CANARY WHARF is a major business district in east London, within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets . It is one of the United Kingdom's two main financial centres – along with the traditional City of London – and contains many of Europe's tallest buildings, including the second-tallest in the UK, One Canada Square .
Canary Wharf contains around 16,000,000 square feet (1,500,000 m2) of office and retail space, of which around 7,900,000 square feet (730,000 m2) (about 49%) is owned by Canary Wharf Group . Around 105,000 people work in Canary Wharf, and it is home to the world or European headquarters of numerous major banks, professional services firms, and media organisations, including Barclays , Citigroup , Clifford Chance , Credit Suisse , EY , Fitch Ratings , HSBC , Infosys , J.P. Morgan , KPMG , MetLife , Moody\'s , Morgan Stanley , RBC , S"> Map of Canary Wharf area in 1899 showing West India Docks and the Isle of Dogs Canary Wharf aerial view (2009), from the southeast end of the Isle of Dogs , showing the Millwall Dock . Canary Wharf, view east from Cabot Square .
From 1802 to 1939, the area was one of the busiest docks in the world. After the 1960s, the port industry began to decline, leading to all the docks being closed by 1980. Of the three main docks of the West India Docks, the Canary Wharf estate occupies part of the north side and the entire south side of the Import Dock (North Dock), both sides of the Export Dock (Middle Dock) and the north side of the South Dock.
Canary Wharf itself takes its name from No. 32 berth of the West Wood Quay of the Import Dock. This was built in 1936 for Fruit Lines Ltd, a subsidiary of Fred Olsen Lines for the Mediterranean and Canary Islands fruit trade. The Canary islands were so named after the large dogs found there by the Spanish (Gran Canaria from Canine) and as it is located on the Isle of Dogs, the quay and warehouse were given the name Canary Wharf.
After the docks closed in 1980, the British Government adopted policies to stimulate redevelopment of the area, including the creation of the London Docklands Development Corporation in 1981 and the granting of Urban Enterprise Zone status to the Isle of Dogs in 1982.
The Canary Wharf of today began when Michael von Clemm , former chairman of Credit Suisse First Boston (CSFB), came up with the idea to convert Canary Wharf into a back office . Further discussions with G Ware Travelstead led to proposals for a new business district.
The project was sold to the Canadian company Olympia & York and construction began in 1988, master-planned by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill with Yorke Rosenberg Mardall as their UK advisors, and subsequently by Koetter Kim. The first buildings were completed in 1991, including One Canada Square , which became the UK's tallest building at the time and a symbol of the regeneration of Docklands. By the time it opened, the London commercial property market had collapsed, and Olympia and York Canary Wharf Limited filed for bankruptcy in May 1992.
Initially, the City of London saw Canary Wharf as an existential threat. It modified its planning laws to expand the provision of new offices in the City of London, for example, creating offices above railway stations (Blackfriars) and roads (Alban Gate). The resulting oversupply of office space contributed to the failure of the No 1 Canada Square project.
In December 1995 an international consortium, backed by the former owners of Olympia occupiers include The Bank of New York Mellon , the CFA Institute , Clearstream , EEX ( European Energy Exchange ), Euler Hermes , the International Sugar Organization , Mahindra Satyam , MetLife , Moody\'s Analytics and Trinity Mirror .
25 Canada Square 200 655 42 2001 The joint fifth-tallest completed building in the United Kingdom. 25 Canada Square and 33 Canada Square together form a single complex known as the Citigroup Centre . Primarily occupied by Citigroup as its EMEA headquarters. Other tenants include Gain Capital, 3i Infotech , Lehman Brothers (in Administration), Crossrail , Instinet , Munich Re , MWB Group , SunGard and Wells Fargo .
One Churchill Place 156 513 32 2005 Occupied by Barclays as its world headquarters. Currently the eighth-tallest building in the United Kingdom, it was originally planned to be 50 stories in height, but was scaled down to 31 after the 11 September attacks.
1 West India Quay 108 354 36 2004 Floors 1-12 are occupied by a Marriott Hotel . Floors 13-33 house 158 apartments.
20 Bank Street 68 223 14 2003 Occupied by Morgan Stanley as its European headquarters. Morgan Stanley also occupies the nearby 25 Cabot Square. It was designed by Skidmore, Owings "> London City Airport runway with Canary Wharf and the O2 Arena in the background.
London City Airport in Silvertown is linked to both Canary Wharf and the City of London via the Docklands Light Railway , and an interchange to the London Underground . London City Airport DLR station is situated immediately adjacent to the terminal building, with enclosed access to and from the elevated platforms. The Vanguard helipad serves a parcel service by helicopter to Heathrow Airport . London Buses
Canary Wharf is served by several London Buses routes, including route 135 connecting the estate with Old Street for East London Tech City and Crossharbour and the 24 hours route 277 to Highbury via Bow , Hackney Central , Dalston from Crosshabour via Millwall and also the _D_ prefix network serving the London Docklands with the D3 running between Bethnal Green and Leamouth via Wapping and D7 between Mile End and Poplar while the D8 from Crossharbour to Stratford via Bromley-by-Bow and the night route N550 between Trafalgar Square and Canning Town and has been since its beginning, which has been vital in the continuing development of the estate. Docklands Light Railway A train arriving at Heron Quays DLR station .
Heron Quays Station , one of the first stations to be built in the Canary Wharf estate, was first opened in 1987. The station has two platforms in use, is in Travelcard Zone 2 , and is on the Lewisham branch of the Docklands Light Railway , between Canary Wharf and South Quay . The station was moved 200 metres south (to fit inside the new buildings) and a longer platform was built at this new site to accommodate three-unit trains planned as part of the DLR Capacity Enhancement; the station re-opened on 18 December 2002.
Canary Wharf Station had been part of the original DLR plans, but the station was not ready when the DLR opened in August 1987. It was originally planned that the station would be similar to the original station at Heron Quays , with two small platforms either side of the tracks. The station is located on the DLR between Heron Quays station and the West India Quay station , in Travelcard Zone 2 . London Underground The interior of Canary Wharf tube station. Main article: Canary Wharf tube station
The Canary Wharf tube station is a two platform station designed by Norman Foster and opened in 1999 as part of the Jubilee Line Extension from Charing Cross to Stratford. Canary Wharf station has increasingly become one of the busiest stations on the network, serving the ever-expanding Canary Wharf business district.
The station was used as a location for some scenes of Danny Boyle 's 2002 film _ 28 Days Later _ and its sequel _ 28 Weeks Later _, which was mostly based in Canary Wharf. National Rail Main article: Canary Wharf railway station The outer layer of Canary Wharf railway station.
Canary Wharf railway station began construction in May 2009 and will be completed in 2017 (due to officially begin operating in 2018) as part of the £17 billion Crossrail project. The station will be served by the Elisabeth line and will have two platforms and will be in Travelcard Zone 2 . London River Services Main article: Canary Wharf Pier
* _ London portal
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* Kevin D'Arcy (2012). _London's 2nd City: Creating Canary Wharf_. Rajah Books. ISBN 0955670624 .