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(i) (i)

Canadian English and Canadian French Numerous indigenous languages are also recognized. Various other languages .

RELIGION

Multiple denominations

CANADIANS (French : Canadiens / Canadiennes) are people identified with the country of Canada
Canada
. This connection may be residential, legal, historical, or cultural. For most Canadians, several (or all) of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian.

Canada
Canada
is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic, religious and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World
Old World
immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and then the much larger British colonization , different waves (or peaks) of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French, British, and more recent immigrant customs, languages and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada and thus a Canadian identity
Canadian identity
. Canada
Canada
has also been strongly influenced by its linguistic, geographic and economic neighbour, the United States
United States
.

Canadian independence from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
grew gradually over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. World War I
World War I
and World War II
World War II
, in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians
Canadians
to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931 , the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, and full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada\'s nationality law closely mirrored that of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development .

CONTENTS

* 1 Population

* 1.1 Immigration * 1.2 Citizenship and diaspora * 1.3 Ethnic ancestry

* 2 Culture

* 2.1 Religion * 2.2 Languages

* 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 Further reading * 8 External links

POPULATION

See also: Population of Canada
Population of Canada

As of 2010, Canadians
Canadians
make up 0.5% of the world\'s total population , having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. Approximately 41% of current Canadians
Canadians
are first- or second-generation immigrants, and 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada
Canada
projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians
Canadians
above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent. Indigenous peoples , according to the 2011 Canadian Census , numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population.

IMMIGRATION

Main article: Immigration to Canada
Canada

While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada
Canada
had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French , who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec
Quebec
and Ontario
Ontario
; and Acadia , in present-day Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
and New Brunswick
New Brunswick
, during the early part of the 17th century.

Approximately 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; immigration westward (to the area known as Rupert\'s Land ) was carried out by " Voyageurs
Voyageurs
"; French settlers working for the North West Company ; and by British settlers (English and Scottish ) representing the Hudson\'s Bay Company , coupled with independent entrepreneurial woodsman called "Coureur des bois ". This arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis , an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage.

The British conquest of New France
France
was preceded by a small number of Germans
Germans
and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland . In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians , many families from the British colonies in New England
New England
moved over into Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms. More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War , when approximately 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America , a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick . After the War of 1812
War of 1812
, British (including British army regulars), Scottish and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada
Canada
and Lower Canada
Canada
.

Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America, mainly from the British Isles
British Isles
as part of the Great Migration of Canada
Canada
. These new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots
Highland Scots
displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s significantly increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island
and the Province of Canada
Canada
, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto
Toronto
in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone
Francophone
and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries are often referred to as Old Stock Canadians .

Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush . The Chinese Immigration Act of 1885 eventually placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway
.

Permanent Residents admitted in 2013, by top 10 source countries RANK COUNTRY NUMBER PERCENTAGE

1 China 33,908 13.1

2 India 30,576 11.8

3 Philippines 27,292 10.5

4 Pakistan 11,354 4.4

5 United States 10,624 4.1

6 Iran 10,038 3.9

7 France 7,148 2.8

8 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Territories 5,935 2.3

9 South Korea 4,450 1.7

10 United Arab Emirates 4,093 1.6

Top 10 Total 145,418 56.2

Other 113,535 43.8

TOTAL 258,953 100

The population of Canada
Canada
has consistently risen, doubling approximately every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada
Canada
had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe , including an estimated 100,000 unwanted " Home Children " from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada
Canada
between the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada
Canada
was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians
Italians
, Germans
Germans
, Scandinavians , Dutch , Poles
Poles
, and Ukrainians . Legislative restrictions on immigration (such as the Continuous journey regulation and Chinese Immigration Act ) that had favoured British and other European immigrants were amended in the 1960s, opening the doors to immigrants from all parts of the world. While the 1950s had still seen high levels of immigration by Europeans, by the 1970s immigrants were increasingly Chinese, Indian , Vietnamese , Jamaican and Haitian . During the late 1960s and early 1970s, Canada received many American Vietnam War
Vietnam War
draft dissenters. Throughout the late 1980s and 1990s, Canada's growing Pacific trade brought with it a large influx of South Asians , who tended to settle in British Columbia . Immigrants of all backgrounds tend to settle in the major urban centres . The Canadian public, as well as the major political parties, are tolerant of immigrants.

The majority of illegal immigrants come from the southern provinces of the People\'s Republic of China
China
, with Asia as a whole, Eastern Europe , Caribbean
Caribbean
, Africa
Africa
and the Middle East
Middle East
all contributing to the illegal population. Estimates of numbers of illegal immigrants range between 35,000 and 120,000. A 2008 report by the Auditor General of Canada
Canada
, Sheila Fraser , stated that Canada
Canada
has lost track of approximately 41,000 illegal immigrants whose visas have expired.

CITIZENSHIP AND DIASPORA

Main article: Canadian nationality law Members of the first official Canadian Citizenship ceremony held at the Supreme Court of Canada
Canada
in Ottawa
Ottawa
, January 3, 1947

Canadian citizenship is typically obtained by birth in Canada
Canada
or by birth or adoption abroad when at least one biological parent or adoptive parent is a Canadian citizen who was born in Canada
Canada
or naturalized in Canada
Canada
(and did not receive citizenship by being born outside of Canada
Canada
to a Canadian citizen). It can also be granted to a permanent resident who lives in Canada
Canada
for three out of four years and meets specific requirements. Canada
Canada
established its own nationality law in 1946, with the enactment of the Canadian Citizenship Act which took effect on January 1, 1947. The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act was passed by the Parliament of Canada
Canada
in 2001 as Bill C-11, which replaced the Immigration Act of 1976 as the primary federal legislation regulating immigration. Prior to the conferring of legal status on Canadian citizenship, Canada\'s naturalization laws consisted of a multitude of Acts beginning with the Immigration Act of 1910.

According to Citizenship and Immigration Canada
Canada
, there are three main classifications for immigrants: Family class (persons closely related to Canadian residents), Economic class (admitted on the basis of a point system that accounts for age, health and labour-market skills required for cost effectively inducting the immigrants into Canada's labour market) and Refugee class (those seeking protection by applying to remain in the country by way of the Canadian immigration and refugee law ). In 2008, there were 65,567 immigrants in the family class, 21,860 refugees, and 149,072 economic immigrants amongst the 247,243 total immigrants to the country. Canada
Canada
resettles over one in 10 of the world's refugees and has one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world.

As of a 2010 report by the Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada
Canada
, there were 2.8 million Canadian citizens abroad . This represents about 8% of the total Canadian population. Of those living abroad, the United States, Hong Kong, the United Kingdom, Taiwan, China, Lebanon, United Arab Emirates, and Australia
Australia
have the largest Canadian diaspora
Canadian diaspora
. Canadians
Canadians
in the United States
United States
constitute the greatest single expatriate community at over 1 million in 2009, representing 35.8% of all Canadians
Canadians
abroad. Under current Canadian law , Canada
Canada
does not restrict dual citizenship , but Passport Canada
Canada
encourages its citizens to travel abroad on their Canadian passport so that they can access Canadian consular services .

ETHNIC ANCESTRY

Main article: Ethnic origins of people in Canada
Canada

Canada
Canada
has 34 ethnic groups with at least 100,000 members each, of which 11 have over 1 million people and numerous others are represented in smaller amounts. According to the 2006 census, the largest self-reported ethnic origin is "Canadian" (32%), followed by English (21%), French (15.8%), Scottish (15.1%), Irish (13.9%), German (10.2%), Italian (4.6%), Chinese (4.3%), North American Indian (4.0%), Ukrainian (3.9%), and Dutch (Netherlands) (3.3%). In the 2006 census, over five million Canadians
Canadians
identified themselves as a member of a visible minority . Together, they make up 16.2% of the total population: most numerous among these are South Asian (4.0%), Black (2.5%), and Filipino (1.1%). Indigenous peoples are not considered a visible minority under the Employment Equity Act , and this is the definition that Statistics Canada
Canada
also uses. Map of the dominant self-identified ethnic origins of ancestors per census division of 2006.

"CANADIAN/CANADIEN" ENGLISH FRENCH SCOTTISH GERMAN ITALIAN NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN UKRAINIAN EAST INDIAN INUIT

ETHNIC ORIGIN % POPULATION AREA OF LARGEST PROPORTION

CANADIAN 32.22% 7007100662900000000♠10,066,290 Quebec
Quebec
(66.2%)

English 21.03% 7006657001500000000♠6,570,015 Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
(43.2%)

French 15.82% 7006494121000000000♠4,941,210 Quebec
Quebec
(28.9%)

Scottish 15.11% 7006471985000000000♠4,719,850 Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island
(40.5%)

Irish 13.94% 7006435415500000000♠4,354,155 Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island
(29.2%)

German 10.18% 7006317942500000000♠3,179,425 Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
(30.0%)

Italian 4.63% 7006144533500000000♠1,445,335 Ontario
Ontario
(7.2%)

Chinese 4.31% 7006134651000000000♠1,346,510 British Columbia
British Columbia
(10.6%)

North American Indian 4.01% 7006125361500000000♠1,253,615 Northwest Territories (36.5%)

Ukrainian 3.87% 7006120908500000000♠1,209,085 Manitoba
Manitoba
(14.8%)

Dutch (Netherlands) 3.32% 7006103596500000000♠1,035,965 Alberta
Alberta
(5.3%)

Polish 3.15% 7005984565000000000♠984,565 Manitoba
Manitoba
(7.3%)

East Indian 3.08% 7005962665000000000♠962,665 British Columbia
British Columbia
(5.7%)

Russian 1.60% 7005500600000000000♠500,600 Manitoba
Manitoba
(4.3%)

Welsh 1.41% 7005440965000000000♠440,965 Yukon
Yukon
(3.1%)

Filipino 1.40% 7005436190000000000♠436,190 Manitoba
Manitoba
(3.5%)

Norwegian 1.38% 7005432515000000000♠432,515 Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
(7.2%)

Portuguese 1.32% 7005410850000000000♠410,850 Ontario
Ontario
(2.4%)

Métis 1.31% 7005409065000000000♠409,065 Northwest Territories (6.9%)

British Canadian (Those not included elsewhere.) 1.29% 7005403915000000000♠403,915 Yukon
Yukon
(2.3%)

Swedish 1.07% 7005334765000000000♠334,765 Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
(3.5%)

Spanish 1.04% 7005325730000000000♠325,730 British Columbia
British Columbia
(1.3%)

American 1.01% 7005316350000000000♠316,350 Yukon
Yukon
(2.0%)

Hungarian (Magyar) 1.01% 7005315510000000000♠315,510 Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
(2.9%)

Jewish 1.01% 7005315120000000000♠315,120 Ontario
Ontario
(1.5%)

For a complete list see: Canadian ethnic groups

CULTURE

Main article: Culture of Canada
Canada
A 1911 political cartoon on Canada's bicultural identity showing a flag combining symbols of Britain, France
France
and Canada; titled "The next favor. 'A flag to suit the minority.'"

Canada's culture is a product of its ethnicities, languages, religions, political and legal system (s). Canada
Canada
has been shaped by waves of migration that have combined to form a unique blend of art , cuisine , literature , humour , and music . Today, Canada
Canada
has a diverse makeup of nationalities and constitutional protection for policies that promote multiculturalism rather than cultural assimilation . In Quebec, cultural identity is strong, and many French-speaking commentators speak of a Quebec
Quebec
culture distinct from English Canadian culture. However, as a whole, Canada
Canada
is a cultural mosaic : a collection of several regional, indigenous, and ethnic subcultures.

Canadian government policies such as official bilingualism ; publicly funded health care ; higher and more progressive taxation ; outlawing capital punishment ; strong efforts to eliminate poverty ; strict gun control ; leniency in regard to drug use, and, most recently, legalizing same-sex marriage are social indicators of Canada's political and cultural values . American media and entertainment are popular, if not dominant, in English Canada; conversely, many Canadian cultural products and entertainers are successful in the United States and worldwide. The Government of Canada
Canada
has also influenced culture with programs, laws and institutions. It has created Crown corporations to promote Canadian culture through media and has also tried to protect Canadian culture by setting legal minimums on Canadian content . Monument to Multiculturalism by Francesco Pirelli in Toronto
Toronto
; four identical sculptures are located in Buffalo City , Changchun
Changchun
, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
, and Sydney
Sydney

Canadian culture has historically been influenced by Indigenous , French and British cultures and traditions. Most of Canada's territory was inhabited and developed later than other European colonies in the Americas, with the result that themes and symbols of pioneers, trappers, and traders were important in the early development of the Canadian identity
Canadian identity
. First Nations played a critical part in the development of European colonies in Canada
Canada
, particularly for their role in assisting exploration of the continent during the North American fur trade . The British conquest of New France
France
in the mid-1700s brought a large Francophone
Francophone
population under British Imperial rule , creating a need for compromise and accommodation. The new British rulers left alone much of the religious, political, and social culture of the French-speaking habitants , guaranteeing through the Quebec
Quebec
Act of 1774 the right of the Canadiens to practise the Catholic faith and to use French civil law (now Quebec
Quebec
law ).

The Constitution Act of 1867 was designed to meet the growing calls of Canadians
Canadians
for autonomy from British rule, while avoiding the overly strong decentralization that contributed to the Civil War in the United States. The compromises made by the Fathers of Confederation set Canadians
Canadians
on a path to bilingualism , and this in turn contributed to an acceptance of diversity.

The Canadian Forces and overall civilian participation in the First World War and Second World War helped to foster Canadian nationalism , however, in 1917 and 1944, conscription crisis\' highlighted the considerable rift along ethnic lines between Anglophones and Francophones. As a result of the First and Second World Wars, the Government of Canada
Canada
became more assertive and less deferential to British authority. With the gradual loosening of political ties to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the modernization of Canadian immigration policies, 20th-century immigrants with African , Caribbean
Caribbean
and Asian nationalities have added to the Canadian identity
Canadian identity
and its culture. The multiple-origins immigration pattern continues today, with the arrival of large numbers of immigrants from non-British or non-French backgrounds.

Multiculturalism in Canada
Canada
was adopted as the official policy of the government during the premiership of Pierre Trudeau
Pierre Trudeau
in the 1970s and 1980s. The Canadian government has often been described as the instigator of multicultural ideology, because of its public emphasis on the social importance of immigration . Multiculturalism is administered by the Department of Citizenship and Immigration and reflected in the law through the Canadian Multiculturalism Act and section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms .

RELIGION

Main article: Religion in Canada

Religion in Canada (2011 National Household Survey) Catholic (38.7%) Other Christian (28.6%) Non-religious (23.9%) Islam (3.2%) Hinduism
Hinduism
(1.5%) Sikhism
Sikhism
(1.4%) Buddhism
Buddhism
(1.1%) Judaism (1.0%) Other religions (0.6%)

Canada
Canada
as a nation is religiously diverse, encompassing a wide range of groups, beliefs and customs. The preamble to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms references "God", and the monarch carries the title of "Defender of the Faith ". However, Canada
Canada
has no official religion , and support for religious pluralism (Freedom of religion in Canada
Canada
) is an important part of Canada\'s political culture . With the role of Christianity
Christianity
in decline, it having once been central and integral to Canadian culture and daily life, commentators have suggested that Canada
Canada
has come to enter a post-Christian period in a secular state, with irreligion on the rise. The majority of Canadians
Canadians
consider religion to be unimportant in their daily lives, but still believe in God. The practice of religion is now generally considered a private matter throughout society and within the state.

The 2011 Canadian census reported that 67.3% of Canadians
Canadians
identify as being Christians
Christians
; of this number, Catholics make up the largest group, accounting for 38.7 percent of the population. The largest Protestant denomination is the United Church of Canada
Canada
(accounting for 6.1% of Canadians); followed by Anglicans (5.0%), and Baptists
Baptists
(1.9%). About 23.9% of Canadians
Canadians
declare no religious affiliation, including agnostics , atheists , humanists , and other groups. The remaining are affiliated with non-Christian religions, the largest of which is Islam
Islam
(3.2%), followed by Hinduism
Hinduism
(1.5%), Sikhism
Sikhism
(1.4%), Buddhism (1.1%), and Judaism (1.0%).

Before the arrival of European colonists and explorers, First Nations followed a wide array of mostly animistic religions . During the colonial period, the French settled along the shores of the Saint Lawrence River , specifically Latin Rite Roman Catholics , including a number of Jesuits dedicated to converting indigenous peoples; an effort that eventually proved successful. The first large Protestant communities were formed in the Maritimes
Maritimes
after the British conquest of New France, followed by American Protestant settlers displaced by the American Revolution. The late nineteenth century saw the beginning of a substantive shift in Canadian immigration patterns. Large numbers of Irish and southern European immigrants were creating new Roman Catholic communities in English Canada. The settlement of the west brought significant Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
immigrants from Eastern Europe and Mormon
Mormon
and Pentecostal
Pentecostal
immigrants from the United States.

The earliest documentation of Jewish presence in Canada
Canada
occurs in the 1754 British Army records from the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
. In 1760, General Jeffrey Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst attacked and won Montreal for the British. In his regiment there were several Jews, including four among his officer corps, most notably Lieutenant Aaron Hart who is considered the father of Canadian Jewry. The Islamic , Jains , Sikh , Hindu and Buddhist communities, although small, are as old as the nation itself. The 1871 Canadian Census (first "Canadian" national census ) indicated thirteen Muslims among the populace, with approximately 5000 Sikh by 1908. The first Canadian mosque was constructed in Edmonton , in 1938, when there were approximately 700 Muslims in Canada. Buddhism
Buddhism
first arrived in Canada
Canada
when Japanese immigrated during the late 19th century. The first Japanese Buddhist temple in Canada
Canada
was built in Vancouver
Vancouver
in 1905. The influx of immigrants in the late 20th century, with Sri Lankan , Japanese , Indian and Southeast Asian customs, has contributed to the recent expansion of the Jain, Sikh, Hindu and Buddhist communities.

LANGUAGES

Main article: Languages of Canada
Languages of Canada
Approximately 98% of Canadians
Canadians
can speak English or French as of 2008. ENGLISH - 56.9% ENGLISH AND FRENCH (BILINGUAL) - 16.1% FRENCH - 21.3% SPARSELY POPULATED AREA ( < 0.4 PERSONS PER KM2)

A multitude of languages are used by 35 million Canadians, with English and French (the official languages ) being the mother tongues of approximately 60% and 20% of Canadians
Canadians
respectively. In 2011, nearly 6.8 million Canadians
Canadians
listed a non-official language as their mother tongue. Some of the most common non-official first languages include Chinese (mainly Cantonese ; 1,072,555 first-language speakers), Punjabi (430,705), Spanish (410,670), German (409,200), and Italian (407,490). Less than one percent of Canadians
Canadians
(just over 250,000 individuals) can speak an indigenous language . About half this number (129,865) reported using an indigenous language on a daily basis. Additionally, Canadians
Canadians
speak several sign languages ; the number of speakers is unknown of the most spoken ones, American Sign Language (ASL) and Quebec
Quebec
Sign Language (LSQ), as it is of Maritime Sign Language and Plains Sign Talk . There are only 47 speakers of the Inuit
Inuit
sign language Inuiuuk .

English and French are recognized by the Constitution of Canada
Canada
as official languages. All federal government laws are thus enacted in both English and French, with government services available in both languages. Two of Canada's territories give official status to indigenous languages. In Nunavut
Nunavut
, Inuktitut
Inuktitut
and Inuinnaqtun are official languages alongside the national languages of English and French, and Inuktitut
Inuktitut
is a common vehicular language in territorial government. In the Northwest Territories , the Official Languages Act declares that there are eleven different languages: Chipewyan , Cree , English, French, Gwich\'in , Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun , North Slavey , South Slavey and Tłįchǫ . Multicultural media are widely accessible across the country and offer specialty television channels, newspapers and other publications in many minority languages.

In Canada, as elsewhere in the world of European colonies , the frontier of European exploration and settlement tended to be a linguistically diverse and fluid place, as cultures using different languages met and interacted. The need for a common means of communication between the indigenous inhabitants and new arrivals for the purposes of trade, and (in some cases) intermarriage, led to the development of Mixed languages . Languages like Michif , Chinook Jargon and Bungi creole
Bungi creole
tended to be highly localized and were often spoken by only a small number of individuals who were frequently capable of speaking another language. Plains Sign Talk, which functioned originally as a trade language used to communicate internationally and across linguistic borders, reached across Canada, the United States
United States
and into Mexico.

SEE ALSO

* Canada
Canada
portal

* Canuck * Demographics of Canada
Canada
* List of Canadians
List of Canadians
* Persons of National Historic Significance * List of Prime Ministers of Canada
Canada
* Canada
Canada
– book

NOTES

* ^ A B C Data for ethnic origin were collected by self-declaration, so labels may not necessarily describe the true (genetic) ancestry of respondents. Many respondents also acknowledged multiple ancestries, thus the data reflect both single and multiple responses and may exceed the total population count. SOURCE: "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada
Canada
- Data table". Statistics Canada. Retrieved January 16, 2011. ADDITIONAL DATA: "2006 Census release topics". Statistics Canada. Retrieved January 16, 2011. * ^ A B C All citizens of Canada
Canada
are classified as "Canadians" as defined by Canada\'s nationality laws . However, "Canadian" as an ethnic group has since 1996 been added to census questionnaires for possible ancestry. "Canadian" was included as an example on the English questionnaire and "Canadien" as an example on the French questionnaire. "The majority of respondents to this selection are from the eastern part of the country that was first settled. Respondents generally are visibly European (Anglophones and Francophones), however no-longer self identify with their ethnic ancestral origins. This response is attributed to a multitude or generational distance from ancestral lineage. SOURCE 1: Jack Jedwab (April 2008). "Our \'Cense\' of Self: the 2006 Census saw 1.6 million \'Canadian\'" (PDF). Association for Canadian Studies. Retrieved March 7, 2011. SOURCE 2: Don Kerr (2007). The Changing Face of Canada: Essential Readings in Population. Canadian Scholars' Press. pp. 313–317. ISBN 978-1-55130-322-2 . * ^ A B C The category "North American Indian" includes respondents who indicated that their ethnic origins were from a Canadian First Nation, or another non-Canadian North American aboriginal group (excluding Inuit
Inuit
and Métis). SOURCE: "How Statistics Canada
Canada
Identifies Aboriginal Peoples". Statistics Canada. Retrieved January 16, 2011.

REFERENCES

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Canadians
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Canadian diaspora
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Canada
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Canadians
want illegal immigrants deported: poll". Ottawa Citizen. CanWest MediaWorks Publications Inc. October 20, 2007. Retrieved October 18, 2010. * ^ Chase, Curry & Galloway 2008 . * ^ "Am I Canadian?". Government of Canada
Canada
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FURTHER READING

Main article: Bibliography of Canada
Canada

* Beaty, Bart; Briton, Derek; Filax, Gloria (2010). How Canadians Communicate III: Contexts of Canadian Popular Culture. Athabasca University Press. ISBN 978-1-897425-59-6 . * Bumsted, J. M. (2003). Canada\'s diverse peoples: a reference sourcebook. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-672-9 . * Carment, David; Bercuson, David (2008). The World in Canada: Diaspora, Demography, and Domestic Politics. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. ISBN 978-0-7735-7455-7 . * Cohen, Andrew (2008). The Unfinished Canadian: The People We Are. McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 978-0-7710-2286-9 . * Gillmor, Don; Turgeon, Pierre (2002). CBC, ed. Canada: A People\'s History. 1. McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 978-0-7710-3324-7 . * Gillmor, Don; Turgeon, Pierre; Michaud, Achille (2002). CBC, ed. Canada: A People\'s History. 2. McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 978-0-7710-3336-0 . * Kearney, Mark; Ray, Randy (2009). The Big Book
Book
of Canadian Trivia. Dundurn. ISBN 978-1-77070-614-9 . * Kelley, Ninette; Trebilcock, M. J. (2010). The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy. University of Toronto
Toronto
Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-9536-7 . * Resnick, Philip (2005). The European Roots Of Canadian Identity. University of Toronto
Toronto
Press. ISBN 978-1-55111-705-8 . * Richard, Madeline A. (1992). Ethnic Groups and Marital Choices: Ethnic History and Marital Assimilation in Canada, 1871 and 1971. UBC Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-0431-8 . * Simpson, Jeffrey (2000). Star-Spangled Canadians: Canadians
Canadians
Living the American Dream. Harper-Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-255767-2 . * Studin, Irvin (2006). What Is a Canadian?: Forty-Three Thought-Provoking Responses. McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 978-0-7710-8321-1 .

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