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The Canadian Prairies
Canadian Prairies
is a region in Western Canada, which may correspond to several different definitions, natural or political. The region comprises the Canadian portion of the Great Plains, and notably, the Prairie
Prairie
provinces or simply the Prairies comprise the provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, as they are partially covered by prairie (grasslands), mostly in the southern regions of each province. In a more restricted sense, the term may also refer only to the areas of those provinces covered by prairie; their portions of the physiographic region known as the Interior Plains. Prairie
Prairie
also covers portions of northeastern British Columbia, though that province is typically not included in the region in a political sense.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Definitions 2 Main climates 3 Physical geography

3.1 Prairies

4 Demographics

4.1 Growth

5 Economy 6 Culture and politics 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading

9.1 Historiography

10 External links

Definitions[edit] The prairies in Canada
Canada
refers to temperate grasslands and shrublands biome, within the prairie ecoregion of Canada
Canada
and consists of Northern mixed grasslands in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and southern Manitoba. Northern short grasslands
Northern short grasslands
in southeastern Alberta
Alberta
and southwestern Saskatchewan. Northern tall grasslands
Northern tall grasslands
in southern Manitoba, and Aspen parkland, which covers central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, and southern Manitoba.[3] The Prairie
Prairie
starts from north of Edmonton, it covers the three provinces in a southward-slanting line east to the Manitoba-Minnesota border.[4] Alberta
Alberta
has the most land classified as Prairie, while Manitoba
Manitoba
has the least, as the Boreal Forest begins at a lower latitude in Manitoba
Manitoba
than in Alberta. Main climates[edit]

Köppen climate types of the Prairie
Prairie
Provinces

Native grasslands in southern Saskatchewan

According to the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
the Canadian prairies generally experience dry semi-arid climates (Köppen Bsk) in the brown soil regions, and somewhat dry Humid Continental climates (Köppen Dfb) in the outer dark brown and black soil areas. The Canadian prairies typically experience about 12 to 15 in (300 to 380 mm) of annual precipitation in the semi-arid areas while they experience 16 to 20 in (410 to 510 mm) in the continental regions. The area is also prone to thunderstorms in the spring and summer. Some of these storms, especially further south, are strong enough for tornadoes.

Average climates for selected cities in the Canadian Prairies[5]

City Province July January Annual precipitation Plant hardiness zone Average growing season (in days)

Lethbridge[6] AB 26 °C/10 °C (79 °F/50 °F) 0 °C/-12 °C (32 °F/10 °F) 380 mm (14.9 in) 4B 119

Calgary[7] AB 23 °C/9 °C (73 °F/48 °F) -1 °C/-13 °C (30 °F/9 °F) 419 mm (16.4 in) 4A 117

Medicine Hat[8] AB 28 °C/12 °C (82 °F/54 °F) -5 °C/-16 °C (23 °F/3 °F) 323 mm (12.7 in) 4B 134

Edmonton[9] AB 23 °C/12 °C (73 °F/54 °F) -6 °C/-15 °C (21 °F/5 °F) 456 mm (17.9 in) 4A 135

Grande Prairie[10] AB 23 °C/10 °C (73 °F/50 °F) -8 °C/-19 °C (18 °F/-2 °F) 445 mm (17.5 in) 3B 117

Regina[11] SK 26 °C/12 °C (79 °F/54 °F) -9 °C/-20 °C (16 °F/-4 °F) 390 mm (15.3 in) 3B 119

Saskatoon[12] SK 25 °C/12 °C (77 °F/54 °F) -10 °C/-21 °C (14 °F/-9 °F) 354 mm (13.8 in) 3B 117

Prince Albert[13] SK 24 °C/12 °C (75 °F/54 °F) -11 °C/-23 °C (12 °F/-9 °F) 428 mm (16.8 in) 3A 108

Brandon[14] MB 25 °C/11 °C (77 °F/54 °F) -11 °C/-22 °C (12 °F/-11 °F) 474 mm (18.6 in) 3B 119

Winnipeg[15] MB 25 °C/12 °C (77 °F/55 °F) -11 °C/-21 °C (12 °F/-6 °F) 521 mm (20.5 in) 4A 121

Physical geography[edit] See also: Geography of Canada Although the Prairie
Prairie
Provinces region is named for the prairies located within Alberta, Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
and Manitoba, the physical geography of the three provinces is quite diverse, consisting of portions of the Canadian Shield, the Western Cordillera and the Canadian Interior Plains. The plains comprise both prairies and forests while, with the exception of Arctic
Arctic
tundra along the Hudson Bay, the shield is predominantly forested.

Gimli, Manitoba
Manitoba
is located on Lake Winnipeg, a very large fresh water lake in the eastern prairies.

Prairies[edit]

The northern short grasslands (WWF terminology) shown here on a map of North America
North America
in green, is a type of true prairie (grassland) which occurs in the southern parts of the Prairie
Prairie
Provinces.

Main article: Prairies (ecozone) Three main grassland types occur in the Canadian prairies: tallgrass prairie, mixed grass prairie, and fescue prairie (or using the WWF terminology, northern tall grasslands, northern mixed grasslands, and northern short grasslands). Each has a unique geographic distribution and characteristic mix of plant species. All but a fraction of one percent of the tallgrass prairie has been converted to cropland. What remains occurs on the 6,000 km2 (2,300 sq mi) plain centred in the Red River Valley
Red River Valley
in Manitoba. Mixed prairie is more common and is part of the dry interior plains that extend from Canada south to the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Texas. More than half of the remaining native grassland in the Canadian prairies is mixed. Though widespread in southern Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
and southeastern Alberta, because of extensive cattle grazing, it is estimated that only 24% of the original mixed prairie grassland remains.[citation needed] Fescue prairie occurs in the moister regions, occupying the northern extent of the prairies in central and southwestern Alberta
Alberta
and west-central Saskatchewan.[16]

Palliser's Triangle, delineating prairie soil types in the Prairie provinces

The southwestern Canadian prairies, supporting brown and black soil types, are semi-arid and highly prone to frequent and severe droughts. The zones around the cities of Regina and immediately east of Calgary are also very dry. Most heavy precipitation quickly dissipates by the time it passes Cheadle on its way heading east. In an average year, southern Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
receives between 30–51 cm (12–20 in) of precipitation, with the majority falling between April and June. Frost from October to April (and sometimes even early May) limits the growing season for certain crops. The eastern section of the Canadian prairies in Manitoba
Manitoba
is well watered with several large lakes such as Lake Winnipeg
Winnipeg
and several large rivers. The area also gets reasonable amounts of precipitation. The middle sections of Alberta
Alberta
and Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
are also wetter than the south and have better farmland, despite having a shorter frost-free season.[citation needed] The areas around Edmonton
Edmonton
and Saskatoon
Saskatoon
are especially notable as good farmland. Both lie in the northern area of the Palliser's Triangle, and are within aspen parkland a transitional prairie ecozone.[3][4] Further north, the area becomes too cold for most agriculture besides wild rice operations and sheep raising, and it is dominated by boreal forest. The Peace Region
Peace Region
in northwestern Alberta
Alberta
is an exception, however. It lies north of the 55th Parallel and is warm and dry enough to support extensive farming. Aspen parkland
Aspen parkland
covers the area; The long daylight hours in this region during the summer are an asset despite having an even shorter growing season than central Alberta. In fact, agriculture plays a major economic role in the Peace Region. Demographics[edit]

Census metropolitan areas in the Canadian Prairies

Rank Census metropolitan area Population (2011) Population (2006) Province

1 Calgary 1,214,839 1,079,310 Alberta

2 Edmonton 1,159,869 1,034,945 Alberta

3 Winnipeg 730,018 694,668 Manitoba

4 Saskatoon 260,600 233,923 Saskatchewan

5 Regina 210,556 194,971 Saskatchewan

In the Canada
Canada
2011 Census, the Canadian prairie provinces had a population of 5,886,906, consisting of 3,645,257 in Alberta, 1,208,268 in Manitoba, and 1,033,381 in Saskatchewan, up 8.9% from 5,406,908 in 2006.[1] The three provinces have a combined area of 1,780,650.6 km2 (687,513.0 sq mi), consisting of 640,081.87 km2 (247,136.99 sq mi) in Alberta, 552,329.52 km2 (213,255.62 sq mi) in Manitoba, and 588,239.21 km2 (227,120.43 sq mi) in Saskatchewan.[1]

Location of communities in Alberta, Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
and Manitoba
Manitoba
which comprise Canada's Prairie
Prairie
Provinces.

Growth[edit] Some of the prairie region of Canada
Canada
has seen rapid growth from a boom in oil production since the mid-20th century.[17] According to StatsCanada, the prairie provinces had a population of 5,886,906 in 2011. In 2016, the population had grown by 14.6% to 6,748,280.[2] Economy[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2013)

A canola field in the Qu'Appelle Valley in Southern Saskatchewan.

Primary industries include agriculture (wheat, barley, canola, brassica, oats), and cattle and sheep ranching. Also, natural resources such as oil sands (Fort McMurray, Alberta) and other forms of oil production can be found on the plains. Secondary industries consist of the refinement of oils and agriculture processing. Culture and politics[edit]

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The Alberta
Alberta
badlands.

The Prairies are distinguished from the rest of Canada
Canada
by cultural and political traits. The oldest influence on Prairie
Prairie
culture are the First Nations, who have lived in the area for millennia. The first Europeans to see the Prairies were fur traders and explorers from eastern Canada
Canada
(mainly present-day Quebec) and Great Britain
Great Britain
via Hudson Bay. They gave rise to the Métis, working class "children of the fur trade." Not until the Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway
was built did widespread agricultural settlement occur. During their settlement, the prairies were settled in distinct ethnic block settlements giving certain areas distinctively Ukrainian, German, French, or Scandinavian Canadian cultures. Some areas also developed cultures around their main economic activity. For example, southern Alberta
Alberta
is renowned for its cowboy culture, which developed when real open range ranching was practised in the 1880s. Canada's first rodeo, the Raymond Stampede, was established in 1902. These influences are also evident in the music of Canada's Prairie
Prairie
Provinces. This can be attributed partially to the massive influx of American settlers who began to migrate to Alberta (and to a lesser extent, Saskatchewan) in the late 1880s because of the lack of available land in the United States. The Prairie
Prairie
Provinces have given rise to the "prairie protest" movements, such as the Winnipeg
Winnipeg
General Strike of 1919, the first general strike in Canadian history. These political movements (both of the left and right) tend to feed off of well established feelings of Western alienation, and each one represents a distinct challenge to the perceived Central Canadian elite. The Prairies continue to have a wide range of political representation. While the Conservative Party of Canada
Canada
has widespread support throughout the region, the New Democratic Party
New Democratic Party
holds seats at the provincial level in all three provinces, forming the government in one, as well as holding seats at the federal level in all three provinces. The Liberal Party of Canada
Canada
presently holds federal seats in urban areas of Alberta, Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
and Manitoba, while the Alberta
Alberta
Liberal Party holds a provincial seat in Alberta
Alberta
and the Manitoba
Manitoba
Liberal Party holds a seat in Manitoba.

See also[edit]

Geography of Canada
Canada
portal

List of regions of Canada Dominion Land Survey Natural Resources Acts Terrestrial ecozone High Plains (United States) Llano Estacado Shortgrass prairie Corner Gas
Corner Gas
– TV show featuring the sparseness of the plains as a major theme

References[edit]

^ a b c "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2011 and 2006 censuses". Statistics Canada. 2012-01-24. Archived from the original on 2014-03-07. Retrieved 2012-03-17.  ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-05-04. Retrieved 2017-05-04.  ^ a b "Prairies Ecozone". Ecological Framework of Canada. Government of Canada. Archived from the original on 2 June 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016.  ^ a b "Wide open spaces, but for how long?". The Royal Canadian Geographical Society. The Royal Canadian Geographical Society. Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016.  ^ "Canada's Plant Hardiness". Canada's Plant Hardiness. Natural Resources Canada. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016.  ^ " Lethbridge
Lethbridge
A, Alberta". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2014.  ^ "Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010 Station Data Calgary International Airport". Environment Canada. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2015.  ^ " Medicine Hat
Medicine Hat
A, Alberta". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010 Medicine Hat. Environment Canada. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2014.  ^ " Edmonton
Edmonton
City Centre Airport". Canadian Climate Normals 1981−2010. Environment Canada. August 19, 2013. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved September 10, 2013.  ^ "Grande Prairie
Prairie
A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981−2010. Environment Canada. Archived from the original on May 14, 2014. Retrieved May 14, 2014.  ^ "Regina International Airport". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2014.  ^ " Saskatoon
Saskatoon
Diefenbaker International Airport". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Archived from the original on May 13, 2014. Retrieved May 12, 2014.  ^ "Prince Albert A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Archived from the original on May 14, 2014. Retrieved May 14, 2014.  ^ "Brandon CDA, Manitoba". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.  ^ " Winnipeg
Winnipeg
Richardson International Airport". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Archived from the original on February 11, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2014.  ^ " Prairie
Prairie
Grasslands and Parkland". Archived from the original on 2010-05-27.  ^ "Atlantic unemployment tonic: oil sands". Archived from the original on 2008-10-20. 

Further reading[edit] See also: Bibliography of Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
history, Bibliography of Alberta
Alberta
history, and History of Manitoba

Alberta
Alberta
Encyclopedia Online (2005) Archer, John H. Saskatchewan: A History (1980) Barnhart, Gordon L., ed. Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Premiers of the Twentieth Century. (2004). 418 pp. Bennett, John W. and Seena B. Kohl. Settling the Canadian-American West, 1890-1915: Pioneer Adaptation and Community Building. An Anthropological History. (1995). 311 pp. online edition Danysk, Cecilia. Hired Hands: Labour and the Development of Prairie Agriculture, 1880–1930. (1995). 231 pp. Emery, George. The Methodist Church on the Prairies, 1896–1914. McGill-Queen's U. Press, 2001. 259 pp. The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan: A Living Legacy. U. of Regina Canadian Plains Research Center, 2005. online 1071pp in print edition Fairbanks, C. and S.B. Sundberg. Farm Women on the Prairie
Prairie
Frontier. (1983) Friesen, Gerald (1987), The Canadian prairies: a history, University of Toronto Press, ISBN 0-8020-6648-8  Hodgson, Heather, ed. Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Writers: Lives Past and Present. Regina: Canadian Plains Research Center, 2004. 247 pp. Jones, David C. Empire of Dust: Settling and Abandoning the Prairie Dry Belt. (1987) 316 pp. Keahey, Deborah. Making It Home: Place in Canadian Prairie
Prairie
Literature. (1998). 178 pp. Langford, N. "Childbirth on the Canadian Prairies
Canadian Prairies
1880-1930." Journal of Historical Sociology, 1995. Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 278–302. Langford, Nanci Louise. "First Generation and Lasting Impressions: The Gendered Identities of Prairie
Prairie
Homestead Women." PhD dissertation U. of Alberta
Alberta
1994. 229 pp. DAI 1995 56(4): 1544-A. DANN95214 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Laycock, David. Populism and Democratic Thought in the Canadian Prairies, 1910 to 1945. (1990). 369 pp. Melnyk, George. The Literary History of Alberta, Vol. 1: From Writing-on-Stone to World War Two. U. of Alberta
Alberta
Press, 1998. 240 pp. Morton, Arthur S. and Chester Martin, History of prairie settlement (1938) 511pp Morton, W. L. Manitoba, a History University of Toronto Press, 1957 online edition Norrie, K. H. "The Rate of Settlement of the Canadian Prairies, 1870–1911", Journal of Economic History, Vol. 35, No. 2 (Jun., 1975), pp. 410–427 in JSTOR; statistical models Palmer, Howard. The Settlement of the West (1977) online edition Pitsula, James M. "Disparate Duo" Beaver 2005 85(4): 14–24, a comparison of Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
and Alberta, Fulltext in EBSCO Rollings-Magnusson, Sandra. "Canada's Most Wanted: Pioneer Women on the Western Prairies". Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 2000 37(2): 223–238. ISSN 0008-4948 Fulltext: Ebsco Swyripa, Frances. Storied Landscapes: Ethno-Religious Identity and the Canadian Prairies
Canadian Prairies
(University of Manitoba
Manitoba
Press, 2010) 296 pp. ISBN 978-0-88755-720-0. Thompson, John Herd. Forging the Prairie
Prairie
West (1998). Wardhaugh, Robert A. Mackenzie King and the Prairie
Prairie
West (2000). 328 pp. Waiser, Bill, and John Perret. Saskatchewan: A New History (2005).

Historiography[edit]

Francis, R. Douglas. "In search of a prairie myth: A survey of the intellectual and cultural historiography of prairie Canada." Journal of Canadian Studies/Revue d'Études Canadiennes 24#3 (1989): 44+ online Ingles, Ernie B (2009), Peel's Bibliography of the Canadian Prairies to 1953, University of Toronto Press, ISBN 0-8020-4825-0  Wardhaugh, Robert A., ed. Toward Defining the Prairies: Region, Culture, and History. (2001). 234 pp. Wardhaugh, Robert; Calder, Alison (2005), History, literature, and the writing of the Canadian Prairies, University of Manitoba
Manitoba
Press, ISBN 0-88755-682-5  310 pp.

External links[edit]

Media related to Canadian Prairies
Canadian Prairies
at Wikimedia Commons

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Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 239180

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