the official who
confiscated the book explained the office's decision to ban it, "But
about 'Candide,' I'll tell you. For years we've been letting that book
get by. There were so many different editions, all sizes and kinds,
some illustrated and some plain, that we figured the book must be all
right. Then one of us happened to read it. It's a filthy
Candide is the most widely read of Voltaire's many works, and it
is considered one of the great achievements of Western literature.
Candide is not necessarily considered a true "classic".
According to Bottiglia, "The physical size of Candide, as well as
Voltaire's attitude toward his fiction, precludes the achievement of
artistic dimension through plenitude, autonomous '3D' vitality,
emotional resonance, or poetic exaltation. Candide, then, cannot in
quantity or quality, measure up to the supreme classics."
Bottiglia instead calls it a miniature classic, though others are more
forgiving of its size. As the only work of
Voltaire which has
remained popular up to the present day,
Candide is listed in
Harold Bloom's The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages. It
is included in the
Encyclopædia Britannica collection Great Books of
the Western World.
Candide has influenced modern writers of black
humour such as Céline, Joseph Heller, John Barth, Thomas Pynchon,
Kurt Vonnegut, and Terry Southern. Its parody and picaresque methods
have become favourites of black humorists.
Charles Brockden Brown, an early American novelist, may have been
directly affected by Voltaire, whose work he knew well. Mark Kamrath,
professor of English, describes the strength of the connection between
Edgar Huntly; or, Memoirs of a Sleep-Walker
Edgar Huntly; or, Memoirs of a Sleep-Walker (1799): "An
unusually large number of parallels...crop up in the two novels,
particularly in terms of characters and plot." For instance, the
protagonists of both novels are romantically involved with a recently
orphaned young woman. Furthermore, in both works the brothers of the
female lovers are Jesuits, and each is murdered (although under
different circumstances). Some twentieth-century novels that may
have been influenced by
Candide are dystopian science-fiction works.
Armand Mattelart, a French critic, sees
Candide in Aldous Huxley's
Brave New World, George Orwell's
Nineteen Eighty-Four and Yevgeny
Zamyatin's We, three canonical works of the genre. Specifically,
Mattelart writes that in each of these works, there exist references
to Candide's popularisation of the phrase "the best of all possible
worlds". He cites as evidence, for example, that the French version of
Brave New World
Brave New World was entitled Le Meilleur des mondes (En. literally
"The best of worlds").
Candide often compare it with certain works of the modern
genre the Theatre of the Absurd. Haydn Mason, a
Voltaire scholar, sees
Candide a few similarities to this brand of literature. For
instance, he notes commonalities of
Candide and Waiting for Godot
(1952). In both of these works, and in a similar manner, friendship
provides emotional support for characters when they are confronted
with harshness of their existences. However, Mason qualifies,
"the conte must not be seen as a forerunner of the 'absurd' in modern
fiction. Candide's world has many ridiculous and meaningless elements,
but human beings are not totally deprived of the ability to make sense
out of it." John Pilling, biographer of Beckett, does state that
Candide was an early and powerful influence on Beckett's
The American alternative rock band
Bloodhound Gang refer to
their song "Take the Long Way Home", from the American edition of
their 1999 album Hooray for Boobies.
In 1760, one year after
Voltaire published Candide, a sequel was
published with the name Candide, ou l'optimisme, seconde partie.
This work is attributed both to Thorel de Campigneulles, a writer
unknown today, and Henri Joseph Du Laurens, who is suspected of having
habitually plagiarised Voltaire. The story continues in this
Candide having new adventures in the Ottoman Empire,
Persia, and Denmark. Part II has potential use in studies of the
popular and literary receptions of Candide, but is almost certainly
apocryphal. In total, by the year 1803, at least ten imitations
Candide or continuations of its story were published by authors
other than Voltaire.
Leonard Bernstein in 1955
Candide was originally conceived by playwright Lillian
Hellman, as a play with incidental music. Leonard Bernstein, the
American composer and conductor who wrote the music, was so excited
about the project that he convinced Hellman to do it as a "comic
operetta". Many lyricists worked on the show, including James
Agee, Dorothy Parker, John Latouche, Richard Wilbur, Leonard and
Stephen Sondheim and Hellman. Hershy Kay
orchestrated all the pieces except for the overture, which Bernstein
Candide first opened on Broadway as a musical on 1
December 1956. The premier production was directed by Tyrone Guthrie
and conducted by Samuel Krachmalnick. While this production was a
box office flop, the music was highly praised, and an original cast
album was made. The album gradually became a cult hit, but Hellman's
libretto was criticised as being too serious an adaptation of
Candide would be more popular seventeen years
later with a new libretto by Hugh Wheeler.
Candido, ovvero un sogno fatto in Sicilia (it) (1977) or simply
Candido is a book by Leonardo Sciascia. It was at least partly based
on Voltaire's Candide, although the actual influence of
Candido is a hotly debated topic. A number of theories on the matter
have been proposed. Proponents of one say that Candido is very similar
to Candide, only with a happy ending; supporters of another claim that
Voltaire provided Sciascia with only a starting point from which to
work, that the two books are quite distinct.
The BBC produced a television adaptation for their Play of the Month
series in 1973, with
Ian Ogilvy as
Frank Finlay as
Voltaire himself, acting as the narrator.
Nedim Gürsel wrote his 2001 novel Le voyage de
Candide à Istanbul
about a minor passage in
Candide during which its protagonist meets
Ahmed III, the deposed Turkish sultan. This chance meeting on a ship
Istanbul is the setting of Gürsel's book. Terry
Southern, in writing his popular novel Candy with Mason Hoffenberg
Candide for a modern audience and changed the protagonist from
male to female. Candy deals with the rejection of a sort of optimism
which the author sees in women's magazines of the modern era; Candy
also parodies pornography and popular psychology. This adaptation of
Candide was itself adapted for the cinema by director Christian
Marquand in 1968.
In addition to the above,
Candide was made into a number of minor
films and theatrical adaptations throughout the twentieth century. For
a list of these, see Voltaire:
Candide ou L'Optimisme et autres contes
(1989) with preface and commentaries by Pierre Malandain.
In May 2009, a play called "Optimism," based on
Candide opened at the
CUB Malthouse Theatre in Melbourne. It followed the basic storyline of
Candide, incorporating anachronisms, music and stand up comedy from
comedian Frank Woodley. It toured Australia and played at the
Edinburgh International Festival. In 2010, the Icelandic writer
Óttar M. Norðfjörð published a rewriting and modernisation of
Candide, entitled Örvitinn; eða hugsjónamaðurinn.
French and Francophone literature portal
Candide ou l'optimisme au XXe siècle (film, 1960)
List of French-language authors
^ Will Durant in The Age of Voltaire:
It was published early in 1759 as Candide, ou l'optimisme, purportedly
"translated from the German of Dr. Ralph, with additions found in the
pocket of the Doctor when he died at Minden." The Great Council of
Geneva almost at once (March 5) ordered it to be burned. Of course
Voltaire denied his authorship: "people must have lost their senses,"
he wrote to a friendly pastor in Geneva, "to attribute to me that pack
of nonsense. I have, thank God, better occupations." But France was
unanimous: no other man could have written Candide. Here was that
deceptively simple, smoothly flowing, lightly prancing, impishly
ironic prose that only he could write; here and there a little
obscenity, a little scatology; everywhere a playful, darting, lethal
irreverence; if the style is the man, this had to be Voltaire.
Candide By Voltaire
^ Wootton (2000), p. 1
^ a b c d e f g h i j Aldridge (1975), pp. 251–254
^ a b Davidson (2005), pp. 52–53
^ a b c d e f Williams (1997), pp. 1–3
^ Candide, ou L'optimisme , traduit de l'allemand de M. le docteur
Ralph (1 ed.). 1759. Retrieved 27 May 2015. via Gallica
^ Critical Survey of Short Fiction (2001)
^ Mason (1992), p. 10
^ a b c d e f g Davidson (2005), p. 54
^ a b c Aldridge (1975), p. 260
^ Waldinger (1987), p. ix
^ Wade (1959b), p. 88
^ a b Radner & Radner (1998), pp. 669–686
^ Mason (1992), p. 4
^ Wade (1959b), p. 93
^ Wade (1959b), pp. 88, 93
^ Havens (1973), pp. 844–845
^ Wade (1959b), p. 296
^ Broome (1960), p. 510
^ Means (2006), pp. 1–3
^ Gopnik (2005)
^ McGhee (1943), pp. 438, 440
^ Aldridge (1975), p. 155
^ Mason (1970), pp. 19–35
^ Wade (1959a), p. 65
^ Torrey (1929), p. 446
^ a b c Wade (1956), pp. 3–4
^ Havens (1932), p. 225
^ Wade (1959b), pp. 145, 156
^ Rouillard (1962)
^ Wade (1957), p. 94
^ Torrey (1929), pp. 445–447
^ Wade (1959b), p. 182
^ a b Wade (1959a), pp. 63–88
^ Wade (1957), p. 96
Voltaire  (1959)
^ Taylor (1979), p. 207
^ Williams (1997), p. 97
^ Bellhouse (2006), p. 780
^ Bellhouse (2006), p. 756
^ Bellhouse (2006), p. 757
^ Bellhouse (2006), p. 769
^ Waldinger (1987), p. 23
^ Williams (1997), pp. 26–27
^ Beck (1999), p. 203
^ Leister (1985), pp. 32–33
^ a b Smollett (2008), Ch. 4. (Fr. "matelot furieux")
^ Ch. 7. (Fr. "la vieille")
^ a b c Ayer (1986), pp. 143–145
^ Aldridge (1975), p. 254
^ Wootton (2000), p. xvii
^ This is one of the most famous quotes from the novel. See Alex
Massie, Pour encourager les autres? Oui, monsieur..., The Spectator
(31 July 2007).
Voltaire  (1959), pp. 107–108
^ a b
Voltaire  (1959), p. 112,113
^ a b c Barasch (1985), p. 3
^ a b Starobinski (1976), p. 194
^ Wade (1959b), p. 133
^ Aldridge (1975), p. 255
^ a b Ayer (1986), p. 139
^ Havens (1973), p. 843
^ a b Bottiglia (1968), pp. 89–92
^ Vannini (2011), pp. 106–107
^ Wade (1959b), pp. 303–305
^ Waldinger (1987), p. 20
^ Readings on
Candide (2001), p. 92
^ a b Bottiglia (1951), pp. 727, 731
^ Davidson (2005), p. 55
^ Scherr (1993)
^ Aldridge (1975), p. 258
^ Readings on
Candide (2001), p. 121
^ Bottiglia (1951), p. 720
^ Smollett (2008), Ch. 1
^ Aldridge (1975), pp. 251–254, 361
^ Leister (1985), p. 29
^ Bottiglia (1951), pp. 723–724
^ Bottiglia (1951), p. 726
^ Leister (1985), p. 26
^ Braun, Sturzer, Meyer (1988)
^ Wolper (1969), pp. 265–277
^ Bottiglia (1951), pp. 719–720
^ Braun, Sturzer & Meyer (1988), pp. 569–571
^ Braun, Sturzer & Meyer (1988), p. 574
^ Crocker (1971)
^ a b
Voltaire  (1931), p. vii
^ Wade (1959b), p. xiii
^ a b c d Mason (1992), pp. 13–15
^ Will Durant (1965). The Story of Civilization Volume 9:The Age of
Voltaire. Simon&Schuster. p. 724.
^ Mason (1992), ch. 3
^ a b Haight (1970), p. 33
^ Hobbs (1930), p. 190
^ Bowerman (1931), p. 20
^ Boyer (2002), p. 209
^ a b Bottiglia (1959), p. 247
^ Mason (1992), ch. 2
^ Britannica (2008)
^ Readings on
Candide (2001), pp. 112–113
^ Kamrath (1991), pp. 5–14
^ Monty (2006), p. 5
^ Mason (1992), pp. 33, 37
^ Mason (1992), p. 98
^ Monty (2006), p. 151
^ a b Astbury (2005), p. 503
^ Clark (1993), pp. VIII, IX
^ Peyser (1987), p. 247
^ a b Peyser (1987), p. 248
^ Peyser (1987), pp. 249–251
^ Morrison (2002), p. 59
^ Burns (2000), p. 992
^ Hitchins (2002), p. 160
^ Silva (2000), pp. 784–785
^ Malandain (1989)
^ Boztas (2009)
Aldridge, Alfred Owen (1975). "
Voltaire and the Century of Light".
Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Astbury, Kate (April 2005). "Candide, ou l'optimisme, seconde partie
(1760) / Jean-François Marmontel: un intellectuel exemplaire au
siècle des Lumières". Modern Language Review. Modern Humanities
Research Association. 100 (2). EBSCO Accession Number 16763209.
Ayer, A.J. (1986). Voltaire. New York City: Random House.
Barasch, Frances K. (Winter 1985). "The Grotesque as a Comic Genre".
Modern Language Studies. 15 (1). JSTOR 3194413.
Beck, Ervin (Summer 1999). "Voltaire's Candide". Explicator. 57 (4):
203–4. doi:10.1080/00144949909596872. EBSCO Accession Number
Bellhouse, Mary L. (December 2006). "
Candide Shoots the Monkey Lovers:
Representing Black Men in Eighteenth-Century French Visual Culture".
Political Theory. Sage Publications. 34 (6): 756.
Bottiglia, William F. (September 1951). "Candide's Garden". PMLA. 66
(5): 718–733 . doi:10.2307/459532. JSTOR 459532.
Bottiglia, William F. (1959). Besterman, Theodore, ed. Voltaire's
Candide: Analysis of a Classic. Studies on
Voltaire and the Eighteenth
Century. VII. Institut et Musee Voltaire. OCLC 185848340.
Bottiglia, William F. (1968). Voltaire; a collection of critical
essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice–Hall, Inc.
Bowerman, George F. (1931). Censorship and the Public Library. Ayer
Publishing. ISBN 0-8369-0232-7.
Boyer, Paul S. (2002). Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America
from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age. University of Wisconsin
Press. ISBN 0-299-17584-7.
Boztas, Senay (2009). "Interview: Frank Woodley — Candide
laughter". Scotland on Sunday. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
Braun, Theodore E. D. (March 1988). "Teaching Candide— A Debate".
The French Review. 61 (4): 569–571. JSTOR 393842.
Britannica (2008). "Great Books of the Western World: A Collection of
the Greatest Writings in Western History" (PDF). Britannica. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 2006-08-13. Retrieved 2008-06-22.
Broome, J. H. (1960). "
Voltaire and Fougeret de Monbron a 'Candide'
Problem Reconsidered". The Modern Language Review. 55 (4): 509–518.
doi:10.2307/3721375. JSTOR 3721375.
Burns, Jennefer (October 2000). "Telling tales about 'Impegno':
Commitment and hindsight in Vittorini and Calvino". The Modern
Language Review. 95 (4): 992–1006. doi:10.2307/3736629.
JSTOR 3736629. Gale Document Number:A80191130.
Crocker, Lester G. (Autumn 1971). "Professor Wolper's Interpretation
of Candide". Eighteenth-Century Studies. 5 (1): 145–156.
Davidson, Ian (11 January 2005).
Voltaire in Exile. New York: Grove
Press. p. 53. ISBN 0-8021-1791-0.
Dawson, Deidre (January 1, 1986). "In Search of the Real Pangloss: The
Voltaire with the Duchess of Saxe-Gotha". Yale
French Studies (71 Men/Women of Letters): 93–112.
doi:10.2307/2930024. ISSN 0044-0078. JSTOR 2930024.
Gopnik, Adam (2005). "Voltaire's Garden". New Yorker. Conde Nast
Publications. 81 (3).
Haight, Anne Lyon (1970). Banned Books: Informal Notes on Some Books
Banned for Various Reasons at Various Times and in Various Places. New
Yorker. R. R. Bowker. ISBN 0-8352-0204-6.
Havens, George R. (April 1932). "The Composition of Voltaire's
Candide". Modern Language Notes. 47 (4): 225–234.
doi:10.2307/2913581. JSTOR 2913581.
Havens, George R. (May 1973). "Some Notes on Candide". Modern Language
Notes. 88 (4, French Issue): 841–847. doi:10.2307/2907412.
Hitchins, Keith (Summer–Autumn 2002). "Le voyage de
Istanbul". World Literature Today. 76 (3/4). EBSCO Accession Number
Hobbs, Perry (2 April 1930). "Dirty Hands: A Federal
Looks at Art". The New Republic.
Kamrath, Mark L. (1991). "Brown and the Enlightenment: A study of the
influence of Voltaire's
Candide in Edgar Huntly". The American
Transcendental Quarterly. 5 (1).
Leister, Elizabeth Cooney (1985). Voltaire's Candide. Barron's book
notes. Woodbury, New York: Barron's Educational Series, Inc.
Malandain, Pierre (1989). Voltaire:
Candide ou L'Optimisme et autres
contes. Pocket. ISBN 2-266-08266-3.
Mason, H. T. (January 1970). "Voltaire's "Contes": An "État
Présent"". The Modern Language Review. 65 (1): 19–35.
doi:10.2307/3722784. JSTOR 3722784.
Mason, Haydn (1992). Candide: Optimism Demolished. Twayne's Masterwork
Studies. New York City: Twayne Publishers.
McGhee, Dorothy M. (1943). The "Conte Philosophique" Bridging a
Century. PMLA. 58. Modern Language Association. pp. 438–449.
Means, Richard (2006). Voltaire: Background and Early Writing. Great
Neck Publishing. ISBN 1429806540. EBSCOhost Accession Number:
Monty, Julie Anne. "Textualizing the Future: Godard, Rochefort,
Beckett and Dystopian Discourse" (PDF). The University of Texas at
Austin. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-12-18. Retrieved
Morrison, Ian R. (January 2002). "Leonardo Sciascia's Candido and
Voltaire's Candide". Modern Language Review. 97 (1): 59–71.
doi:10.2307/3735619. JSTOR 3735619. EBSCO Accession Number
Oxford Color French Dictionary Plus. New York: Oxford University Press
Inc. 2004. p. 42. ISBN 0-19-860898-5.
Peyser, Joan (1987). Bernstein, a biography. New York: Beech Tree
Books. ISBN 0-688-04918-4.
Radner, Daisie (October 1998). "Optimality in biology: Pangloss or
Leibniz?". Monist. 81 (4). JSTOR 27903615. EBSCO Accession Number
Rouillard, C. D. (November 1962). "Review of '
Voltaire and Candide: A
Study in the Fusion of History, Art and Philosophy'". Modern
Philology. 60 (2): 145–149. doi:10.1086/389529.
Scherr, Arthur (Spring 1993). "Voltaire's 'Candide': a tale of women's
equality". The Midwest Quarterly. 34 (3): 261–282. Thomson Gale
Document Number A13877067.
Silva, Edward T. (1974). "From
Candide to Candy: Love's Labor Lost".
Journal of Popular Culture. 8 (4): 783–791.
doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.1975.00783.x. ISSN 0022-3840. EBSCO
Accession Number 1975201832.
Smollett, Tobias (2008). "Candide". Wikisource, The Free Library.
Starobinski, Jean (Summer 1976). "Sur le Style Philosophique de
Candide". Comparative Literature. 28 (3). JSTOR 1769217.
Taylor, O. R.; Vercruysse, Jeroom (1979). "Review: Les Éditions
encadrées des Œuvres de
Voltaire de 1775". The Modern Language
Review. 74 (1): 207. doi:10.2307/3726968. JSTOR 3726968.
Torrey, Norman L. (November 1929). "The Date of Composition of
Candide, and Voltaire's Corrections". Modern Language Notes. 44 (7):
445–447 . doi:10.2307/2913558. JSTOR 2913558.
Vannini, Giulio (2011). "Il Satyricon di Petronio nel
Voltaire". Antike und Abendland. 57: 94–108.
doi:10.1515/9783110239171.94. ISSN 1613-0421.
Voltaire (1931) . Morize, André, ed. Candide: ou, L'optimisme;
édition critique avec une introd. et un commentaire par André
Voltaire (1959) . Bair, Lowell, ed. Candide. translated by
Lowell Bair ; with an appreciation by Andre Maurois ;
illustrations by Sheilah Beckett. New York: Bantam Dell.
Wade, Ira O. (October 1956). "The La Vallière MS of Candide". The
French Review. 30 (1).
Wade, Ira O. (15 February 1957). "A Manuscript of Voltaire's Candide".
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 101 (1).
Wade, Ira O. (1959a). "The First Edition of Candide: A Problem of
Identification". The Princeton University Library Chronicle. 20 (2).
Wade, Ira O. (1959b).
Voltaire and Candide: A Study in the Fusion of
History, Art, and Philosophy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton
University Press. ISBN 0-8046-1688-4. Library of Congress number
Waldinger, Renée (1987). Approaches to Teaching Voltaire's Candide.
New York: The Modern Language Association of America.
Walsh, Thomas (2001). Readings on Candide. Literary Companion to World
Literature. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press.
Williams, David (1997). Voltaire, Candide. Spain: Grand & Cutler
Ltd. ISBN 0-7293-0395-0.
Wolper, Roy S. (Winter 1969). "Candide, Gull in the Garden?".
Eighteenth-Century Studies. 3 (2): 265–277. doi:10.2307/2737575.
Wootton, David (2000).
Candide and Related Texts. Hackett Publishing
Company, Inc. ISBN 0-87220-547-9.
Adorno, Theodor W. (1970). Redmond, Dennis, ed. Negative Dialectics.
Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag. ISBN 0-7456-3510-5. Retrieved
Betts, C. J. (April 1985). "On the Beginning and Ending of Candide".
The Modern Language Review. 80 (2): 283–292. doi:10.2307/3728661.
Cates, David Allan. "Comparing
Candide and X Out of Wonderland" (PDF).
XOutofWonderland.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-16.
Gullace, Giovanni (1985). Il
Candide nel pensiero di Voltaire. Napoli:
Società editrice napoletana.
Gullette, Cameron C. (December 1934). "Fanfluche — Cousin of
Candide". The French Review. 8 (2): 93–107.
Henry, Patrick (Spring 1977). "Travel in Candide: Moving On But Going
Nowhere". Papers on Language & Literature. 13 (2): 193–197.
ISSN 0031-1294. EBSCO Accession Number 7728974.
Henry, Patrick (Winter 1977). "Time in Candide". Studies in Short
Fiction. 14 (1): 86–8. ISSN 0039-3789. EBSCO Accession Number
Henry, Patrick (Spring 1977). "Working in Candide's Garden". Studies
in Short Fiction. 14 (2): 183–184. ISSN 0039-3789. EBSCO
Accession Number 7153217.
Henry, Patrick (1987). "Contre Barthes". Studies on
Voltaire and the
Eighteenth Century. 249. Archived from the original on September 28,
2007. Retrieved 2007-07-10.
Howells, R. J. (April 1985). "'Cette Boucherie Héroïque':
Carnival". The Modern Language Review. 80 (2): 293–303.
doi:10.2307/3728662. JSTOR 3728662.
Kirby, David (Summer 1993). "The new
Candide or what I learned in the
theory wars". Virginia Quarterly Review. 69 (3): 393–407.
ISSN 0042-675X. EBSCO Accession Number 9308316577.
Lynch, James J. (January 1985). "Romance Conventions in Voltaire's
Candide". South Atlantic Review. 50 (1): 35–46. doi:10.2307/3199529.
Marsh, Leonard (Spring 2004). "Voltaire's Candide". Explicator. 62
(3): 144–146. doi:10.1080/00144940409597202. ISSN 0014-4940.
EBSCO Accession Number 13275608.
Oake, Roger B.; Wade, Ira O. (Spring 1961). "Review of "
Candide"". Comparative Literature. 13 (2): 176–178.
doi:10.2307/1768579. JSTOR 1768579.
Scherr, Arthur (Winter 2001). "Voltaire's Candide". Explicator. 59
(2): 74–76. doi:10.1080/00144940109597087. EBSCO Accession Number
Sturm, Mary J.; Parsell, David B. (2001). Critical Survey of Short
Fiction (Second Revised ed.). Salem Press, Inc.
ISBN 0-89356-006-5. EBSCO Accession Number MOL0120000549.
Sister project links
Media related to
Candide at Wikimedia Commons
Quotations related to
Candide at Wikiquote
Voltaire (1759). Candide. Trans. Tobias Smollett.
Voltaire (in French). Candide. Wikisource.
Project Gutenberg (plain text and HTML)
Internet Archive (scanned books original editions color
Candide public domain audiobook at LibriVox
Candide (original version) with 2200+ English annotations at Tailored
Candide, ou l'optimisme, traduit de l'allemand. De Mr. le Docteur
Candide, ou l'optimisme, Par Mr. de Voltaire. Edition revue, corrigée
& augmentée par L'Auteur, vol. 1, vol. 2, aux delices, 1761–63.
La Vallière Manuscript at http://gallica.bnf.fr.
Illustrations of a classic, bibliography of illustrated
editions, list of available electronic editions and more useful
Trier University Library
Voltaire's Candide, a public wiki dedicated to Candide
Brief Bibliography for the Study of Candide, issued by the Voltaire
Society of America
Podcast lecture on Candide, from Dr Martin Evans at Stanford
University, via iTunes
Letters on the English
Elements of the Philosophy of Newton
History of Charles XII
The Age of Louis XIV
Annals of the Empire
Essai sur les mœurs et l'esprit des nations
Treatise on Tolerance
Commentaires sur Corneille
Questions sur les Miracles
The Historical Praise of Reason
Précis du siècle de Louis XV
Des singularités de la nature
The Man of Forty Crowns
The White Bull
Poème sur le désastre de Lisbonne
Épître à l'Auteur du Livre des Trois Imposteurs
Maid of Orleans
Hérode et Mariamne
La princesse de Navarre
L'Orphelin de la Chine
Institut et Musée Voltaire
Complete Works of Voltaire
The Friends of
Voltaire (1906 book)
Voltaire (1933 film)
Passionate Minds (2006 novel)
Candide, Part II (1760 novel)
Candide (1956 operetta)
Candy (1958 novel)
Candide ou l'optimisme au XXe siècle (1960 film)
Candy (1968 film)
Mondo candido (1975 film)
The Optimists (2006 film)
Pope Urban X
A few acres of snow
Poème sur le désastre de Lisbonne